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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945014/a-reloadable-self-healing-hydrogel-enabling-diffusive-transport-of-c-dots-across-gel-gel-interface-for-scavenging-reactive-oxygen-species
#1
Jing Chen, Shuya Li, Ye Zhang, Wei Wang, Xiang Zhang, Yangyang Zhao, Yucai Wang, Hong Bi
While reloadable drug delivery platforms are highly prized for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, the gel-gel interface between hydrogels hinders the intergel diffusive transport of drugs and thus limits the application of hydrogels as reloadable depots. Here, this study reports the circumvention of this barrier by employing a self-healing hydrogel prepared from N-carboxyethyl chitosan and sodium alginate dialdehyde, which are cross-linked via a reversible Schiff base linkage. The injectable and bioadhesive hydrogel shows a rapid gelation time of 47 s...
September 25, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944941/proconvulsant-effect-of-papaverine-on-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-activity-in-rats
#2
Abdullah Hilmi Marangoz, Suleyman Emre Kocacan, Aydın Him, Enis Kuruoglu, Cengiz Cokluk, Cafer Marangoz
AIM: Papaverine is a vasodilator agent that is an opium alkaloid. It exhibits its effects by inhibiting phosphodiesterase enzyme. Papaverine administration is widely used to avoid symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We aim in this research to study the effects of papaverine on the epileptic discharges stimulated by penicillin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult female Wistar rats (220±30 g) were included in this research (n=30). Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1...
July 11, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944746/using-two-sex-life-tables-to-determine-fitness-parameters-of-four-bactrocera-species-diptera-tephritidae-reared-on-a-semi-artificial-diet
#3
W Jaleel, J Yin, D Wang, Y He, L Lu, H Shi
Fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera are global, economically important pests of agricultural food crops. However, basic life history information about these pests, which is vital for designing more effective control methods, is currently lacking. Artificial diets can be used as a suitable replacement for natural host plants for rearing fruit flies under laboratory conditions, and this study reports on the two-sex life-table parameters of four Bactrocera species (Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Bactrocera tau) reared on a semi-artificial diet comprising corn flour, banana, sodium benzoate, yeast, sucrose, winding paper, hydrochloric acid and water...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944427/morphological-changes-in-the-thymus-composition-of-its-cells-and-subpopulations-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-during-experimental-acute-ulcerative-colitis
#4
O V Makarova, E A Postovalova
Morphological changes in the thymus and composition of its cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied in experiments on C57Bl/6 mice with sodium dextran sulfate-induced acute ulcerative colitis. Severe acute ulcerative colitis in rats was accompanied by stage III-IV accidental involution of the thymus. This state was characterized by inversion of the layers, death of thymocytes, and increase in the number and area of thymic corpuscles from CK19(+) epithelial cells. Flow cytofluorometry revealed an increase in the relative number of F4/80(+) macrophages in the thymus stroma and CD4(-)CD8(-)CD45(+)CD11c(+) dendritic cells and CD326(+)UEA(+)CD205(-) epithelial cells in the medulla...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944412/a-head-to-head-comparison-of-4-l-polyethylene-glycol-and-low-volume-solutions-before-colonoscopy-which-is-the-best-a-multicentre-randomized-trial
#5
Vladimir Kojecky, Jan Matous, Radan Keil, Milan Dastych, Radek Kroupa, Zdena Zadorova, Michal Varga, Jiri Dolina, Milan Kment, Ales Hep
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and tolerability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (SPMC) and low-volume polyethylene glycol/ascorbic acid (PEGA) in a single- or split-dose regimen for colonoscopy bowel preparation. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, endoscopist-blinded, multicentre study. Outpatients received either PEG or SPMC or PEGA in a single or a split dose before the colonoscopy. Quality and tolerability of the preparation and complaints during preparation were recorded...
September 24, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944381/in-situ-nitrogen-doping-of-tio2-by-plasma-enhanced-atomic-layer-deposition-for-enhanced-sodium-storage-performance
#6
Jinhuan Lin, Dingtao Ma, Yongliang Li, Peixin Zhang, Hongwei Mi, Libo Deng, Lingna Sun, Xiangzhong Ren
Nitrogen-doped TiO2 is in situ synthesized by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition on carbon nanotubes (N-TiO2/CNTs). The prepared N-TiO2/CNT nanocomposites are employed as anode materials for sodium ion batteries. The specific capacity of an N-TiO2/CNT electrode is 1.45 times higher than that of a TiO2/CNT electrode at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles. It is demonstrated that N-TiO2/CNTs are more effective in an electrochemical Na cell due to the enhanced kinetics which results from the nitrogen-doping and the amorphous feature...
September 25, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944301/intravenous-rehydration-of-malnourished-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-and-severe-dehydration-a-systematic-review
#7
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
Background: Rehydration strategies in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and severe dehydration are extremely cautious. The World Health Organization (WHO) SAM guidelines advise strongly against intravenous fluids unless the child is shocked or severely dehydrated and unable to tolerate oral fluids. Otherwise, guidelines recommend oral or nasogastric rehydration using low sodium oral rehydration solutions. There is limited evidence to support these recommendations. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on 15 (th) June 2017 comparing different strategies of rehydration therapy in children with acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydration, specifically relating to intravenous rehydration, using standard search terms...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944017/does-salt-stress-constrain-spatial-distribution-of-dune-building-grasses-ammophila-arenaria-and-elytrichia-juncea-on-the-beach
#8
Marinka E B van Puijenbroek, Corry Teichmann, Noortje Meijdam, Imma Oliveras, Frank Berendse, Juul Limpens
Rising sea levels threaten coastal safety by increasing the risk of flooding. Coastal dunes provide a natural form of coastal protection. Understanding drivers that constrain early development of dunes is necessary to assess whether dune development may keep pace with sea-level rise. In this study, we explored to what extent salt stress experienced by dune building plant species constrains their spatial distribution at the Dutch sandy coast. We conducted a field transplantation experiment and a glasshouse experiment with two dune building grasses Ammophila arenaria and Elytrigia juncea...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944006/regulation-of-gene-expression-is-associated-with-tolerance-of-the-arctic-copepod-calanus-glacialis-to-co2-acidified-sea-water
#9
Allison Bailey, Pierre De Wit, Peter Thor, Howard I Browman, Reidun Bjelland, Steven Shema, David M Fields, Jeffrey A Runge, Cameron Thompson, Haakon Hop
Ocean acidification is the increase in seawater pCO 2 due to the uptake of atmospheric anthropogenic CO 2, with the largest changes predicted to occur in the Arctic seas. For some marine organisms, this change in pCO 2, and associated decrease in pH, represents a climate change-related stressor. In this study, we investigated the gene expression patterns of nauplii of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis cultured at low pH levels. We have previously shown that organismal-level performance (development, growth, respiration) of C...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943936/nhe1-has-a-notable-role-in-metastasis-and-drug-resistance-of-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#10
Ehtisham Altaf, Xiaoxing Huang, Jie Xiong, Xiangyong Yang, Xinzhou Deng, Meng Xiong, Lu Zhou, Shan Pan, Wen Yuan, Xinran Li, Ling Hao, Kingsley Miyanda Tembo, Ruijing Xiao, Qiuping Zhang
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) represents a spectrum of hematological malignancies that affect human health. Metastasis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance are the primary causes of mortality in patients with T-ALL. Sodium-hydrogen antiporter 1 (NHE1) is established to serve a role in metastasis and drug resistance in numerous types of cancer; however, the function of NHE1 in T-ALL remains to be elucidated. Previously, the C-C-motif chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25) was identified to be involved in metastasis and drug resistance in the MOLT4 T-ALL cell line, as was the ezrin protein...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943882/root-damage-under-alkaline-stress-is-associated-with-reactive-oxygen-species-accumulation-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#11
Hui Zhang, Xiao-Long Liu, Rui-Xue Zhang, Hai-Yan Yuan, Ming-Ming Wang, Hao-Yu Yang, Hong-Yuan Ma, Duo Liu, Chang-Jie Jiang, Zheng-Wei Liang
Alkaline stress (high pH) severely damages root cells, and consequently, inhibits rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling growth. In this study, we demonstrate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root cells under alkaline stress. Seedlings of two rice cultivars with different alkaline tolerances, 'Dongdao-4' (moderately alkaline-tolerant) and 'Jiudao-51' (alkaline-sensitive), were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 15 mM sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Alkaline stress greatly reduced seedling survival rate, shoot and root growth, and root vigor...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943756/slick-kcnt2-sodium-activated-potassium-channels-limit-peptidergic-nociceptor-excitability-and-hyperalgesia
#12
Danielle L Tomasello, Edward Hurley, Lawrence Wrabetz, Arin Bhattacharjee
The Slick (Kcnt2) sodium-activated potassium (KNa) channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV)-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943754/pinus-densiflora-bark-extract-prevents-selenite-induced-cataract-formation-in-the-lens-of-sprague-dawley-rat-pups
#13
Jun Kim, Se-Young Choung
PURPOSE: Rat pups treated with sodium selenite are typically used as an in vivo model to mimic age-related nuclear cataract. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, reduction of antioxidant enzymes, crystalline proteolysis, and apoptosis are considered factors that contribute to pathogenesis of age-related nuclear cataract. In the present study, we investigated whether Pinus densiflora bark extract has potential to prevent cataract formation and elucidated the underlying mechanism...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943665/the-intramolecular-click-reaction-using-carbocontiguous-precursors
#14
Pravin C Patil, Frederick A Luzzio
The synthesis and utilization of all carbon-chain 'carbocontiguous' azidoalkynyl precursors for an intramolecular click reaction is described. The substrates contain both azidoalkyl and ethynylmethyl groups which are conjoined by a 2-(phenylsulfonylmethyl)-4,5-diphenyloxazole lynchpin and are suitably disposed for ring closure. On promotion by copper salts, a number of cyclic click products having the 1,4-disubstituted endo-fused triazole component and the 4,5-diphenyloxazole component are obtained. In one case, removal of the phenylsulfonylmethyl group from the substrate prior to cyclization gave the 1,5-disubstituted exo-fused triazole...
July 20, 2017: Tetrahedron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943585/the-outcome-of-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites-is-improved-by-the-normalization-of-the-serum-sodium-level-by-tolvaptan
#15
Tomomi Kogiso, Mutsuki Kobayashi, Kuniko Yamamoto, Yuichi Ikarashi, Kazuhisa Kodama, Makiko Taniai, Nobuyuki Torii, Etsuko Hashimoto, Katsutoshi Tokushige
Objectives Hyponatremia is frequently observed in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and it is also related to a poor prognosis. The vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan is used to treat cirrhotic patients with ascites and increases the serum sodium (Na) level. In this study, we investigated (i) whether or not correction of the Na level improves the prognosis of cirrhotic patients with ascites and (ii) predictors of normalization of the serum Na level after tolvaptan therapy. Methods This was a single-center retrospective study...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943445/the-effects-of-cissampelos-pareira-extract-on-envenomation-induced-by-bothropsdiporus-snake-venom
#16
Bárbara Ricciardi Verrastro, Ana Maria Torres, Gabriela Ricciardi, Pamela Teibler, Silvana Maruñak, Chiara Barnaba, Roberto Larcher, Giorgio Nicolini, Eduardo Dellacassa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophidian accidents are a serious public health problem in Argentina; the Bothrops species is responsible for 97% of these accidents, and in particular, B. diporus is responsible for 80% of them. In the northeast of the country (Corrientes Provinces), Cissampelos pareira L. (Menispermaceae) is commonly used against the venom of B. diporus; its use is described in almost all ethnobotanical literature from countries where the plant grows,. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antivenom activities of C...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943442/the-quest-for-exceptional-drug-solubilization-in-diluted-surfactant-solutions-and-consideration-of-residual-solid-state
#17
Wiebke Saal, Nicole Wyttenbach, Jochem Alsenz, Martin Kuentz
Solubility screening in different surfactant solutions is an important part of pharmaceutical profiling. A particular interest is in low surfactant concentrations that mimic the dilution of an oral dosage form. Despite of intensive previous research on solubilization in micelles, there is only limited data available at low surfactant concentrations and generally missing is a physical state analysis of the residual solid. The present work therefore studied 13 model drugs in 6 different oral surfactant solutions (0...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942951/the-algorithmic-performance-of-j-tpeak-for-drug-safety-clinical-trial
#18
Simon C Chien, Richard E Gregg
INTRODUCTION: The interval from J-point to T-wave peak (JTp) in ECG is a new biomarker able to identify drugs that prolong the QT interval but have different ion channel effects. If JTp is not prolonged, the prolonged QT may be associated with multi ion channel block that may have low torsade de pointes risk. From the automatic ECG measurement perspective, accurate and repeatable measurement of JTp involves different challenges than QT. We evaluated algorithm performance and JTp challenges using the Philips DXL diagnostic 12/16/18-lead algorithm...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942789/the-role-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Oren Steen, Ronald M Goldenberg
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGTL2) inhibitors are a novel class of antihyperglycemic agents that work in an insulin-independent manner by promoting urinary glucose excretion. In addition to efficacious glucose lowering, they exert beneficial effects on blood pressure and weight while avoiding hypoglycemia unless combined with insulin or insulin secretagogues. This review explores the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, their effects on glycated hemoglobin, weight, blood pressure and hypoglycemia, potential adverse effects, renal considerations and cardiovascular outcomes...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942641/extracting-aggregation-free-energies-of-mixed-clusters-from-simulations-of-small-systems-application-to-ionic-surfactant-micelles
#20
Xiaokun Zhang, Lara A Patel, Olivia Beckwith, Robert Schneider, Christopher J Weeden, James T Kindt
Micelle cluster distributions from molecular dynamics simulations of a solvent-free coarse-grained model of sodium octyl sulfate (SOS) have been analyzed using an improved method to extract equilibrium association constants from small-system simulations, containing one or two micelle clusters at equilibrium with free surfactants and counterions. The statistical-thermodynamic and mathematical foundations of this "Partition-Enabled Analysis of Cluster Histograms" (PEACH) approach are presented. A dramatic reduction in computational time for analysis is achieved through a strategy similar to the "selector variable method" to circumvent the need for exhaustive enumeration of the possible partitions of surfactants and counterions into clusters...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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