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Channel proteins

Jianjun Chang, Yan Ding, Zhiyu Zhou, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Transepithelial fluid and salt re-absorption in epithelial tissues play an important role in fluid and salt homeostasis. In absorptive epithelium, fluid and salt flux is controlled by machinery mainly composed of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), aquaporin, and sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase). Dysregulation of fluid and salt transport across epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as pulmonary edema and cystic fibrosis...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fırat Kurt, Ertugrul Filiz
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant life. Its deficiency impedes growth and development and excessive iron can cause the toxic effect via the Fenton reaction. Thus, plants have developed various mechanisms to acquire, distribute and utilize Fe for the maintenance of their iron homeostasis at cellular and systemic levels. A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family plays essential roles in many regulatory and development processes in plants. In this study, we aimed to understand the roles of bHLH38, bHLH39, bHLH100 and bHLH101 genes for Fe homeostasis in Arabidopsis, tomato, rice, soybean and maize species by using bioinformatics approaches...
March 15, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Ken Matsui, Makoto Ozawa, Maki Kiso, Makoto Yamashita, Toshihiko Maekawa, Minoru Kubota, Sumio Sugano, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Influenza A viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. The emergence of viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel inhibitors underlines the need for alternate anti-influenza drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Here, we report the discovery of a host factor as a potential target of anti-influenza drugs. By using cell-based virus replication screening of a chemical library and several additional assays, we identified clonidine as a new anti-influenza agent in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mirko Moroni, M Rocio Servin-Vences, Raluca Fleischer, Oscar Sánchez-Carranza, Gary R Lewin
Mechanosensitive PIEZO ion channels are evolutionarily conserved proteins whose presence is critical for normal physiology in multicellular organisms. Here we show that, in addition to mechanical stimuli, PIEZO channels are also powerfully modulated by voltage and can even switch to a purely voltage-gated mode. Mutations that cause human diseases, such as xerocytosis, profoundly shift voltage sensitivity of PIEZO1 channels toward the resting membrane potential and strongly promote voltage gating. Voltage modulation may be explained by the presence of an inactivation gate in the pore, the opening of which is promoted by outward permeation...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Zhihan Zhao, Huan Lan, Xin Li, Gökhan Yücel, Siegfried Lang, Katherine Sattler, Jan-Dierk Schünemann, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Lukas Cyganek, Jochen Utikal, Thomas Wieland, Karen Bieback, Ralf Bauer, Antonius Ratte, Regina Pribe-Wolferts, Kleopatra Rapti, Daniel Nowak, Janina Wittig, Dierk Thomas, Patrick Most, Hugo A Katus, Ursula Ravens, Constanze Schmidt, Martin Borggrefe, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Oliver J Müller, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a heritable group of genetically determined disorders with a primary involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature with partially cardiac manifestation, such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and life-threatening tachyarrhythmia. We report here that human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes from a patient with LGMD2I and DCM associated with recurrent ventricular tachycardia displayed ion channel dysfunction and abnormality of calcium homeostasis...
March 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
Guang-Zhe Huang, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Ye-Bo Zhou, Jing-Ji Zhang, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
The formation of mate recognition memory in mice is associated with neural changes at the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses between glutamatergic mitral cell (MC) projection neurons and GABAergic granule cell (GC) interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Although noradrenaline (NA) plays a critical role in the formation of the memory, the mechanism by which it exerts this effect remains unclear. Here we used extracellular field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to assess the actions of bath-applied NA (10 µM) on the glutamatergic transmission and its plasticity at the MC-to-GC synapse in the AOB...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Gi Young Lee, Deok-Gyun You, Hye-Ra Lee, Sun Wook Hwang, C Justin Lee, Young Do Yoo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial inner membrane protein known to regulate mitochondrial ROS production and to act as an essential redox sensor in mitochondrial dynamics. Although its physiological roles have been studied for a decade, the biophysical mechanisms that explain these activities of Romo1 are unclear. In this study, we report that Romo1 is a unique mitochondrial ion channel that differs from currently identified eukaryotic ion channels. Romo1 is a highly conserved protein with structural features of class II viroporins, which are virus-encoded nonselective cation channels...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Bailin Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Xiang Li, Yanping Liu, Xueqin Feng, Xueyi Chen, Xiaorong Fan, Yingying Zhang, Wenna Zhang, Jiaqi Tang, Xiuwen Zhou, Na Li, Xiyuan Lu, Zhice Xu
BACKGROUND: Prenatal hypoxia is suggested to be associated with increased risks of hypertension in offspring. This study tested whether prenatal hypoxia resulted in salt-sensitive offspring and its related mechanisms of vascular ion channel remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant rats were housed in a normoxic (21% O2 ) or hypoxic (10.5% O2 ) chamber from gestation days 5 to 21. A subset of male offspring received a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) from 4 to 12 weeks after birth...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jasmin L Whittaker, Rajkamal Balu, Robert Knott, Liliana de Campo, Jitendra P Mata, Christine Rehm, Anita J Hill, Naba K Dutta, Namita Roy Choudhury
Regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin (RSF) is a widely recognized protein for biomedical applications; however, their hierarchical gel structures are poorly understood. In this paper, the hierarchical structure of photocrosslinked RSF and RSF-based hybrid hydrogel systems: (i) RSF/Rec1-resilin and (ii) RSF/poly(N-vinylcaprolactam (PVCL) is reported for the first time using small-angle scattering (SAS) techniques. The structure of RSF in dilute to concentrated solution to fabricated hydrogels were characterized using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS) techniques...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Phu Hai Nguyen, Erika I Lutter, Ted Hackstadt
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion. At the end of their intracellular developmental cycle, chlamydiae are released either by lysis of the host cell or extrusion of the intact inclusion. The inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted inclusion membrane proteins, Incs, which contribute to inclusion membrane structure and facilitate host-pathogen interactions. An interaction was identified between the inclusion membrane protein, MrcA, and the Ca2+ channel inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 (ITPR3)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Charles E Norton, Steven S Segal
The sensory neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is associated with vasodilation of systemic arteries through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), however its effects on endothelial cell (EC) membrane potential (Vm) are unresolved. In pulmonary arteries (PAs) of C57BL/6J mice, we questioned whether CGRP would hyperpolarize ECs as well as SMCs. Intact PAs were isolated and immunostained for CGRP to confirm sensory innervation; vessel segments (length, 1-2 mm; diameter ∼150 µm) with intact or denuded endothelium were cannulated and pressurized to 16 cm H2O at 37{degree sign}C...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Teresa Cruz-Bustos, Silvia N J Moreno, Roberto Docampo
Membrane proteins in trypanosomatids are, in general, weakly expressed and confirmation of their subcellular localization frequently requires their overexpression with epitope tags. However, overexpression can lead to mislocalization of the probes. Viswanathan et al. (Nat. Methods, 2015) described high performance tags for localization of weakly expressed proteins. We report here the use of these protein tags, named "spaghetti monster", for CRISPR /Cas9-mediated C-terminal endogenous tagging of Trypanosoma cruzi to localize two weakly expressed transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to acidic compartments...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Dehbia Benkerrou, Matteo Ceccarelli
One of the greatest health threats facing modern medicine is the emergence of new bacterial strains which are increasingly resistant to almost all currently available antibiotics. According to a CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) report published in 2013, 63% of Acinetobacter species have been identified as Multidrug resistant strains. As for other Gram-negative bacteria, the presence of an outer membrane increases the intrinsic resistance of A. baumannii to most antibiotics. The outer membrane of A...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Justine Marchand, Parisa Heydarizadeh, Benoît Schoefs, Cornelia Spetea
Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast subcompartments. In secondarily evolved algae, three or four envelope membranes surround the chloroplast, making more complex the exchange of ions and metabolites...
March 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Antonios Drakopoulos, Christina Tzitzoglaki, Kelly McGuire, Anja Hoffmann, Athina Konstantinidi, Dimitrios Kolokouris, Chunlong Ma, Kathrin Freudenberger, Johanna Hutterer, Günter Gauglitz, Jun Wang, Michaela Schmidtke, David D Busath, Antonios Kolocouris
Recently, the binding kinetics of a ligand-target interaction, such as the residence time of a small molecule on its protein target, are seen as increasingly important for drug efficacy. Here, we investigate these concepts to explain binding and proton blockage of rimantadine variants bearing progressively larger alkyl groups to influenza A virus M2 wild type (WT) and M2 S31N protein proton channel. We showed that resistance of M2 S31N to rimantadine analogues compared to M2 WT resulted from their higher k off rates compared to the k on rates according to electrophysiology (EP) measurements...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Tao Liu, Yixiang Liao, Huangheng Tao, Jinmin Zeng, Gang Wang, Zhonghua Yang, Yongzhi Wang, Yu Xiao, Jiajie Zhou, Xinghuan Wang
Several studies have shown that transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), which has been regarded as a novel prostate-specific marker, serves a key role in processes such as the proliferation, viability and cell migration of prostate cancer cells. Efforts have been made to uncover the potential role of targeting TRPM8 in the management of prostate cancer; it has been verified that TRPM8-targeted blockade, either by RNA interference-mediated depletion or specific TRPM8 inhibitors, could reduce the rate of proliferation and proliferative fraction, and induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Tatsuya Yamada, Makoto Nishiyama, Shigeyuki Oba, Henri Claver Jimbo, Kazushi Ikeda, Shin Ishii, Kyonsoo Hong, Yuichi Sakumura
Biological cells express intracellular biomolecular information to the extracellular environment as various physical responses. We show a novel computational approach to estimate intracellular biomolecular pathways from growth cone electrophysiological responses. Previously, it was shown that cGMP signaling regulates membrane potential (MP) shifts that control the growth cone turning direction during neuronal development. We present here an integrated deterministic mathematical model and Bayesian reversed-engineering framework that enables estimation of the molecular signaling pathway from electrical recordings and considers both the system uncertainty and cell-to-cell variability...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alan D Marmorstein, Adiv A Johnson, Lori A Bachman, Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch, Travis Knudsen, Benjamin J Gilles, Matthew Hill, Jarel K Gandhi, Lihua Y Marmorstein, Jose S Pulido
Autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) is caused by mutations in the gene BEST1 which encodes bestrophin 1 (Best1), an anion channel expressed in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. It has been hypothesized that ARB represents the human null phenotype for BEST1 and that this occurs due to nonsense mediated decay (NMD). To test this hypothesis, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient with ARB and her parents. After differentiation to retinal pigment epithelial (iPSC-RPE) cells, both BEST1 mRNA and Best1 protein expression were compared to controls...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christabel Y L Chan, Kum C Hiong, Mel V Boo, Celine Y L Choo, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
Giant clams live in nutrient-poor reef waters of the Indo-Pacific and rely on symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium spp., also known as zooxanthellae) for nutrients. As the symbionts are nitrogen deficient, the host clam has to absorb exogenous nitrogen and supply it to them. This study aimed to demonstrate light-enhanced urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa , and to clone and characterize the urea active transporter, DUR3-like, from its ctenidium (gill). Results indicate that T. squamosa could absorb exogenous urea, and the rate of urea uptake in light was significantly higher than that in darkness...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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