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F-box and glia

C M Wen, M M Chen, F H Nan, C S Wang
In this study, cultures of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPC) from the brain of green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus were established and various NSPCs were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. All of the NSPCs expressed brain lipid-binding protein, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, paired box 6 and sex determining region Y-box 2. The intensity and localisation of these proteins, however, varied among the different NSPCs. Despite being intermediate cells, NSPCs can be divided into radial glial cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and neuroblasts by expressing the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), OPC marker A2B5 and neuronal markers, including acetyl-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurofilament protein...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Jiong Hu, Rüdiger Popp, Timo Frömel, Manuel Ehling, Khader Awwad, Ralf H Adams, Hans-Peter Hammes, Ingrid Fleming
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases generate bioactive lipid epoxides which can be further metabolized to supposedly less active diols by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). As the role of epoxides and diols in angiogenesis is unclear, we compared retinal vasculature development in wild-type and sEH(-/-) mice. Deletion of the sEH significantly delayed angiogenesis, tip cell, and filopodia formation, a phenomenon associated with activation of the Notch signaling pathway. In the retina, sEH was localized in Müller glia cells, and Müller cell-specific sEH deletion reproduced the sEH(-/-) retinal phenotype...
February 10, 2014: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Branden R Nelson, Rebecca D Hodge, Francesco Bedogni, Robert F Hevner
The mammalian neocortical progenitor cell niche is composed of a diverse repertoire of neuroepithelial cells, radial glia (RG), and intermediate neurogenic progenitors (INPs). Previously, live-cell imaging experiments have proved crucial in identifying these distinct progenitor populations, especially INPs, which amplify neural output by undergoing additional rounds of proliferation before differentiating into new neurons. INPs also provide feedback to the RG pool by serving as a source of Delta-like 1 (Dll1), a key ligand for activating Notch signaling in neighboring cells, a well-known mechanism for maintaining RG identity...
May 22, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gina E Elsen, Rebecca D Hodge, Francesco Bedogni, Ray A M Daza, Branden R Nelson, Naoko Shiba, Steven L Reiner, Robert F Hevner
The cortical area map is initially patterned by transcription factor (TF) gradients in the neocortical primordium, which define a "protomap" in the embryonic ventricular zone (VZ). However, mechanisms that propagate regional identity from VZ progenitors to cortical plate (CP) neurons are unknown. Here we show that the VZ, subventricular zone (SVZ), and CP contain distinct molecular maps of regional identity, reflecting different gene expression gradients in radial glia progenitors, intermediate progenitors, and projection neurons, respectively...
March 5, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Julia L Snyder, Christina A Kearns, Bruce Appel
BACKGROUND: In the developing vertebrate nervous system elevated levels of Notch signaling activity can block neurogenesis and promote formation of glial cells. The mechanisms that limit Notch activity to balance formation of neurons and glia from neural precursors are poorly understood. RESULTS: By screening for mutations that disrupt oligodendrocyte development in zebrafish we found one allele, called vu56, that produced excess oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs)...
2012: Neural Development
Barbara A Schreader, Yiqin Wang, Stephanie Carter, Joanna Grigas, John R Nambu
Morgue is a unique multi-domain protein that contains a zinc finger motif, an F box, and a variant E2 conjugase domain. The presence of these domains suggests potentially complex and novel functions for Morgue in ubiquitination pathways. Morgue was originally identified via its gain-of-function enhancement of eye cell death phenotypes in Drosophila and ectopic expression of Morgue also influences circadian rhythms. However, there is as yet little known about Morgues normal developmental or physiological functions...
2010: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Carol Lynn Curchoe, Jochen Maurer, Sonja J McKeown, Giulio Cattarossi, Flavio Cimadamore, Mats Nilbratt, Evan Y Snyder, Marianne Bronner-Fraser, Alexey V Terskikh
BACKGROUND: Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are a transient multipotent embryonic cell population that represents a defining characteristic of vertebrates. The neural crest (NC) gives rise to many derivatives including the neurons and glia of the sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system, enteric neurons and glia, melanocytes, and the cartilaginous, bony and connective tissue of the craniofacial skeleton, cephalic neuroendocrine organs, and some heart vessels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present evidence that neural crest (NC) competence can be acquired very early when human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are selectively neuralized towards dorsal neuroepithelium in the absence of feeder cells in fully defined conditions...
2010: PloS One
Matthew C Loftspring, Craig Hansen, Joseph F Clark
In this paper we hypothesize a novel mechanism by which brain injury occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage. We propose the following mechanism: (1) heme that is derived from extravasated erythrocytes is degraded into bilirubin and bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes). (2) Bilirubin and BOXes activate microglia and astrocytes, which are cells with immune functions in the brain. This activation leads to release of cytokines and activation of leukocyte adhesion molecules on the luminal surface of cerebral endothelial cells...
January 2010: Medical Hypotheses
Margaret Su-chun Ho, Hungwen Chen, Minghan Chen, Cécile Jacques, Angela Giangrande, Cheng-Ting Chien
Gliogenesis in animal development is spatiotemporally regulated so that correct numbers of glia are present to support various neuronal functions. During Drosophila embryonic development, the glial regulatory gene, glial cell missing/glial cell deficient (gcm/glide), promotes glial cell fate and differentiation. Here we describe the ubiquitin-proteasome regulation of the Gcm protein and the consequence in gliogenesis without timely degradation of Gcm. Gcm binds to 2 F-box proteins, Supernumerary limbs (Slimb) and Archipelago (Ago), adaptors of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases...
April 21, 2009: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fernanda Gubert, Camila Zaverucha-do-Valle, Pedro M Pimentel-Coelho, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Marcelo F Santiago
During development, radial glia cells contribute to neuronal migration and neurogenesis, and differentiate into astrocytes by the end of the developmental period. Recently, it was demonstrated that during development, radial glia cells, in addition to their role in migration, also give rise to neuroblasts. Furthermore, radial glial cells remain in the adult brain as adult neural stem cells (NSC) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) around the lateral ventricles (LVs), and generate new neurons continuously throughout adulthood...
March 3, 2009: Brain Research
G Faraco, S Fossati, M E Bianchi, M Patrone, M Pedrazzi, B Sparatore, F Moroni, A Chiarugi
High mobility group proteins are chromatin binding factors with key roles in maintenance of nuclear homeostasis. The evidence indicates that extracellularly released high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein behaves as a cytokine, promoting inflammation and participating to the pathogenesis of several disorders in peripheral organs. In this study, we have investigated the expression levels and relocation dynamics of HMGB1 in neural cells, as well as its neuropathological potential. We report that HMGB1 is released in the culture media of neurons and astrocytes challenged with necrotic but not apoptotic stimuli...
October 2007: Journal of Neurochemistry
Hangxiu Xu, Drina D Sta Iglesia, Jennifer L Kielczewski, Danielle F Valenta, Mary E Pease, Donald J Zack, Harry A Quigley
PURPOSE: To isolate and characterize progenitor cells derived from adult mammalian ciliary body. METHODS: The authors isolated progenitor cells from the ciliary body of adult mice, rats, and human cadaver eyes and determined quantitative growth characteristics of groups of progenitor cells called neurosphere (NS) cells, including individual cell diameter, NS diameter, percentage of NS-forming cells, and cell number per eye in mouse, rat, and human eyes. The immunolabeling and ultrastructure of NS cells were investigated by confocal and transmission electron microscopy...
April 2007: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jane C Quinn, Michael Molinek, Ben S Martynoga, Paulette A Zaki, Andrea Faedo, Alessandro Bulfone, Robert F Hevner, John D West, David J Price
Many cerebral cortical neurons and glia are produced by apical progenitors dividing at the ventricular surface of the embryonic dorsal telencephalon. Other neurons are produced by basal progenitor cells, which are derived from apical progenitors, dividing away from the ventricular surface. The transcription factor Pax6 is expressed in apical progenitors and is downregulated in basal progenitors, which upregulate the transcription factor Tbr2. Here we show that Pax6(-/-) cells are under-represented in the cortex of Pax6(+/+)<-->Pax6(-/-) chimeras early in corticogenesis, indicating that Pax6 is required for the production of normal numbers of cortical cells...
February 1, 2007: Developmental Biology
Chris Englund, Andy Fink, Charmaine Lau, Diane Pham, Ray A M Daza, Alessandro Bulfone, Tom Kowalczyk, Robert F Hevner
The developing neocortex contains two types of progenitor cells for glutamatergic, pyramidal-projection neurons. The first type, radial glia, produce neurons and glia, divide at the ventricular surface, and express Pax6, a homeodomain transcription factor. The second type, intermediate progenitor cells, are derived from radial glia, produce only neurons, and divide away from the ventricular surface. Here we show that the transition from radial glia to intermediate progenitor cell is associated with upregulation of Tbr2, a T-domain transcription factor, and downregulation of Pax6...
January 5, 2005: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mario F Wullimann, Elke Rink
An improved comparative interpretation of the teleostean forebrain suggests that the dorsal tier (Vd,Vc) and ventral tier (Vv,Vl) nuclei of the ventral telencephalic area (subpallium) represent the striatum and septum, respectively. Among other arguments, a dopaminergic innervation originating in the diencephalic posterior tubercle reaches Vd and dense efferents of Vv project to the midline hypothalamus in the adult zebrafish subpallium. The adult area dorsalis telencephali represents the teleostean pallium...
February 2002: Brain Research Bulletin
M F Wullimann, E Rink
Spatiotemporal developmental dynamics of Pax6 protein containing (i.e., Pax6) cells were investigated immunohistochemically in embryonic and postembryonic zebrafish brain sections (especially at 2 and 5 day), allowing for a neuroanatomically detailed resolution previously only reported for the mouse. Besides strikingly close correspondences of early Pax6 domains - including many spatiotemporal changes - in mouse and zebrafish brains, some critical differences were noted. There is no pallial (i.e., cortical) Pax6 expression domain in the ventricular proliferative layer in the zebrafish as in the mouse...
November 26, 2001: Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research
L Kammermeier, R Leemans, F Hirth, S Flister, U Wenger, U Walldorf, W J Gehring, H Reichert
We analyzed the expression and function of eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy) in the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila. Both genes are differentially expressed in specific neuronal subsets (but not in glia) in every CNS neuromere, and in the brain, specific cell populations co-expressing both proteins define a longitudinal domain which is intercalated between broad exclusive expression domains of ey and toy. Studies of genetic null alleles and dsRNA interference did not reveal any gross neuroanatomical effects of ey, toy, or ey/toy elimination in the embryonic CNS...
May 2001: Mechanisms of Development
V G Kukekov, E D Laywell, O Suslov, K Davies, B Scheffler, L B Thomas, T F O'Brien, M Kusakabe, D A Steindler
Recent in vitro studies have shown that the periventricular subependymal zone (SEZ) of the rodent brain is capable of de novo generation of neurons and glia. There is less information available on neurogenesis in the adult human brain, and no study has shown the clonal generation of neurons and glia from in vitro-generated "neurospheres." Here we describe the isolation of proliferative stem/progenitor cells within neurospheres from two different regions, the SEZ and the hippocampus, from surgical biopsy specimens of adult (24-57 years) human brain...
April 1999: Experimental Neurology
J A Erhardt, W Hynicka, A DiBenedetto, N Shen, N Stone, H Paulson, R N Pittman
NFB42 (neural F Box 42 kDa) is a novel gene product that is highly enriched in the nervous system. Its predicted protein contains an F box, a motif recently shown to couple cell cycle regulation to the proteasome pathway (Bai, C., Sen, P., Hofmann, K., Ma, L., Goebl, M., Harper, J. W., and Elledge, S. (1996) Cell 86, 263-274). NFB42 mRNA and protein are expressed in all major areas of the adult rat brain but are not detected in non-neural tissues. NFB42 protein is localized primarily to the cytoplasm of neurons and does not appear to be present in glia...
December 25, 1998: Journal of Biological Chemistry
G M Edelman, F S Jones
A mounting body of evidence suggests that cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play important roles in morphogenetic patterning of the nervous system. The combined factors that control the expression of CAMs during early neural development are, however, largely unknown. We have hypothesized that the coordinate expression of homeobox (Hox) and paired box (Pax) proteins in the neural axis leads to the differential expression of particular CAM genes. Following this hypothesis, we have characterized the promoters and identified cis-regulatory sequences that bind to and respond to Hox and Pax proteins in the genes for three neurally expressed CAMs - the neural cell adhesion molecule, N-CAM, the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, Ng-CAM, and L1...
May 1998: Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews
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