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Chaperones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040738/nf90-nf45-is-a-selective-rna-chaperone-that-rearranges-viral-and-cellular-riboswitches-biochemical-analysis-of-a-virus-host-factor-activity
#1
Tobias Schmidt, Susann Friedrich, Ralph Peter Golbik, Sven-Erik Behrens
The heterodimer NF90-NF45 is an RNA-binding protein complex that modulates the expression of various cellular mRNAs on the post-transcriptional level. Furthermore, it acts as a host factor that supports the replication of several RNA viruses. The molecular mechanisms underlying these activities have yet to be elucidated. Recently, we showed that the RNA-binding capabilities and binding specificity of NF90 considerably improves when it forms a complex with NF45. Here, we demonstrate that NF90 has a substrate-selective RNA chaperone activity (RCA) involving RNA annealing and strand displacement activities...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036702/a-hyperdynamic-h3-3-nucleosome-marks-promoter-regions-in-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Sharon Schlesinger, Binyamin Kaffe, Shai Melcer, Jose D Aguilera, Divya M Sivaraman, Tommy Kaplan, Eran Meshorer
Histone variants and their chaperones are key regulators of eukaryotic transcription, and are critical for normal development. The histone variant H3.3 has been shown to play important roles in pluripotency and differentiation, and although its genome-wide patterns have been investigated, little is known about the role of its dynamic turnover in transcriptional regulation. To elucidate the role of H3.3 dynamics in embryonic stem cell (ESC) biology, we generated mouse ESC lines carrying a single copy of a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible HA-tagged version of H3...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036673/enhanced-desiccation-tolerance-in-mature-cultures-of-the-streptophytic-green-alga-zygnema-circumcarinatum-revealed-by-transcriptomics
#3
Martin Rippin, Burkhard Becker, Andreas Holzinger
Desiccation tolerance is commonly regarded as one of the key features for the colonization of terrestrial habitats by green algae and the evolution of land plants. Extensive studies, focused mostly on physiology, have been carried out assessing the desiccation tolerance and resilience of the streptophytic genera Klebsormidium and Zygnema. Here we present transcriptomic analyses of Zygnema circumcarinatum exposed to desiccation stress. Cultures of Z. circumcarinatum, grown in liquid medium or on agar plates, were desiccated at ∼86% relative air humidity until Y(II) ceased...
September 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036198/the-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-hpk-1-preserves-protein-homeostasis-and-longevity-through-master-regulatory-control-of-the-hsf-1-chaperone-network-and-torc1-restricted-autophagy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Ritika Das, Justine A Melo, Manjunatha Thondamal, Elizabeth A Morton, Adam B Cornwell, Beresford Crick, Joung Heon Kim, Elliot W Swartz, Todd Lamitina, Peter M Douglas, Andrew V Samuelson
An extensive proteostatic network comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms functions collectively to preserve the integrity and resiliency of the proteome. The efficacy of this network deteriorates during aging, coinciding with many clinical manifestations, including protein aggregation diseases of the nervous system. A decline in proteostasis can be delayed through the activation of cytoprotective transcriptional responses, which are sensitive to environmental stress and internal metabolic and physiological cues...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035148/treatment-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-with-sirna-against-a-collagen-specific-chaperone-hsp47-in-vitamin-a-coupled-liposomes
#5
Mitsuo Otsuka, Masanori Shiratori, Hirofumi Chiba, Koji Kuronuma, Yasushi Sato, Yoshiro Niitsu, Hiroki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a life-threatening pathological state of progressive interstitial lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Myofibroblasts are known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) on a collagen-specific chaperone heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). The siRNA was preferentially delivered to myofibroblasts in a bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis rat model using siRNA against HSP47, encapsulated in a vitamin A-coupled liposome (VA-lip-siRNA HSP47)...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034944/power-of-protein-trna-functional-assembly-against-aberrant-aggregation
#6
Charles Bou-Nader, Ludovic Pecqueur, David Cornu, Murielle Lombard, Manuela Dezi, Magali Nicaise, Christophe Velours, Marc Fontecave, Djemel Hamdane
Understanding the mechanisms of protein oligomerization and aggregation is a major concern for biotechnology and medical purposes. However, significant challenges remain in determining the mechanism of formation of these superstructures and the environmental factors that can precisely modulate them. Notably the role that a functional ligand plays in the process of protein aggregation is largely unexplored. We herein address these issues with an original flavin-dependent RNA methyltransferase (TrmFO) used as a protein model since this protein employs a complex set of cofactors and ligands for catalysis...
October 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034805/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-effect-of-matrix-molecules-on-the-behavior-of-colon-cancer-cells-under-the-effect-of-geldanamycin-derivative
#7
Kamil Vural, Funda Kosova, Feyzan Özdal Kurt, İbrahim Tuğlu
The chaperone-binding drug, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, has recently come into clinical use. It is a derivative of geldanamycin, an ansamycin benzoquinone antibiotic with anti-carcinogenic effect. Understanding the effect of this drug on the cancer cells and their niche is important for treatment. We applied 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin to colon cancer cell line (Colo 205) on matrix molecules to investigate the relationship of apoptosis with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling immunocytochemistry and related gene expression...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033324/the-elongation-factor-spt6-maintains-esc-pluripotency-by-controlling-super-enhancers-and-counteracting-polycomb-proteins
#8
A Hongjun Wang, Aster H Juan, Kyung Dae Ko, Pei-Fang Tsai, Hossein Zare, Stefania Dell'Orso, Vittorio Sartorelli
Spt6 coordinates nucleosome dis- and re-assembly, transcriptional elongation, and mRNA processing. Here, we report that depleting Spt6 in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) reduced expression of pluripotency factors, increased expression of cell-lineage-affiliated developmental regulators, and induced cell morphological and biochemical changes indicative of ESC differentiation. Selective downregulation of pluripotency factors upon Spt6 depletion may be mechanistically explained by its enrichment at ESC super-enhancers, where Spt6 controls histone H3K27 acetylation and methylation and super-enhancer RNA transcription...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032941/ferritin-iron-regulators-pcbp1-and-ncoa4-respond-to-cellular-iron-status-in-developing-red-cells
#9
Moon-Suhn Ryu, Kari A Duck, Caroline C Philpott
Developing red blood cells exhibit multiple, redundant systems for regulating and coordinating the uptake of iron, the synthesis of heme, and the formation of hemoglobin during terminal differentiation. We recently described the roles of poly rC-binding protein (PCBP1) and nuclear coactivator 4 (NCOA4) in mediating the flux of iron through ferritin in developing erythroid cells, with PCBP1, an iron chaperone, delivering iron to ferritin and NCOA4, an autophagic cargo receptor, directing ferritin to the lysosome for degradation and iron release...
September 28, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032399/evidence-of-extracellular-vesicles-biogenesis-and-release-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Lilian Cruz, Jenny Andrea Arevalo Romero, Mariana Brandão Prado, Tiago G Santos, Marilene Hohmuth Lopes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are considered a source of bioactive molecules that modulate their microenvironment by acting on intercellular communication. Either intracellular endosomal machinery or their derived EVs have been considered a relevant system of signal circuits processing. Herein, we show that these features are found in mESCs. Ultrastructural analysis revealed structures and organelles of the endosomal system such as coated pits and endocytosis-related vesicles, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) containing either few or many intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that could be released as exosomes to extracellular milieu...
October 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032010/dual-effects-of-insect-nachr-chaperone-ric-3-on-hybrid-receptor-promoting-assembly-on-endoplasmic-reticulum-but-suppressing-transport-to-plasma-membrane-on-xenopus-oocytes
#11
Haibo Bao, Xixia Xu, Wei Liu, Na Yu, Zewen Liu
Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase (RIC) -3 promotes the maturation (folding and assembly) of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) as a molecular chaperone. The modulation effects of RIC-3 on homomeric α7 nAChRs are always positive, but its effects on heteromeric subtypes are inconsistent among reports. In this study, five RIC-3 isoforms were identified from Locusta migratoria. Four isoforms showed obvious effects on hybrid receptor Locα1/rβ2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. As a representative, the co-expression of RIC-3v4 exhibited the decreased agonist responses (Imax) on oocytes, lower specific [(3)H]epibatidine binding (Bmax) on plasma membrane protein (PMP), and reduced subunit levels in PMP, which showed that the mature Locα1/rβ2 on the plasma membrane was decreased by the co-expression of RIC-3...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030847/single-molecule-analysis-for-risc-assembly-and-target-cleavage
#12
Hiroshi M Sasaki, Hisashi Tadakuma, Yukihide Tomari
RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a small RNA-protein complex that mediates silencing of complementary target RNAs. Biochemistry has been successfully used to characterize the molecular mechanism of RISC assembly and function for nearly two decades. However, further dissection of intermediate states during the reactions has been warranted to fill in the gaps in our understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms. Single-molecule analysis with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful imaging-based approach to interrogate complex formation and dynamics at the individual molecule level with high sensitivity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028830/er-stress-and-subsequent-activated-calpain-play-a-pivotal-role-in-skeletal-muscle-wasting-after-severe-burn-injury
#13
Li Ma, Wanli Chu, Jiake Chai, Chuanan Shen, Dawei Li, Xiaoteng Wang
Severe burns are typically followed by hypermetabolism characterized by significant muscle wasting, which causes considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle damage/wasting post-burn. Rats were randomized to the sham, sham+4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, a pharmacological chaperone promoting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) folding/trafficking, commonly considered as an inhibitor of ER), burn (30% total body surface area), and burn+4-PBA groups; and sacrificed at 1, 4, 7, 14 days after the burn injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028811/elevated-expression-of-hsp10-protein-inhibits-apoptosis-and-associates-with-poor-prognosis-of-astrocytoma
#14
Weibing Fan, Shuang-Shi Fan, Juan Feng, Desheng Xiao, Songqing Fan, Jiadi Luo
Astrocytoma is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor, with pretty lowly 5-year survival rate in patients. Although extended surgical removal of the tumor and postoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy executed, still there is large recurrence rate, mainly because diffuse glioma tumor cells ubiquitously infiltrate into normal parenchyma. So it becomes a priority to hunt novel molecular and signaling pathway targets to suppress astrocyma progression. HSP10, an important member of Heat shock proteins (Hsps) family, classically works as molecular chaperone folding or degradating of target proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028003/bacterial-secretion-of-d-arginine-controls-environmental-microbial-biodiversity
#15
Laura Alvarez, Alena Aliashkevich, Miguel A de Pedro, Felipe Cava
Bacteria face tough competition in polymicrobial communities. To persist in a specific niche, many species produce toxic extracellular effectors to interfere with the growth of nearby microbes. These effectors include the recently reported non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAAs). In Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, NCDAAs control cell wall integrity in stationary phase. Here, an analysis of the composition of the extracellular medium of V. cholerae revealed the unprecedented presence of D-Arg. Compared with other D-amino acids, D-Arg displayed higher potency and broader toxicity in terms of the number of bacterial species affected...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025996/structure-of-the-tapbpr-mhc-i-complex-defines-the-mechanism-of-peptide-loading-and-editing
#16
Christoph Thomas, Robert Tampé
Adaptive immunity is shaped by a selection of peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. The chaperones Tapasin (Tsn) and TAP-binding protein-related (TAPBPR) facilitate MHC I peptide loading and high-affinity epitope selection. Despite the pivotal role of Tsn and TAPBPR in controlling the hierarchical immune response, their catalytic mechanism remains unknown. Here, we present the X-ray structure of the TAPBPR-MHC I complex, which delineates the central step of catalysis...
October 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025991/crystal-structure-of-a-tapbpr-mhc-i-complex-reveals-the-mechanism-of-peptide-editing-in-antigen-presentation
#17
Jiansheng Jiang, Kannan Natarajan, Lisa F Boyd, Giora I Morozov, Michael G Mage, David H Margulies
Central to CD8(+) T-cell mediated immunity is the recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I (pMHC-I) proteins displayed by antigen-presenting cells. Chaperone-mediated loading of high-affinity peptides onto MHC-I is a key step in the MHC-I antigen presentation pathway. However, the structure of MHC-I with a chaperone that facilitates peptide loading has not been determined. We report the crystal structure of MHC-I in complex with the peptide editor TAPBPR (TAP binding protein, related), a tapasin homolog...
October 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025875/a-small-molecule-compound-inhibits-a-collagen-specific-molecular-chaperone-and-could-represent-a-potential-remedy-for-fibrosis
#18
Shinya Ito, Koji Ogawa, Koh Takeuchi, Motoki Takagi, Masahito Yoshida, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Shoshiro Hirayama, Kazuo Shin-Ya, Ichio Shimada, Takayuki Doi, Naoki Goshima, Tohru Natsume, Kazuhiro Nagata
Fibrosis can disrupt tissue structure and integrity and impair organ function. Fibrosis is characterized by abnormal collagen accumulation in the extracellular matrix. Pharmacological inhibition of collagen secretion therefore represents a promising strategy for the management of fibrotic disorders, such as liver and lung fibrosis. Hsp47 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident collagen-specific molecular chaperone essential for correct folding of procollagen in the ER. Genetic deletion of Hsp47 or inhibition of its interaction with procollagen interferes with procollagen triple helix production, which vastly reduces procollagen secretion from fibroblasts...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025872/sirtuins-regulate-proteomic-responses-near-thermal-tolerance-limits-in-the-blue-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-and-mytilus-trossulus
#19
M Christina Vasquez, Michelle Beam, Shelley Blackwell, Marcus J Zuzow, Lars Tomanek
The blue mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and M. trossulus are competing species with biogeographical ranges set in part by environmental exposure to heat and hyposalinity. The underlying cellular mechanisms influencing interspecific differences in stress tolerance are unknown, but are believed to be under regulation by sirtuins, NAD-dependent deacylases that play a critical role in the cellular stress response. A comparison of the proteomic responses of M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus to an acute heat shock in the presence and absence of the sirtuin inhibitor suramin (SIRT1, 2 and 5), showed that sirtuins affected molecular chaperones, oxidative stress proteins, metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal and signaling proteins more in the heat-sensitive M...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024862/4-phenylbutyrate-and-valproate-treatment-attenuates-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis-and-stabilizes-existing-plaques
#20
Aric Huang, Tayler L Young, Vi T Dang, Yuanyuan Shi, Cameron S McAlpine, Geoff H Werstuck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling through glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3α/β is involved in the activation of pro-atherosclerotic processes. In this study, we examined the effects of small molecules that interfere with ER stress-GSK3α/β signaling on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis in a mouse model. METHODS: To examine atherosclerotic progression, low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with the chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA, 3...
September 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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