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Channelopathies and chaperones

Richard Zimmermann
In mammalian cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a central role in biogenesis of secretory- and plasma membrane proteins as well as in cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. The protein biogenesis function involves an aqueous polypeptide conducting channel in the ER membrane, which is formed by the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex; the store- and receptor-controlled Ca(2+)- release function requires a steep ER to cytosol gradient, with more than 500 μM free Ca(2+) in the ER and 50 nM Ca(2+) in the cytosol...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Sarah Haßdenteufel, Marie-Christine Klein, Armin Melnyk, Richard Zimmermann
Protein transport into the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is relevant to the biogenesis of most soluble and membrane proteins of organelles, which are involved in endo- or exo-cytsosis. It involves amino-terminal signal peptides in the precursor polypeptides and various transport components in the cytosol plus the ER, and can occur co- or post-translationally. The two mechanisms merge at the level of the ER membrane, specifically at the level of the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex, which forms a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel in the ER membrane...
December 2014: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Brett A Simms, Gerald W Zamponi
BACKGROUND: A loss of function of the L-type calcium channel, Cav1.2, results in a cardiac specific disease known as Brugada syndrome. Although many Brugada syndrome channelopathies reduce channel function, one point mutation in the N-terminus of Cav1.2 (A39V) has been shown to elicit disease a phenotype because of a loss of surface trafficking of the channel. This lack of cell membrane expression could not be rescued by the trafficking chaperone Cavβ. FINDINGS: We report that despite the striking loss of trafficking described previously in the cardiac Cav1...
2012: Molecular Brain
D Kent Arrell, Jelena Zlatkovic, Garvan C Kane, Satsuki Yamada, Andre Terzic
Forecasting disease susceptibility requires detection of maladaptive signatures prior to onset of overt symptoms. A case-in-point are cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channelopathies, for which the substrate underlying disease vulnerability remains to be identified. Resolving molecular pathobiology, even for single genetic defects, mandates a systems platform to reliably diagnose disease predisposition. High-throughput proteomic analysis was here integrated with network biology to decode consequences of Kir6...
October 2009: Journal of Proteome Research
Blanche Schwappach
Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-gated ion channels assemble from several homologous and non-homologous subunits. Assembly of these multimeric membrane proteins is a tightly controlled process subject to primary and secondary quality control mechanisms. An assembly pathway involving a dimerization of dimers has been demonstrated for a voltage-gated potassium channel and for different types of glutamate receptors. While many novel C-terminal assembly domains have been identified in various members of the voltage-gated cation channel superfamily, the assembly pathways followed by these proteins remain largely elusive...
May 2008: Molecular Membrane Biology
Kirti A Patel, Kristen M Bartoli, Richard A Fandino, Anita N Ngatchou, Gustaw Woch, Jannette Carey, Jacqueline C Tanaka
PURPOSE: Achromatopsia 2, an inherited retinal disorder resulting in attenuation or loss of cone function, is caused by mutations in the alpha subunit of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel gene CNGA3. Examination of mutations that cluster in the first transmembrane segment of the protein may provide insight into its role in CNG channel structure, function, biogenesis, and pathophysiology. METHODS: The human CNGA3 gene was tagged at the C terminus with green fluorescent protein...
July 2005: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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