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systemic inflammation

Amy Christensen, Christian J Pike
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is a multifactorial process that involves numerous pathways within the central nervous system. Thus, interventions that interact with several disease-related pathways may offer an increased opportunity for successful prevention and treatment of AD. Translocator protein 18 kD (TSPO) is a mitochondrial protein that is associated with regulation of many cellular processes including inflammation, steroid synthesis, apoptosis, and mitochondrial respiration. Although TSPO ligands have been shown to be protective in several neurodegenerative paradigms, little work has been done to assess their potential as treatments for AD...
June 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Soraia Genebra Ibrahim Forgiarini, Darlan Pase da Rosa, Luiz Felipe Forgiarini, Cassiano Teixeira, Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Elaine Aparecida Felix, Gilberto Friedman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate systemic inflammatory factors and their relation to success or failure in a spontaneous ventilation test. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a sample of 54 adult patients. Demographic data and clinical parameters were collected, and blood samples were collected in the first minute of the spontaneous ventilation test to evaluate interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and C-reactive protein...
2018: Clinics
Tomás Ortiz-Basso, Rodolfo L Vigo, Mariano Sidelnik, Mariana S Vazquez-Durand, María F Shokida, Eduardo J Prémoli, Ricardo García-Mónaco
PURPOSE: To evaluate if parabulbar triamcinolone reduces orbital swelling in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy. METHODS: This is a prospective study of a series of patients with active and moderate Graves ophthalmopathy. Short tau inversion recovery magnetic resonance was used to evaluate the intensity of the extraocular rectus muscles and orbital fat, before and after the treatment with parabulbar triamcinolone. RESULTS: The signal intensity ratio of the sum of the OD rectus muscles was 3...
June 18, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Wei-Lin Wan, Yu-Jung Lin, Po-Chien Shih, Yu-Ru Bow, Qinghua Cui, Yen Chang, Wei-Tso Chia, Hsing-Wen Sung
Inflammation is involved in many human pathologies, including osteoarthritis (OA). Hydrogen (H2) is known to have anti-inflammatory effects; however, the bioavailability of directly administered H2 gas is typically poor. Herein, a local delivery system that can provide a high therapeutic concentration of gaseous H2 at inflamed tissues is proposed. The delivery system comprises poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles that contain magnesium powder (Mg@PLGA MPs). Mg@PLGA MPs that are intra-muscularly injected close to the OA knee in a mouse model can act as an in situ depot that can evolve gaseous H2 continuously, mediated by the cycle of passivation/activation of Mg in body fluids, at a concentration that exceeds its therapeutic threshold...
June 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Lucie Sulovska, Vladimír Mihal, Monika Horvathova, Dagmar Pospisilova
AIM: Hepcidin is a central regulator of iron homeostasis. Its production is also influenced by systemic inflammation. The aims of this study were to compare hepcidin levels in paediatric patients newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to determine the association of hepcidin levels with laboratory and clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. METHODS: Children with newly diagnosed IBD between January 2012 and September 2016 were enrolled in this comparative cross-sectional study...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Pooja Todke, Viral H Shah
Skin is the most visible and vulnerable organ of the integumentary system. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder with an equal prevalence rate in males and females globally. Psoriasis is seen today beyond a cosmetic turmoil as it significantly impacts the socioeconomic life of the patients. Patients with severe psoriasis report feeling denounced and isolated. Despite detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis of psoriasis, issues like the autoimmune cause of inflammation and role of external, genetic, cutaneous, and systemic factors on initiation, progression, and treatment of psoriasis are still ambiguous...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
P Behm, M Gastl, A Jahn, A Rohde, S Haberkorn, S Krueger, S Weiss, B Schnackenburg, M Sager, K Düring, H Clogenson, P Horn, R Westenfeld, M Kelm, M Neizel-Wittke, F Bönner
Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is considered to be the diagnostic gold-standard in detection of myocardial-inflammation. EMB is usually conducted under fluoroscopy without any specific target information. Specific target-information provided by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) may improve specificity of EMB. The aim was to investigate feasibility and safety of CMR-guided and targeted EMB in a preclinical-model using passively-tracked devices. Procedures were performed on a MRI-System equipped with an Interventional Software-Platform for real-time imaging...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Erika F Augustine, Christopher A Beck, Heather R Adams, Sara Defendorf, Amy Vierhile, Derek Timm, Jill M Weimer, Jonathan W Mink, Frederick J Marshall
Mycophenolate, an immunosuppressant, is commonly used off-label for autoimmune neurological conditions. In CLN3 disease, a neurodegenerative disorder of childhood, preclinical and clinical data suggest secondary autoimmunity and inflammation throughout the central nervous system are key components of pathogenesis. We tested the short-term tolerability of mycophenolate in individuals with CLN3 disease, in preparation for possible long-term efficacy trials of this drug. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of mycophenolate in 19 ambulatory individuals with CLN3 disease to determine the safety and tolerability of short-term administration (NCT01399047)...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
I B Pevzner, T A Pavlenko, V A Popkov, N V Andrianova, L D Zorova, A A Brezgunova, S D Zorov, S S Yankauskas, D N Silachev, D B Zorov, E Yu Plotnikov
Oxidative kidney injury was compared in newborn and adult rats under conditions of ischemia/reperfusion and in experimental model of systemic inflammation induced by endotoxin (LPS of bacterial cell wall) administration. Oxidative stress in the kidney accompanied both experimental models, but despite similar oxidative tissue damage, kidney dysfunction in neonates was less pronounced than in adult animals. It was found that neonatal kidney has a more potent regenerative potential with higher level of cell proliferation than adult kidney, where the level proliferating cell antigen (PCNA) increased only on day 2 after ischemia/reperfusion...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Kyoung-Jin Chung, Marina Nati, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou
Immune cells are present in the adipose tissue (AT) and regulate its function. Under lean conditions, immune cells predominantly of type 2 immunity, including eosinophils, M2-like anti-inflammatory macrophages and innate lymphoid cells 2, contribute to the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis within the AT. In the course of obesity, pro-inflammatory immune cells, such as M1-like macrophages, prevail in the AT. Inflammation in the obese AT is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
June 19, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Sabrina Torre, David Langlais, Philippe Gros
Malaria is a common and sometimes fatal disease caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a most severe complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum parasites which features a complex immunopathology that includes a prominent neuroinflammation. The experimental mouse model of cerebral malaria (ECM) induced by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA has been used abundantly to study the role of single genes, proteins and pathways in the pathogenesis of CM, including a possible contribution to neuroinflammation...
June 19, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Kentaro Serizawa, Hirokazu Tanaka, Yasuyoshi Morita, Takahide Taniguchi, Takashi Ashida, Itaru Matsumura
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells, characterized by dysplastic hematopoiesis and dysregulated immune system resulting in various clinical conditions. Paraneoplastic inflammatory syndromes, which are well known to be associated with MDS, show response to immune-modulated therapy and often disappear during the course of hematologic management. Azacitidine (5-Aza) was shown to prolong survival of high-risk MDS patients, however, the effects of 5-Aza on paraneoplastic inflammation in MDS have yet to be elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
K H Collins, D A Hart, R A Seerattan, R A Reimer, W Herzog
Objectives: Metabolic syndrome and low-grade systemic inflammation are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the relationships between these factors and OA in other synovial joints are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine if a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) diet results in OA-like joint damage in the shoulders, knees, and hips of rats after induction of obesity, and to identify potential joint-specific risks for OA-like changes. Methods: A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to either the diet-induced obesity group (DIO, 40% fat, 45% sucrose, n = 9) or a chow control diet (n = 7) for 12 weeks...
April 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Reza Habibian, Nowruz Delirezh, Amir Abbas Farshid
Objectives: Allergic Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs that is characterized by increased infiltration of leukocytes into the airways, limiting the respiratory function. Studies suggest that a defective general regulatory system against inflammation could be a significant factor in allergic asthma. It has been shown that Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a cellular immunosuppressive therapeutic potential for inflammatory disorders. We investigated whether administration of MSCs during allergen challenge would affect the underlying mechanisms in allergic airways inflammation...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Mateusz Adamiak, Magda Kucia, William Tse, Janina Ratajczak, Wieslaw Wiktor-Jedrzejczak
Innate immunity plays an important role in orchestrating the immune response, and the complement cascade (ComC) is a major component of this ancient defense system, which is activated by the classical-, alternative-, or mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathways. However, the MBL-dependent ComC-activation pathway has been somewhat underappreciated for many years; recent evidence indicates that it plays a crucial role in regulating the trafficking of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) by promoting their egress from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kathrin Siebers, Bijan Fink, Anna Zakrzewicz, Alisa Agné, Katrin Richter, Sebastian Konzok, Andreas Hecker, Sven Zukunft, Mira Küllmar, Jochen Klein, J Michael McIntosh, Thomas Timm, Katherina Sewald, Winfried Padberg, Nupur Aggarwal, Walee Chamulitrat, Sentot Santoso, Wendy Xia, Sabina Janciauskiene, Veronika Grau
While interleukin (IL)-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in host defense, high levels can cause life-threatening sterile inflammation including systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Hence, the control of IL-1β secretion is of outstanding biomedical importance. In response to a first inflammatory stimulus such as lipopolysaccharide, pro-IL-1β is synthesized as a cytoplasmic inactive pro-form. Extracellular ATP originating from injured cells is a prototypical second signal for inflammasome-dependent maturation and release of IL-1β...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Pierre Rosenbaum, Nicolas Tchitchek, Candie Joly, Lev Stimmer, Hakim Hocini, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Anne-Sophie Beignon, Catherine Chapon, Yves Levy, Roger Le Grand, Frédéric Martinon
New vaccine design approaches would be greatly facilitated by a better understanding of the early systemic changes, and those that occur at the site of injection, responsible for the installation of a durable and oriented protective response. We performed a detailed characterization of very early infection and host response events following the intradermal administration of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a live attenuated vaccine model in non-human primates. Integrated analysis of the data obtained from in vivo imaging, histology, flow cytometry, multiplex cytokine, and transcriptomic analysis using tools derived from systems biology, such as co-expression networks, showed a strong early local and systemic inflammatory response that peaked at 24 h, which was then progressively replaced by an adaptive response during the installation of the host response to the vaccine...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gabriel Mizraji, Oded Heyman, Thomas E Van Dyke, Asaf Wilensky
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the teeth. Resolvins are part of a large family of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators that enhance active resolution of inflammation and return of inflammatory lesions to homeostasis. In this paper, we demonstrate that resolvin D2 (RvD2), a product of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) metabolism, prevents alveolar bone loss in Porphyromonas gingivalis- induced experimental periodontitis. Investigations of the immune mechanism of RvD2 actions reveal that 6 weeks after infection, the gingiva of RvD2-treated mice exhibit decreased CD4+ T-cells as well as lower RANKL expression levels and higher osteoprotegerin expression levels...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Beate M Rüger, Tanja Buchacher, Alexander Giurea, Bernd Kubista, Michael B Fischer, Johannes M Breuss
Introduction: New vessel formation requires a continuous and tightly regulated interplay between endothelial cells with cells of the perivascular microenvironment supported by mechanic-physical and chemical cues from the extracellular matrix. Aim: Here we investigated the potential of small fragments of synovial tissue to form de novo vascular structures in the context of inflammation within three dimensional (3D) fibrin-based matrices in vitro , and assessed the contribution of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-immune cell cross-talk to neovascularization considering paracrine signals in a fibrin-based co-culture model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Chanan Meydan, Uriya Bekenstein, Hermona Soreq
Sepsis and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both inflammation-related entities with high impact for human health and the consequences of concussions. Both represent imbalanced parasympathetic/cholinergic response to insulting triggers and variably uncontrolled inflammation that indicates shared upstream regulators, including short microRNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). These may cross talk across multiple systems, leading to complex molecular and clinical outcomes. Notably, biomedical and RNA-sequencing based analyses both highlight new links between the acquired and inherited pathogenic, cardiac and inflammatory traits of sepsis/MetS...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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