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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441627/effect-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-drought-stress-on-phenolic-acids-flavonols-saponins-and-antioxidant-activity-in-agave-salmiana
#1
César A Puente-Garza, Cristina Meza-Miranda, Desiree Ochoa-Martínez, Silverio García-Lara
This work evaluated the effect of in vitro drought stress on morphological characteristics, phenolic compounds, flavonols, saponin content, and antioxidant activity in plantlets of Agave salmiana. Drought stress was induced with polyethylene glycol (PEG) at 0, 10, 20 and 30% w/v in Murashige and Skoog solid medium. The determination of specific flavonols and saponins was achieved via HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ELSD, respectively. Compared with the control, plants grown in 30% PEG showed a change in the width of the leaves and a different color, showing less clarity and more darkening (L = 21...
April 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441412/the-role-of-climate-and-environmental-variables-in-structuring-bird-assemblages-in-the-seasonally-dry-tropical-forests-sdtfs
#2
Gabriela Silva Ribeiro Gonçalves, Pablo Vieira Cerqueira, Leandro Schlemmer Brasil, Marcos Pérsio Dantas Santos
Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440801/dispersal-timing-and-drought-history-influence-the-response-of-bacterioplankton-to-drying-rewetting-stress
#3
Anna J Székely, Silke Langenheder
The extent and frequency of drought episodes is expected to increase in the following decades making it a crucial stress factor for smaller water bodies. However, very little is known about how bacterioplankton is affected by increased evaporation and how these communities reassemble after rewetting. Here, we present results from a microcosm experiment that assessed the effect of drying-rewetting stress on bacterioplankton in the light of the stress history and the rate and timing of dispersal after the rewetting...
April 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439536/types-and-rates-of-forest-disturbance-in-brazilian-legal-amazon-2000-2013
#4
Alexandra Tyukavina, Matthew C Hansen, Peter V Potapov, Stephen V Stehman, Kevin Smith-Rodriguez, Chima Okpa, Ricardo Aguilar
Deforestation rates in primary humid tropical forests of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have declined significantly since the early 2000s. Brazil's national forest monitoring system provides extensive information for the BLA but lacks independent validation and systematic coverage outside of primary forests. We use a sample-based approach to consistently quantify 2000-2013 tree cover loss in all forest types of the region and characterize the types of forest disturbance. Our results provide unbiased forest loss area estimates, which confirm the reduction of primary forest clearing (deforestation) documented by official maps...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439395/antioxidant-responses-under-salinity-and-drought-in-three-closely-related-wild-monocots-with-different-ecological-optima
#5
Mohamad Al Hassan, Juliana Chaura, María P Donat-Torres, Monica Boscaiu, Oscar Vicente
Some deleterious effects of drought, soil salinity and other abiotic stresses are mediated by the generation of oxidative stress through an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cellular membranes, proteins and DNA. In response to increased ROS, plants activate an array of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defences. We have correlated the activation of these responses with the contrasting tolerance to salinity and drought of three species of the genus Juncus, viz. J. maritimus, J. acutus (both halophytes) and J...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439277/expression-of-pennisetum-glaucum-eukaryotic-translational-initiation-factor-4a-pgeif4a-confers-improved-drought-salinity-and-oxidative-stress-tolerance-in-groundnut
#6
Tata Santosh Rama Bhadra Rao, Juturu Vijaya Naresh, Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy, Malireddy K Reddy, Garladinne Mallikarjuna
Eukaryotic translational initiation factor 4A belong to family of helicases, involved in multifunctional activities during stress and non-stress conditions. The eIF4A gene was isolated and cloned from semi-arid cereal crop of Pennisetum glaucum. In present study, the PgeIF4A gene was expressed under the regulation of stress inducible Arabidopsis rd29A promoter in groundnut (cv JL-24) with bar as a selectable marker. The de-embryonated cotyledons were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404) carrying rd29A:PgeIF4A construct and generated high frequency of multiple shoots in phosphinothricin medium...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438792/reconstitution-of-abscisic-acid-signaling-from-the-receptor-to-dna-via-bhlh-transcription-factors
#7
Yohei Takahashi, Yuta Ebisu, Ken-Ichiro Shimazaki
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) confers drought tolerance in plants through stomatal closure and regulation of gene expression. The complex consisting of the ABA receptor PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTOR (PYR/RCAR), type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C), and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) has a key role in ABA signaling. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional activator ABA-RESPONSIVE KINASE SUBSTRATE1 (AKS1, also known as FBH3), is released from DNA by phosphorylation-induced monomerization in response to ABA in guard cells...
April 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435176/climate-shocks-and-rural-urban-migration-in-mexico-exploring-nonlinearities-and-thresholds
#8
Raphael J Nawrotzki, Jack DeWaard, Maryia Bakhtsiyarava, Jasmine Trang Ha
Adverse climatic conditions may differentially drive human migration patterns between rural and urban areas, with implications for changes in population composition and density, access to infrastructure and resources, and the delivery of essential goods and services. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this notion. In this study, we investigate the relationship between climate shocks and migration between rural and urban areas within Mexico. We combine individual records from the 2000 and 2010 Mexican censuses (n=683,518) with high-resolution climate data from Terra Populus that are linked to census data at the municipality level (n=2,321)...
January 2017: Climatic Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435105/organ-specific-proteomics-of-soybean-seedlings-under-flooding-and-drought-stresses
#9
Xin Wang, Ehsaneh Khodadadi, Baratali Fakheri, Setsuko Komatsu
Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434190/mixed-severity-fire-history-at-a-forest-grassland-ecotone-in-west-central-british-columbia-canada
#10
Jill E Harvey, Dan J Smith, Thomas T Veblen
This study examines spatially variable stand structure and fire-climate relationships at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada. Fire history reconstructions were based on samples from 92 fire-scarred trees and stand demography from 27 plots collected over an area of about 7 km(2) . We documented historical chronologies of widespread fires and localized grassland fires between AD 1600 and 1900. Relationships between fire events, reconstructed values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index and annual precipitation were examined using superposed epoch and bivariate event analyses...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434155/nitrogen-fertility-and-abiotic-stresses-management-in-cotton-crop-a-review
#11
Aziz Khan, Daniel Kean Yuen Tan, Muhammad Zahir Afridi, Honghai Luo, Shahbaz Atta Tung, Mir Ajab, Shah Fahad
This review outlines nitrogen (N) responses in crop production and potential management decisions to ameliorate abiotic stresses for better crop production. N is a primary constituent of the nucleotides and proteins that are essential for life. Production and application of N fertilizers consume huge amounts of energy, and excess is detrimental to the environment. Therefore, increasing plant N use efficiency (NUE) is important for the development of sustainable agriculture. NUE has a key role in crop yield and can be enhanced by controlling loss of fertilizers by application of humic acid and natural polymers (hydrogels), having high water-holding capacity which can improve plant performance under field conditions...
April 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432768/the-fate-of-recently-fixed-carbon-after-drought-release-towards-unravelling-c-storage-regulation-in-tilia-platyphyllos-and-pinus-sylvestris
#12
Lucía Galiano Pérez, Galina Timofeeva, Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Robert Hommel, Arthur Gessler
Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos, Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~ 10 weeks and (13) C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the (13) C-label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated to drought effects and subsequent drought release...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432393/more-functions-of-torpor-and-their-roles-in-a-changing-world
#13
Julia Nowack, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Increased winter survival by reducing energy expenditure in adult animals is often viewed as the primary function of torpor. However, torpor has many other functions that ultimately increase the survival of heterothermic mammals and birds. In this review, we summarize new findings revealing that animals use torpor to cope with the conditions during and after natural disasters, including fires, storms, and heat waves. Furthermore, we suggest that torpor, which also prolongs longevity and was likely crucial for survival of mammals during the time of the dinosaur extinctions, will be advantageous in a changing world...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432151/dehydration-enhances-multiple-physiological-defense-mechanisms-in-a-desert-lizard-heloderma-suspectum
#14
Karla T Moeller, Guillaume Demare, Scott Davies, Dale F DeNardo
The physiological challenges associated with dehydration can induce an increase in plasma glucocorticoid concentrations, a response thought to provide the mechanism for dehydration suppressing immune function. However, a comprehensive examination of the interrelationship of dehydration, stress, and immune function has not been conducted within a single species. We previously demonstrated that Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum), which inhabit a xeric environment with a predictable seasonal drought, have enhanced measures of innate immunity when dehydrated...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430898/plant-water-stress-affects-interactions-between-an-invasive-and-a-naturalized-aphid-species-on-cereal-crops
#15
N E Foote, T S Davis, D W Crowder, N A Bosque-Pérez, S D Eigenbrode
In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430425/environmental-growth-of-enterococci-and-escherichia-coli-in-feedlot-catch-basins-and-a-constructed-wetland-in-the-absence-of-fecal-input
#16
Lisa Tymensen, Calvin W Booker, Sherry J Hannon, Shaun R Cook, Rahat Zaheer, Ron Read, Tim A McAllister
Population structures of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) isolated from catch basins, a constructed wetland, and feces from a beef cattle feedlot were compared over a two-year period. Enterococcus hirae accounted for 92% of the fecal isolates, whereas secondary environments were characterized by greater relative abundance of environmentally adapted species including Enterococcus casseliflavus. While enterococci densities in the catch basins and wetland were similar under wet and drought conditions, E. hirae predominated during rainy periods while E...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429732/long-term-stability-and-infectivity-of-herpesviruses-in-water
#17
Anisha Dayaram, Mathias Franz, Alexander Schattschneider, Armando M Damiani, Sebastian Bischofberger, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
For viruses to utilize environmental vectors (hard surfaces, soil, water) for transmission, physical and chemical stability is a prerequisite. There are many factors including pH, salinity, temperature, and turbidity that are known to contribute to the ability of viruses to persist in water. Equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) is a pathogenic alphaherpesvirus associated with domestic horses and wild equids. EHV-1 and recombinants of EHV-1 and EHV-9 are able to cause infections in non-equid animal species, particularly in captive settings...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428808/reference-genes-for-normalization-of-qpcr-assays-in-sugarcane-plants-under-water-deficit
#18
Larissa Mara de Andrade, Michael Dos Santos Brito, Rafael Fávero Peixoto Junior, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro Marchiori, Paula Macedo Nóbile, Alexandre Palma Boer Martins, Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Silvana Creste
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the main raw material for sugar and ethanol production. Among the abiotic stress, drought is the main one that negatively impact sugarcane yield. Although gene expression analysis through quantitative PCR (qPCR) has increased our knowledge about biological processes related to drought, gene network that mediates sugarcane responses to water deficit remains elusive. In such scenario, validation of reference gene is a major requirement for successful analyzes involving qPCR...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428798/plastic-film-mulching-for-enhanced-water-use-efficiency-and-economic-returns-from-maize-fields-in-semiarid-china
#19
Peng Zhang, Ting Wei, Tie Cai, Shahzad Ali, Qingfang Han, Xiaolong Ren, Zhikuan Jia
Film mulch has gradually been popularized to increase water availability to crops for improving and stabilizing agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Northwest China. To find more sustainable and economic film mulch methods for alleviating drought stress in semiarid region, it is necessary to test optimum planting methods in same cultivation conditions. A field experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of different plastic film mulch methods on soil water, soil temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), yield and revenue...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428797/silicon-regulates-antioxidant-activities-of-crop-plants-under-abiotic-induced-oxidative-stress-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Yoon-Ha Kim, Abdul L Khan, Muhammad Waqas, In-Jung Lee
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in soil, where its availability to plants can exhilarate to 10% of total dry weight of the plant. Si accumulation/transport occurs in the upward direction, and has been identified in several crop plants. Si application has been known to ameliorate plant growth and development during normal and stressful conditions over past two-decades. During abiotic (salinity, drought, thermal, and heavy metal etc) stress, one of the immediate responses by plant is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen ((1)O2), superoxide ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (OH), which cause severe damage to the cell structure, organelles, and functions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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