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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926092/key-genes-regulating-the-liposecretion-process-of-mature-adipocytes
#1
REVIEW
Giulia Maurizi, Tiina Petäistö, Angela Maurizi, Lucio Della Guardia
White mature adipocytes (MAs) are plastic cells able to reversibly transdifferentiate toward fibroblast-like cells maintaining stem cell gene signatures. The main morphologic aspect of this transdifferentiation process, called liposecretion, is the secretion of large lipid droplets and the development of organelles necessary for exocrine secretion. There is a considerable interest in the adipocyte plastic properties involving liposecretion process, but the molecular details are incompletely explored. This review analyzes the gene expression of MAs isolated from human subcutaneous fat tissue with respect to bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) focusing on gene regulatory pathways involved into cellular morphology changes, cellular proliferation and transports of molecules through the membrane, suggesting potential ways to guide liposecretion...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867608/activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-inhibits-hdac1-mediated-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-its-potential-mechanisms
#2
Fangwei Li, Yanting Zhu, Yixin Wan, Xinming Xie, Rui Ke, Cui Zhai, Yilin Pan, Xin Yan, Jian Wang, Wenhua Shi, Manxiang Li
The downstream targets of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) mediation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation are still unclear, and it is also unknown whether activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) modulates HDAC1 and its down-stream targets in PASMCs. The present study aims to address these issues. Our results showed that PDGF dose- and time-dependently induced PASMC proliferation, and this was accompanied by an increase of HDAC1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) protein expression as well as a reduction of microRNA-124 (miR-124)...
November 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740415/the-extracellular-matrix-of-eggshell-displays-anti-inflammatory-activities-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-lps-triggered-human-immune-cells
#3
Tram T Vuong, Sissel B Rønning, Henri-Pierre Suso, Ralf Schmidt, Kristian Prydz, Marlene Lundström, Anders Moen, Mona E Pedersen
Avian eggshell membrane (ESM) is a natural biomaterial that has been used as an alternative natural bandage on burned and cut skin injuries for >400 years in Asian countries, and is available in large quantities from egg industries. Our aim was to characterize ESM that was separated and processed from egg waste, and to study whether this material possesses anti-inflammatory properties, making it suitable as an ingredient in industrial production of low cost wound healing products. Our results show that the processed ESM particles retain a fibrous structure similar to that observed for the native membrane, and contain collagen, and carbohydrate components such as hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycans, as well as N-glycans, mostly with uncharged structures...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442557/high-phosphate-induces-a-pro-inflammatory-response-by-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-modulation-by-vitamin-d-derivatives
#4
Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Carmen Herencia, Addy Montes de Oca, Juan M Díaz-Tocados, Noemi Vergara, M José Gómez-Luna, Silvia D López-Argüello, Antonio Camargo, Esther Peralbo-Santaella, Maria E Rodríguez-Ortiz, Antonio Canalejo, Mariano Rodríguez, Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda, Yolanda Almadén
In chronic kidney disease patients, high phosphate (HP) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Since serum phosphate has been independently correlated with inflammation, the present study aimed to investigate an independent direct effect of HP as a pro-inflammatory factor in VSMCs. A possible modulatory effect of vitamin D (VitD) was also investigated. The study was performed in an in vitro model of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Incubation of cells in an HP (3...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287533/isolation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-from-healthy-volunteers-and-their-migratory-potential-influenced-by-serum-samples-after-cardiac-surgery
#5
Christoph Emontzpohl, David Simons, Sandra Kraemer, Andreas Goetzenich, Gernot Marx, Jürgen Bernhagen, Christian Stoppe
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited from the bone marrow under pathological conditions like hypoxia and are crucially involved in the neovascularization of ischemic tissues. The origin, classification and characterization of EPCs are complex; notwithstanding, two prominent sub-types of EPCs have been established: so-called "early" EPCs (subsequently referred to as early-EPCs) and late-outgrowth EPCs (late-EPCs). They can be classified by biological properties as well as by their appearance during in vitro culture...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131442/the-human-gut-microbiome-as-source-of-innovation-for-health-which-physiological-and-therapeutic-outcomes-could-we-expect
#6
Joël Doré, Marie-Christine Multon, Jehan-Michel Béhier
From the moment of birth, each human being builds a microbe-host symbiosis which is key for the preservation of its health and well-being. This personal symbiotic coexistence is the result of progressive enrichments in microorganism diversity through external supplies. This diversity is nowadays massively overthrown by drastic changes related to clinical practice in birth management, environmental exposure, nutrition and healthcare behaviors. The last two generations have been the frame of massive modifications in life and food habits, with people being more and more sedentary, overfed and permeated with drugs and pollutants...
February 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096887/thylakoids-reduce-body-fat-and-fat-cell-size-by-binding-to-dietary-fat-making-it-less-available-for-absorption-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#7
Karin G Stenkula, Eva-Lena Stenblom, Caroline Montelius, Emil Egecioglu, Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
BACKGROUND: Dietary thylakoids derived from spinach have beneficial effects on body fat accumulation and blood lipids as demonstrated in humans and rodents. Important mechanisms established include delayed fat digestion in the intestine, without causing steatorrhea, and increased fatty acid oxidation in intestinal cells. The objective of our study was to elucidate if increased fecal fat excretion is an important mechanism to normalize adipose tissue metabolism during high-fat feeding in mice supplemented with thylakoids...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474499/inhibitory-effect-of-nbl1-on-pdgf-bb-induced-human-pasmc-proliferation-through-blockade-of-pdgf%C3%AE-p38mapk-pathway
#8
Chuanjue Cui, Hongliang Zhang, Lin-Na Guo, Xiaoling Zhang, Liukun Meng, Xiangbin Pan, Yingjie Wei
Pulmonary artery remodelling is a key feature in the pathological progress of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Moreover, excessive proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary artery remodelling. Neuroblastoma suppressor of tumorigenicity 1 (NBL1) has been previously shown to induce growth inhibition in tumour cells. However, the effect of NBL1 in the regulation of human PASMC proliferation remains unclear. In cultured human PASMCs, we observed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of NBL1 on platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced cell growth, DNA synthesis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, as measured by MTS assay, 5-ethynil-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) analysis and western blots respectively...
August 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141354/small-cell-lung-cancer-recruitment-of-macrophages-by-circulating-tumor-cells
#9
Gerhard Hamilton, Barbara Rath, Lukas Klameth, Maximilan J Hochmair
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumor progression, suppression of antitumor immunity and dissemination. Blood monocytes infiltrate the tumor region and are primed by local microenvironmental conditions to promote tumor growth and invasion. Although many of the interacting cytokines and factors are known for the tumor-macrophage interactions, the putative contribution of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is not known so far. These specialized cells are characterized by increased mobility, ability to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to enter the blood stream and generate secondary lesions which is a leading cause of death for the majority of tumor patients...
March 2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016422/argon-protects-against-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats-through-activation-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2
#10
Hailin Zhao, Sian Mitchell, Sarah Ciechanowicz, Sinead Savage, Tianlong Wang, Xunming Ji, Daqing Ma
Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) has a high mortality rate with neuropsychological impairment. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of argon against neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury.In vitro cortical neuronal cell cultures derived from rat foetuses were subjected to an oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) challenge for 90 minutes and then exposed to 70% argon or nitrogen with 5% carbon dioxide and balanced with oxygen for 2 hours.In vivo, seven-day-old rats were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxic (8% oxygen balanced with nitrogen) insult for 90 minutes...
May 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26567747/lymphocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-altered-signaling-pathways
#11
REVIEW
Noemí Esteras, Carolina Alquézar, Ana de la Encarnación, Ángeles Martín-Requero
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by progressive impairment of cognitive ability. Patients with AD display neuropathological lesions including plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in brain regions linked to cognitive functions. Despite progress in uncovering many of the factors that contribute to the etiology of this disease, the cause of neuronal death is largely unknown. Neuroinflammation seems to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. Inflammatory processes in the brain are mainly mediated by the intrinsic innate immune system consisting of astrocytes and microglial cells, and cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor signaling molecules...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26544181/quantitative-omics-analyses-of-medium-chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanaote-metabolism-in-pseudomonas-putida-ls46-cultured-with-waste-glycerol-and-waste-fatty-acids
#12
Jilagamazhi Fu, Parveen Sharma, Vic Spicer, Oleg V Krokhin, Xiangli Zhang, Brian Fristensky, Nazim Cicek, Richard Sparling, David B Levin
Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26208047/an-eg-vegf-dependent-decrease-in-homeobox-gene-nkx3-1-contributes-to-cytotrophoblast-dysfunction-a-possible-mechanism-in-human-fetal-growth-restriction
#13
P Murthi, S Brouillet, A Pratt, Aj Borg, B Kalionis, F Goffin, V Tsatsaris, C Munaut, Jj Feige, M Benharouga, T Fournier, N Alfaidy
Idiopathic fetal growth restriction (FGR) is frequently associated with placental insufficiency. Previous reports have provided evidence that EG-VEGF (endocrine gland derived-vascular endothelial growth factor), a placental secreted protein, is expressed during the first trimester of pregnancy, controls both trophoblast proliferation and invasion, and its increased expression is associated with human FGR. In this study, we hypothesise that EG-VEGF-dependent change in placental homeobox gene expressions contribute to trophoblast dysfunction in idiopathic FGR...
July 21, 2015: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25943628/in-vitro-expression-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-ply-gene-in-human-monocytes-and-pneumocytes
#14
Da-Kang Hu, Yang Liu, Xiang-Yang Li, Ying Qu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one major cause of pneumonia in human and contains various virulence factors that contribute to pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. This study investigated the role of pneumolysin, Ply, in facilitating S. pneumoniae invasion into the host blood stream. METHODS: S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from clinical blood and sputum samples and confirmed by PCR. Expression of ply gene was assessed by infecting human monocytes and pneumocytes...
May 7, 2015: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25940286/-comparison-of-immunosuppressive-effects-between-human-placental-mscs-derived-from-fetal-and-maternal-origins-on-the-rejection-of-allogenic-skin-grafts-in-mice
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Guiliang Hao, Libin Wang, Dongmei Chen, Xueyun Liang, Qiong Wang, Yongzhao Zhu, Xiaona Ma, Xiaoming Liu, Yukui Li
OBJECTIVE: To compare the immunosuppressive effects of maternal and fetal placental mesenchymal stem cells (mPMSCs and fPMSCs, respectively) on the rejection of allogenic skin transplants in mice, and further to investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression. METHODS: The mPMSCs and fPMSCs were isolated from human term placentas. The expressions of cell surface markers were detected by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation capacity was characterized by MTT colorimetric assay...
May 2015: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25890097/sdf-1-cxcl12-induces-cd9-expression-in-stem-cells-engaged-in-muscle-regeneration
#16
Edyta Brzoska, Kamil Kowalski, Agnieszka Markowska-Zagrajek, Magdalena Kowalewska, Rafał Archacki, Izabela Plaskota, Władysława Stremińska, Katarzyna Jańczyk-Ilach, Maria A Ciemerych
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the mechanism of stem cell mobilization into injured skeletal muscles is a prerequisite step for the development of muscle disease therapies. Many of the currently studied stem cell types present myogenic potential; however, when introduced either into the blood stream or directly into the tissue, they are not able to efficiently engraft injured muscle. For this reason their use in therapy is still limited. Previously, we have shown that stromal-derived factor-1 (Sdf-1) caused the mobilization of endogenous (not transplanted) stem cells into injured skeletal muscle improving regeneration...
2015: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25767679/inhibitory-effect-of-3-4-hydroxyphenyl-1-thiophen-2-yl-prop-2-en-1-one-a-chalcone-derivative-on-mcp-1-expression-in-macrophages-via-inhibition-of-ros-and-akt-signaling
#17
Mi Jin Kim, Taraman Kadayat, Yeon Ji Um, Tae Cheon Jeong, Eung-Seok Lee, Pil-Hoon Park
Chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones), a subfamily of flavonoid, are widely known to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-(thio3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl phen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (TI-I-175), a synthetic chalcone derivative, on endotoxin-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), one of the key chemokines that regulates migration and infiltration of immune cells, and its potential mechanisms. TII-175 potently inhibited MCP-1 mRNA expression stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264...
March 2015: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25152328/free-radical-scavenging-and-antioxidant-activity-of-betanin-electron-spin-resonance-spectroscopy-studies-and-studies-in-cultured-cells
#18
Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Anika E Wagner, Rouhollah Motafakkerazad, Yu Nakajima, Seiichi Matsugo, Gerald Rimbach
Betanin is a red pigment present in red beetroot. Recently, potential health benefits of betanin-rich beetroot have been suggested. However, little is known regarding the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of betanin. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and spin trapping techniques were applied to evaluate the ability of betanin to scavenge hydroxyl, superoxide, 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and galvinoxyl free radicals. In addition, we tested in cultured cells the ability of betanin to prevent DNA damage and to induce the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) as well as its down-stream target heme oxygenase1 (HO-1), paraoxonase1 (PON1) and glutathione (GSH)...
November 2014: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24645666/pi3k-p110-alpha-subtype-signalling-mediates-survival-proliferation-and-neurogenesis-of-cortical-progenitor-cells-via-activation-of-mtorc2
#19
Shalaka Dhanraj Wahane, Nicole Hellbach, Mirja Tamara Prentzell, Stefan Christopher Weise, Riccardo Vezzali, Clemens Kreutz, Jens Timmer, Kerstin Krieglstein, Kathrin Thedieck, Tanja Vogel
Development of the cerebral cortex is controlled by growth factors among which transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) have a central role. The TGFβ- and IGF1-pathways cross-talk and share signalling molecules, but in the central nervous system putative points of intersection remain unknown. We studied the biological effects and down-stream molecules of TGFβ and IGF1 in cells derived from the mouse cerebral cortex at two developmental time points, E13.5 and E16.5. IGF1 induces PI3K, AKT and the mammalian target of rapamycin complexes (mTORC1/mTORC2) primarily in E13...
July 2014: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24634804/reconstitution-of-in-vivo-macrophage-tumor-cell-pairing-and-streaming-motility-on-one-dimensional-micro-patterned-substrates
#20
Ved P Sharma, Brian T Beaty, Antonia Patsialou, Huiping Liu, Michael Clarke, Dianne Cox, John S Condeelis, Robert J Eddy
In mammary tumors, intravital imaging techniques have uncovered an essential role for macrophages during tumor cell invasion and metastasis mediated by an epidermal growth factor (EGF) / colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) paracrine loop. It was previously demonstrated that mammary tumors in mice derived from rat carcinoma cells (MTLn3) exhibited high velocity migration on extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers. These cells form paracrine loop-dependent linear assemblies of alternating host macrophages and tumor cells known as "streams...
July 1, 2012: IntraVital
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