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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926931/microbial-translocation-and-inflammation-occur-in-hyperacute-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-compromise-host-control-of-virus-replication
#1
Adam J Ericsen, Michael Lauck, Mariel S Mohns, Sarah R DiNapoli, James P Mutschler, Justin M Greene, Jason T Weinfurter, Gabrielle Lehrer-Brey, Trent M Prall, Samantha M Gieger, Connor R Buechler, Kristin A Crosno, Eric J Peterson, Matthew R Reynolds, Roger W Wiseman, Benjamin J Burwitz, Jacob D Estes, Jonah B Sacha, Thomas C Friedrich, Jason M Brenchley, David H O'Connor
Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926586/hypercapnic-conditions-after-experimental-blunt-chest-trauma-increase-efferocytosis-of-alveolar-macrophages-and-reduce-local-inflammation
#2
Annette Palmer, Michael S J Eichner, Anne Rittlinger, Daniel H Seitz, Florian Gebhard, Markus S Huber-Lang, Ulrike Niesler
Blunt chest trauma induces severe local and systemic inflammatory alterations and an accumulation of apoptotic polymorphonuclear granulocytes (aPMN) in the lungs, frequently followed by bacterial infection. Alveolar macrophages (AM) represent one of the main actors for their clearance. However, little is known regarding regulatory and influencing factors of AM efferocytic and phagocytic activities. In this context, we investigated the influence of impaired gas exchange on AM activity.Male rats underwent blunt chest trauma or sham procedure and aPMN or E...
December 6, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926507/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-activates-inflammatory-responses-of-astrocytes-through-interaction-with-cd74-receptor
#3
Yu Su, Yingjie Wang, Yue Zhou, Zhenjie Zhu, Qing Zhang, Xuejie Zhang, Wenjuan Wang, Xiaosong Gu, Aisong Guo, Yongjun Wang
Astrocytes, the major glial cell population of the central nervous system (CNS), play important physiological roles related to CNS homeostasis. Growing evidence demonstrates that astrocytes trigger innate immune responses under challenge of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine mainly secreted from monocytes/macrophages, is involved in inflammation-associated pathophysiology. Here, we displayed that expression of MIF significantly increased following spinal cord injury, in colocalization with microglia and astrocytes...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925683/inorganic-polyphosphate-a-key-modulator-of-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Amir Avan, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Inorganic polyphosphate (PolyP) is a molecule with prothrombotic and proinflammatory properties in blood. PolyP activates the NF-κB signaling pathway, increases the expression of cell surface adhesion molecules and disrupts the vascular barrier integrity of endothelial cells. PolyP-induced NF-κB activation and vascular hyperpermeability are regulated by the mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathways, respectively. Through interaction with RAGE and P2Y1 receptors, PolyP dramatically amplifies the proinflammatory responses of nuclear proteins...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925265/pentoxifylline-besides-naltrexone-recovers-morphine-induced-inflammation-in-male-reproductive-system-of-rats-by-regulating-toll-like-receptor-pathway
#5
S Chehrei, M Moradi, H R Ghiabi, M Falahi, S Kaviani, A Ghanbari
This study aimed to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline on complications of prolonged usage of morphine upon the testis and sperm parameters of rats. In this study, forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 8) and treated for 56 days to only saline, only morphine, only pentoxifylline, pentoxifylline + morphine and naltrexone + morphine. The diameters of seminiferous tubules, the maturity of germ line epithelium and sperm parameters were evaluated. The expression of inflammatory-related factors in testis tissues were also investigated at gene and protein levels...
December 7, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925201/vascular-inter-regulation-of-inflammation-molecular-and-cellular-targets-for-cns-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Marta Machado-Pereira, Tiago Santos, Liliana Bernardino, Raquel Ferreira
Angiogenesis and inflammation are clearly interconnected and interdependent processes that are dysregulated in a series of systemic and brain pathologies. Herein, key aspects regarding endothelial cell function and tissue remodelling that are particularly affected or aggravated by inflammation are presented. Most importantly, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular regulation of the inflammatory processes occurring in several brain disorders and how they impact on disease/injury progression are detailed, highlighting potential targets for therapy...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924726/neurodegenerative-disease-a-perspective-on-cell-based-therapy-in-the-new-era-of-cell-free-nano-therapy
#7
Su M Metcalfe, Sean Bickerton, Tarek Fahmy
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) result in irreversible loss of neurons. Dementia develops when disease-induced neuronal loss becomes sufficient to impair both memory and cognitive functioning and, globally, dementia is increasing to epidemic proportions as populations age. In the current era of regenerative medicine intense activity is asking, can loss of endogenous neurons be compensated by replacement with exogenously derived cells that have either direct, or indirect, neurogenic capacity? But, more recently, excitement is growing around an emerging alternative to the cell-based approach - here nanotechnology for targeted delivery of growth factor aims to support and expand resident central nervous system (CNS) stem cells for endogenous repair...
December 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924645/cardiovascular-outcomes-and-tumour-necrosis-factor-antagonists-in-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease-a-focus-on-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Giuliano Tocci, Delia Goletti, Valentina Marino, Andrea Matucci, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Fabrizio Cantini, Raffaele Scarpa
Many chronic rheumatic diseases have an inflammatory etiology, leading to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased occurrence of vascular diseases. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a reduction in cardiovascular (CV) events has been reported under treatments reducing systemic inflammation. Areas covered: Given the central role of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in chronic inflammatory conditions and in atherosclerosis, it has been suggested that TNFα-antagonists may reduce CV risk and mortality. Although there are no randomized controlled or head-to-head trials investigating the effect of specific anti-TNF-agents on CV outcomes, observational cohort studies, national registry data, and meta-analyses in RA have reported improved CV outcomes with anti-TNF therapy...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924525/a-three-day-consecutive-fingolimod-administration-improves-neurological-functions-and-modulates-multiple-immune-responses-of-cci-mice
#9
Chuang Gao, Yu Qian, Jinhao Huang, Dong Wang, Wanqiang Su, Peng Wang, Linyue Guo, Wei Quan, Shuo An, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang
Excessive inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of secondary TBI. Though several inflammatory biomarkers have been postulated as the risk factors of TBI, there has not been any comprehensive description of them. Fingolimod, a new kind of immunomodulatory agent which can diminish various kinds of inflammatory responses, has shown additional therapeutic effects in the treatment of intracranial cerebral hematoma (ICH), ischemia, spinal cord injury (SCI), and many other CNS disorders...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924136/prognostic-value-of-inflammation-in-prostate-cancer-progression-and-response-to-therapeutic-a-critical-review
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Sciarra, Alessandro Gentilucci, Stefano Salciccia, Federico Pierella, Flavio Del Bianco, Vincenzo Gentile, Ida Silvestri, Susanna Cattarino
Prostate is an immune-competent organ normally populated by inflammatory cells. Prostatic inflammation origin can be multi-factorial and there are some emerging evidences on its possible role as a factor involved in prostate cancer (PC) pathogenesis and progression. This review critically analyzes the role of inflammation as a prognostic factor for progression and aggressiveness of PC. We verified the last 10 years literature data on the association between inflammation and PC aggressiveness, or PC response to therapies...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924081/liver-guardian-modifier-and-target-of-sepsis
#11
REVIEW
Pavel Strnad, Frank Tacke, Alexander Koch, Christian Trautwein
Sepsis and septic shock are characterized by life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The liver has a central role during sepsis, and is essential to the regulation of immune defence during systemic infections by mechanisms such as bacterial clearance, acute-phase protein or cytokine production and metabolic adaptation to inflammation. However, the liver is also a target for sepsis-related injury, including hypoxic hepatitis due to ischaemia and shock, cholestasis due to altered bile metabolism, hepatocellular injury due to drug toxicity or overwhelming inflammation, as well as distinct pathologies such as secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923767/mitochondria-as-molecular-platforms-integrating-multiple-innate-immune-signalings
#12
REVIEW
Marie Monlun, Caroline Hyernard, Patrick Blanco, Lydia Lartigue, Benjamin Faustin
The immune system of vertebrates confers protective mechanisms to the host through the sensing of stress-induced agents expressed during infection or cell stress. Among them, the first line of host defense composed of the innate immune sensing of these agents by pattern recognition receptors enables downstream adaptive immunity to be primed, mediating the body's appropriate response to clear infection and tissue damage. Mitochondria are «bacteria within» that allowed the emergence of functional eukaryotic cells by positioning themselves as the cell powerhouse and an initiator of cell death programs...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923741/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-contributes-to-long-term-behavioral-alterations-in-mice-injected-with-lipopolysaccharide
#13
Wei Zhu, Feng-Sheng Cao, Jun Feng, Hua-Weng Chen, Jie-Ru Wan, Qing Lu, Jian Wang
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5 mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923701/prognostic-significance-of-repeat-biopsy-in-lupus-nephritis-histopathologic-worsening-and-a-short-time-between-biopsies-is-associated-with-significantly-increased-risk-for-end-stage-renal-disease-and-death
#14
Cristina Arriens, Sixia Chen, David R Karp, Ramesh Saxena, Kamalanathan Sambandam, Eliza Chakravarty, Judith A James, Joan T Merrill
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Approximately half of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) develop lupus nephritis (LN), a major cause of morbidity and early mortality in that disease. Prolonged renal inflammation is associated with irreversible kidney damage which confers a 30% risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), making early, aggressive treatment mandatory. Failure to achieve therapeutic response or recurrence of renal flare often prompts repeat biopsy. However, the role of repeat biopsy in determining long-term renal prognosis remains controversial...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923689/eupafolin-nanoparticle-improves-acute-renal-injury-induced-by-lps-through-inhibiting-ros-and-inflammation
#15
Hao Zhang, Ming-Kun Chen, Ke Li, Cheng Hu, Min-Hua Lu, Jie Situ
Acute renal injury is a common severe clinical syndrome, occurring in many clinical situations. It is necessary to explore effective drugs to treat it. Eupafolin is a flavonoid compound, derived from Phyla nodiflora, which has been previously reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, it is known little about how it works in acute renal injury. Also, eupafolin is characterized by skin penetration and poor water solubility, limiting its clinical applications...
December 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923376/immunomodulation-after-ischemic-stroke-potential-mechanisms-and-implications-for-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Cynthia Santos Samary, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro Leme Silva, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
Brain injuries are often associated with intensive care admissions, and carry high morbidity and mortality rates. Ischemic stroke is one of the most frequent causes of injury to the central nervous system. It is now increasingly clear that human stroke causes multi-organ systemic disease. Brain inflammation may lead to opposing local and systemic effects. Suppression of systemic immunity by the nervous system could protect the brain from additional inflammatory damage; however, it may increase the susceptibility to infection...
December 7, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923057/the-effect-of-iron-fortification-on-iron-fe-status-and-inflammation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Jingqiu Ma, Qianqian Sun, Jinrong Liu, Yanqi Hu, Shanshan Liu, Jie Zhang, Xiaoyang Sheng, K Michael Hambidge
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (ID) is common in toddlers in developing countries. Iron fortified or meat-based complementary foods may be effective to prevent ID. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare iron status at 18 months and growth from 6 to 18 months in rural poor toddlers fed 3 different complementary foods. METHODS: The study was nested within a larger trial in which 6-month-old infants were randomized to receive 50g/d meat (MG), an equi-caloric fortified cereal supplement (FG) or local cereal supplement (LG) for 1 year...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922857/comprehensive-assessment-of-the-arginine-pathway-and-its-relationship-to-inflammation-in-hiv
#18
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, S M Khurshid Alam, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, W H Wilson Tang, Grace A Mccomsey
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide helps maintain vascular function and is generated through the oxidation of arginine. Whether altered arginine metabolism may lead to elevated levels of inflammation in HIV is unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected adults on stable ART with HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL and HIV-uninfected controls. We measured biomarkers in the arginine pathway, markers of systemic inflammation, and monocyte activation. T-tests, chi-square tests and propensity score matching analyses were used to compare markers by HIV status, and multiple linear regressions were used to assess associations of arginine metabolites with markers of inflammation...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922852/hiv-associated-changes-in-the-enteric-microbial-community-potential-role-in-loss-of-homeostasis-and-development-of-systemic-inflammation
#19
David B Gootenberg, Jeffrey M Paer, Jesus-Mario Luevano, Douglas S Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite HIV therapy advances, average life expectancy in HIV-infected individuals on effective treatment is significantly decreased relative to uninfected persons, largely because of increased incidence of inflammation-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction. The enteric microbial community could potentially cause this inflammation, as HIV-driven destruction of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells may disturb the microbiota-mucosal immune system balance, disrupting the stable gut microbiome and leading to further deleterious host outcomes...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922787/hydro-responsive-wound-dressings-simplify-t-i-m-e-wound-management-framework
#20
Karen Ousey, Alan A Rogers, Mark G Rippon
The development of wound management protocols and guidelines such as the T.I.M.E. acronym are useful tools to aid wound care practitioners deliver effective wound care. The tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture balance and edge of wound (T.I.M.E.) framework provides a systematic approach for the assessment and management of the majority of acute and chronic wounds. The debridement of devitalised tissue from the wound bed, the reduction in wound bioburden and effective management of wound exudate - i.e., wound bed preparation - are barriers to wound healing progression that are targeted by T...
December 2016: British Journal of Community Nursing
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