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Channel proteins

Lijiang Ma, Wendy K Chung
Group 1 pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation and occlusion of small pulmonary arterioles, leading to progressive elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular failure. Historically it has been associated with a high mortality rate, although over the last decade, treatment has improved survival. PAH includes idiopathic PAH (IPAH), heritable PAH (HPAH), and PAH associated with certain medical conditions...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Wilfried Dinh, Barbara Albrecht-Küpper, Mihai Gheorghiade, Adriaan A Voors, Michael van der Laan, Hani N Sabbah
Adenosine exerts a variety of physiological effects by binding to cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, namely, A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. The central physiological role of adenosine is to preclude tissue injury and promote repair in response to stress. In the heart, adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator, linking cardiac function to metabolic demand predominantly via activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs), which leads to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, modulation of protein kinase C, and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels...
October 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
V M Kovalzon, L S Moiseenko, A V Ambaryan, S Kurtenbach, V I Shestopalov, Y V Panchin
Pannexins are membrane channel proteins that play a role in a number of critical biological processes (Panchin et al., 2000; Shestopalov, Panchin, 2008). Among other cellular functions, pannexin hemichannels serve as purine nucleoside conduits providing ATP efflux into the extracellular space (Dahl, 2015), where it is rapidly degraded to adenosine. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is abundantly expressed in the brain and has been shown to contribute to adenosine signaling in nervous system tissues (Prochnow, 2012)...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Yangyang Gan, Quanqing Zhang, Yajing Chen, Yiman Zhao, Zhichao Xiong, Lingyi Zhang, Weibing Zhang
Highly sensitive and selective enrichment of endogenous peptides or proteins from complex bio-system takes a significant important place to the proteomic. In this work, a unique Fe3O4@2SiO2@mSiO2-C nanomaterial was synthesized, contributing to the separation and enrichment of low concentration peptides from complex mixture. The highly ordered mesoporous carbon structure render the nanospheres with unique properties of strongly connected pore channels, strong hydrophobic properties, high specific surface area (254...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Kirilka Mladenova, Svetla D Petrova, Tonya D Andreeva, Veselina Moskova-Doumanova, Tanya Topouzova-Hristova, Yuri Kalvachev, Konstantin Balashev, Shomi S Bhattacharya, Christina Chakarova, Zdravko Lalchev, Jordan A Doumanov
Human bestrophin-1 (hBest1) is a transmembrane calcium-activated chloride channel protein - member of the bestrophin family of anion channels, predominantly expressed in the membrane of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Mutations in the protein cause ocular diseases, named Bestrophinopathies. Here, we present the first Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study of the secondary structure elements of hBest1, π/A isotherms and hysteresis, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) visualization of the aggregation state of protein molecules dispersed as Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Junting Huang, Gerald W Zamponi
Calcium entry via voltage gated calcium channels mediates a wide range of physiological functions, whereas calcium channel dysregulation has been associated with numerous pathophysiological conditions. There are myriad cell signaling pathways that act on voltage gated calcium channels to fine tune their activities and to regulate their cell surface expression. These regulatory mechanisms include the activation of G protein-coupled receptors and downstream phosphorylation events, and their control over calcium channel trafficking through direct physical interactions...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Narges Abdali, Jerry Matthew Parks, Keith Haynes, Julie L Chaney, Adam T Green, David Wolloscheck, John K Walker, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jerome Yves Baudry, Jeremy C Smith, Helen I Zgurskaya
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for development of effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. Here, we describe EPIs that interact with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel...
October 21, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Katrin Feldbauer, Jan Schlegel, Juliane Weissbecker, Frank Sauer, Phillip G Wood, Ernst Bamberg, Ulrich Terpitz
An optochemokine tandem was developed to control the release of calcium from endosomes into the cytosol by light and to analyze the internalization kinetics of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by electrophysiology. A previously constructed rhodopsin tandem was re-engineered to combine the light-gated Ca2+-permeable cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2(L132C), CatCh, with the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in a functional tandem protein tCXCR4/CatCh. The GPCR was used as a shuttle protein to displace CatCh from the plasma membrane into intracellular areas...
2016: PloS One
Benoîte Bourdin, Emilie Segura, Marie-Philippe Tétreault, Sylvie Lesage, Lucie Parent
Inherited or de novo mutations in cation-selective channels may lead to sudden cardiac death. Alteration in the plasma membrane trafficking of these multi-spanning transmembrane proteins, with or without change in channel gating, is often postulated to contribute significantly in this process. It has thus become critical to develop a method to quantify the change of the relative cell surface expression of cardiac ion channels on a large scale. Herein, a detailed protocol is provided to determine the relative total and cell surface expression of cardiac L-type calcium channels CaV1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Wenqi Yang, Wei Zhang, Xiaoxue Wang
The plant phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays significant roles in integrating environmental signals with embryogenesis, germination, seedling establishment, the floral transition, and the adaptation of plants to stressful environments by modulating stomatal movement and stress-responsive gene expression. ABA signaling consists of ABA perception, signal transduction, and ABA-induced responses. ABA receptors such as members of the PYR/PYL family, group A type 2C protein phosphatases (as negative regulators), SnRK2 protein kinases (as positive regulators), bZIP transcription factors, and ion channels are key components of ABA signaling...
October 21, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Lois Choy, Jie Ming Yeo, Vivian Tse, Shing Po Chan, Gary Tse
The mouse is the second mammalian species, after the human, in which substantial amount of the genomic information has been analyzed. With advances in transgenic technology, mutagenesis is now much easier to carry out in mice. Consequently, an increasing number of transgenic mouse systems have been generated for the study of cardiac arrhythmias in ion channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Mouse hearts are also amenable to physical manipulation such as coronary artery ligation and transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure, radiofrequency ablation of the AV node to model complete AV block and even implantation of a miniature pacemaker to induce cardiac dyssynchrony...
September 2016: IJC Heart & Vasculature
Jinping Shao, Jing Cao, Jiannan Wang, Xiuhua Ren, Songxue Su, Ming Li, Zhihua Li, Qingzan Zhao, Weidong Zang
Voltage-gated sodium channels, which are involved in pain pathways, have emerged as major targets for therapeutic intervention in pain disorders. Nav1.7, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel isoform encoded by SCN9A and predominantly expressed in pain-sensing neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, plays a crucial role in nociception. MicroRNAs are highly conserved, small non-coding RNAs. Through binding to the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs, microRNAs induce the cleavage and/or inhibition of protein translation...
2016: Molecular Pain
Sha-Sha Huang, Qiu-Bing Zhang, Qing-Yan Yuan, Si-Li He, Yuan-Ming Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Activation of T lymphocytes, for which potassium channels are essential, is involved in the development of hypertension. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects of telmisartan on the culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes derived from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension. METHODS: CD4(+) T-cell samples from hypertensive Kazakh patients and healthy Kazakh people were divided into healthy control, case control, telmisartan, and 4-aminopytidine groups...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Stefano Fiorucci, Angela Zampella, Giuseppe Cirino, Mariarosaria Bucci, Eleonora Distrutti
Bile acids are end product of cholesterol metabolism generated in the liver and released in the intestine. In addition to their role in nutrient absorption, bile acids are increasingly recognized as regulatory signals which exert their function beyond the intestine by activating a network of membrane and nuclear receptors. The best characterized of these bile acid activated receptors, GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) and the Farnesosid-x-receptor (FXR) have also been detected in the vascular system and their activation mediate the vasodilatory effects of bile acids in the systemic and splanchnic circulation...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Sheng-Jie Shiue, Chi-Hsu Wang, Tao-Yeuan Wang, Yi-Chun Chen, Jen-Kun Cheng
OBJECTIVE: T-type channel (TCC) CaV3.2 plays a pivotal role in pain transmission. In this study, we examined the effects of intrathecal TCC blockers on CaV3.2 expression in a L5/6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model. The neurotoxicity of TCC blockers were also evaluated. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were used for right L5/6 SNL to induce neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of saline or TCC blockers [mibefradil (0.7 μg/h) or ethosuximide (60 μg/h)] was started after surgery for 7 days...
October 17, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists
Suxu Tan, Jun Yao, Tao Zhou, Shikai Liu, Zihao Yuan, Changxu Tian, Qi Li, Zhanjiang Liu
The Rho family GTPases are a group of small monomeric G proteins, which are molecular switches in signaling pathways. They have been known to regulate a diverse range of cellular processes including actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and microtubule dynamics. In particular, their participations in immune responses are also significant. However, little information of the Rho GTPases is available in teleost including channel catfish, an economically important species and one of the best teleost models for immune research...
October 17, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Fahima Syeda, Andrew P Holmes, Ting Y Yu, Samantha Tull, Stefan Michael Kuhlmann, Davor Pavlovic, Daniel Betney, Genna Riley, Jan P Kucera, Florian Jousset, Joris R de Groot, Stephan Rohr, Nigel A Brown, Larissa Fabritz, Paulus Kirchhof
BACKGROUND: Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used to treat patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanisms conveying their variable effectiveness are not known. Recent data suggested that paired like homeodomain-2 transcription factor (PITX2) might play an important role in regulating gene expression and electrical function of the adult left atrium (LA). OBJECTIVES: After determining LA PITX2 expression in AF patients requiring rhythm control therapy, the authors assessed the effects of Pitx2c on LA electrophysiology and the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Toshiaki Okada, Md Rafiqul Islam, Nargiza A Tsiferova, Yasunobu Okada, Ravshan Z Sabirov
The broadly expressed volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion channel (VSOR, also called VRAC) plays essential roles in cell survival and death. Recent findings have suggested that LRRC8A is a core component of VSOR in human cells. In the present study, VSOR currents were found to be largely reduced by siRNA against LRRC8A in mouse C127 cells as well. In contrast, LRRC8A knockdown never affected activities of four other types of anion channel activated by acid, Ca(2+), patch excision or cAMP. While cisplatin-resistant KCP-4 cells poorly expressed endogenous VSOR activity, molecular expression levels of LRRC8A, LRRC8D and LRRC8E were indistinguishable between VSOR-deficient KCP-4 cells and the parental VSOR-rich KB cells...
October 20, 2016: Channels
Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Yong Cui, Huiming Li, Sihui Wu, Runzhen Zhao, Deyi Du, Yan Ding, Hongguang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Unsaturated oxidative formaldehyde is a noxious aldehyde in cigarette smoke that causes edematous acute lung injury. However, the mechanistic effects of formaldehyde on lung fluid transport are still poorly understood. We examined how formaldehyde regulates human epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in H441 and expressed in Xenopus oocytes and exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed that formaldehyde reduced mouse transalveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Formaldehyde caused a dose-dependent inhibition of amiloride-sensitive short-circuit Na(+) currents in H441 monolayers and of αβγ-ENaC channel activity in oocytes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
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