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abiotic stress

Caihua Xing, Yue Liu, Liangyi Zhao, Shaoling Zhang, Xiaosan Huang
Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) plays an important role in stress responses, but the transcriptional regulation of DHAR in response to abiotic stress is still poorly understood. In this study, we isolated a novel R2R3-type MYB transcription factor from Pyrus betulaefolia by yeast one-hybrid screening, designated as PbrMYB5. PbrMYB5 was localized in the nucleus and could bind specifically to the promoter of PbrDHAR2. PbrMYB5 was greatly induced by cold and salt, but slightly by dehydration. Overexpression of PbrMYB5 in tobacco conferred enhanced tolerance to chilling stresses, whereas down-regulation of PbrMYB5 in Pyrus betulaefolia by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in elevated chilling sensitivity...
June 21, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Alaa Huwaidi, Nishit Pathak, Amir Syahir, Shinya Ikeno
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes damage in all living organisms, including DNA damage that leads to cell death. Herein, we provide a new technique for UV radiation protection through intracellular short peptide expression. The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) peptide, which functions as a shield that protects macromolecules from various abiotic stress, was obtained from the Polypedilum vanderplanki group 3 LEA protein. Recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expressing functional LEA short peptide in vivo were exposed to UVA and UVC radiation for 4, 6, and 8 h...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Patrick J Bigelow, Wayne Loescher, James F Hancock, Rebecca Grumet
Reducing crop losses due to abiotic stresses is a major target of agricultural biotechnology that will increase with climate change and global population growth. Concerns, however, have been raised about potential ecological impacts if transgenes become established in wild populations and cause increased competitiveness of weedy or invasive species. Potential risks will be a function of transgene movement, population sizes, and fitness effects on the recipient population. While key components influencing gene flow have been extensively investigated, there have been few studies on factors subsequent to transgene movement that can influence persistence and competitiveness...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Yujuan Zhang, Donghua Li, Yanyan Wang, Rong Zhou, Linhai Wang, Yanxin Zhang, Jingyin Yu, Huihui Gong, Jun You, Xiurong Zhang
The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) family constitutes a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, involved in many aspects of physiological processes and a variety of abiotic stresses. There is little information concerning the NAC family in Sesamum indicum. In this study, 87 sesame NAC genes were identified and phylogenetically clustered into 12 groups with Arabidopsis NAC genes. A total of 83 SiNAC genes were distributed non-randomly on the 16 linkage groups in sesame. Four and 49 SiNACs were found to be tandemly and segmentally duplicated, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Sana Tounsi, Kaouthar Feki, Mohamed Najib Saïdi, Sahar Maghrebi, Faiçal Brini, Khaled Masmoudi
HKT transporters which mediate Na+ -specific transport or Na+ -K+ co-transport, play an important role in protecting plants from salinity stress by preventing Na+ -over-accumulation in leaves. In this work, a 1508-bp genomic fragment upstream of the TmHKT1;4-A1 translated sequence from Triticum monococcum has been isolated, cloned, and designated as the ''PrTmHKT1;4-A1'' promoter. Sequence analysis of ''PrTmHKT1;4-A1'' revealed the presence of cis-regulatory elements which could be required for abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) responsiveness...
June 20, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Bhakti Prinsi, Alfredo Simone Negri, Osvaldo Failla, Attilio Scienza, Luca Espen
BACKGROUND: Roots play a central role in plant response to water stress (WS). They are involved in its perception and signalling to the leaf as well as in allowing the plant to adapt to maintaining an adequate water balance. Only a few studies have investigated the molecular/biochemical responses to WS in roots of perennial plants, such as grapevine. This study compares two grapevine rootstock genotypes (i.e. 101.14 and M4) with different tolerance to WS, evaluating the responses at proteomic and metabolite levels...
June 20, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Zhen Peng, Shoupu He, Wenfang Gong, Feifei Xu, Zhaoe Pan, Yinhua Jia, Xiaoli Geng, Xiongming Du
BACKGROUND: Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits upland cotton growth and reduces fibre production worldwide. To reveal genetic regulation via transcript and protein levels after salt stress, we comprehensively analysed the global changes in mRNA, miRNA, and protein profiles in response to salt stress in two contrasting salt-tolerant cotton genotypes. RESULTS: In the current study, proteomic and mRNA-seq data were combined to reveal that some genes are differentially expressed at both the proteomic and mRNA levels...
June 20, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Wuhan Zhang, Pingyong Sun, Qiang He, Fu Shu, Huafeng Deng
Panicle traits in rice impact yield and quality. The OsGRF4 gene encodes a growth-regulating factor controlling panicle traits, and was recently cloned. Gene expression profiling analysis can be used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying OsGRF4 regulation. Use of near-isogenic lines (NILs) reduces genetic background noise in omics studies. We compared transcriptome profiling of 7 cm long young panicles of NIL-Osgrf4 and NIL-OsGRF4 using RNAs sequence analyses. Eighty differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified...
2018: PloS One
Y L Long, F Qiao, X F Jiang, H Q Cong, M L Sun, Z J Xu
Synthetic polyploids are key breeding materials for watermelon. Compared with diploid watermelon, the tetraploid watermelon often exhibit wide phenotypic differences and differential gene expression. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile technique was performed in this study to present gene expression patterns in an autotetraploid and its progenitor diploid watermelon, and deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the abiotic and biotic stress were also addressed. Altogether, 4,985 DEGs were obtained in the autotetraploid against its progenitor diploid, and 66...
June 14, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Craig Matthews, Muhammad Arshad, Abdelali Hannoufa
Heat stress and extreme temperatures negatively affect plant development by disrupting regular cell and biochemical functions, ultimately leading to reducing crop production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop grown world-wide as forage for livestock feed. Limiting the effects of abiotic stress by developing alfalfa cultivars that are stress tolerant would help mitigate losses to crop production. Members of the microRNA156 (miR156) family regulate the Squamosa Promoter-Binding Protein-like (SPL) genes that in turn impact plant growth and development by regulating downstream genes in response to various abiotic stresses...
June 20, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Jorge González-Villagra, Jerry D Cohen, Marjorie M Reyes-Díaz
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the physiological and biochemical mechanisms required to tolerate drought stress, which is considered as an important abiotic stress. It has been postulated that ABA might be involved in regulation of plant phenolic compounds biosynthesis, especially anthocyanins that accumulate in plants subjected to drought stress; however, the evidence for this postulate remains elusive. Therefore, we studied whether ABA is involved in phenolic compounds accumulation, especially anthocyanin biosynthesis, using drought stressed Aristotelia chilensis plants, an endemic berry in Chile...
June 20, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Rongrong Guo, Hengbo Qiao, Jiao Zhao, Xianhang Wang, Mingxing Tu, Chunlei Guo, Ran Wan, Zhi Li, Xiping Wang
WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The grape WRKY gene, WRKY3 was previously reported to respond to salt and drought stress, as well as methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments in Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho.' In the current study, WRKY3 from the 'Kyoho' grape cultivar was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The 35S::VlWRKY3 transgenic A. thaliana plants showed improved salt and drought stress tolerance during the germination, seedling and the mature plant stages...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Muhammad Arshad, Margaret Y Gruber, Abdelali Hannoufa
Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that negatively impact alfalfa growth and productivity. The role of microRNA156 (miR156) in drought has been demonstrated in plants. To date, there are no published studies investigating the role of miR156 in regulating global gene expression in alfalfa under drought. In our study, alfalfa genotypes overexpressing miR156 (miR156OE) exhibited reduced water loss, and enhanced root growth under drought. Our RNA-seq data showed that in response to drought, a total of 415 genes were upregulated and 169 genes were downregulated specifically in miR156OE genotypes...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maketalena Aleamotu'a, Yu-Ting Tai, David W McCurdy, David A Collings
Phi thickenings are specialized bands of secondary wall deposited around radial walls of root cortical cells. These structures have been reported in various species from the Brassicaceae, including Brassica oleracea , where previous reports using hydroponics indicated that they can be induced by exposure to salt. Using roots grown on agar plates, we show that both salt and sucrose can induce the formation of phi thickenings in a diverse range of species within the Brassicaceae. Within the genus Brassica , both B...
June 19, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mira Park, Soon Gyu Hong, Hyun Park, Byeong-Ha Lee, Hyoungseok Lee
Sanionia uncinata is a dominant moss species in the maritime Antarctic. Due to its high adaptability to harsh environments, this extremophile plant has been considered a good target for studying the molecular adaptation mechanisms of plants to a variety of environmental stresses. Despite the importance of S. uncinata as a representative Antarctic plant species for the identification and characterization of genes associated with abiotic stress tolerance, suitable reference genes, which are critical for RT-qPCR analyses, have not yet been identified...
2018: PloS One
Yufei Sun, Bin Liang, Juan Wang, Wenbin Kai, Pei Chen, Li Jiang, Yangwei Du, Ping Leng
Although the role of ethylene-response factor (ERF) Pti4 in disease resistance has been demonstrated in higher plants, it is presently unknown whether the tomato SlPti4 protein plays a role in the regulation of fruit development and the stress response. Here, we show that SlPti4 is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, seed germination, and responses to drought and Botrytis cinerea infection through adjustments to ABA metabolism and signaling. SlPti4 gene expression is very low early in fruit development, but increases rapidly during ripening and can be induced by exogenous ABA and 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC)...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yao Bian, Chunwu Yang, Xiufang Ou, Zhibin Zhang, Bin Wang, Weiwei Ma, Lei Gong, Huakun Zhang, Bao Liu
Polyploidy is a prominent route to speciation in plants; however, this entails resolving the challenges of meiotic instability facing abrupt doubling of chromosome complement. This issue remains poorly understood. We subjected progenies of a synthetic hexaploid wheat, analogous to natural common wheat, but exhibiting extensive meiotic chromosome instability, to heat or salt stress. We selected stress-tolerant cohorts and generated their progenies under normal condition. We conducted fluorescent in situ hybridization/genomic in situ hybridization-based meiotic/mitotic analysis, RNA-Seq and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-mediated assay of meiosis candidate genes...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Senthilkumar K Muthusamy, Sangram K Lenka, Amit Katiyar, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Ashok K Singh, Kailash C Bansal
Photosynthetic fixation of CO2 is more efficient in C4 than in C3 plants. Rice is a C3 plant and a potential target for genetic engineering of the C4 pathway. It is known that genes encoding C4 enzymes are present in C3 plants. However, no systematic analysis has been conducted to determine if these C4 gene family members are expressed in diverse rice genotypes. In this study, we identified 15 genes belonging to the five C4 gene families in rice genome through BLAST search using known maize C4 photosynthetic pathway genes...
June 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Shaoyun Dong, Joshua Zhang, Diane M Beckles
Plant carbon status is optimized for normal growth but is affected by abiotic stress. Here, we used 14 C-labeling to provide the first holistic picture of carbon use changes during short-term osmotic, salinity, and cold stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. This could inform on the early mechanisms plants use to survive adverse environment, which is important for efficient agricultural production. We found that carbon allocation from source to sinks, and partitioning into major metabolite pools in the source leaf, sink leaves and roots showed both conserved and divergent responses to the stresses examined...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pandiyan Muthuramalingam, Subramanian Radhesh Krishnan, Subramani Pandian, Narayanan Mareeswaran, Wilson Aruni, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Manikandan Ramesh
The diversity in plant metabolites with improved phytonutrients is essential to achieve global food security and sustainable crop yield. Our study using computational metabolomics genome wide association study (cmGWAS) reports on a comprehensive profiling of threonine (Thr) metabolite in rice. Sixteen abiotic stress responsive (AbSR) - Thr metabolite producing genes (ThrMPG), modulate metabolite levels and play a significant role determining both physiological and nutritional importance of rice. These AbSR-ThrMPG were computationally analysed for their protein properties using OryzaCyc through plant metabolic network analyser...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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