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Ultra-fast insulin

Anna Ruszala, Malgorzata Wojcik, Agata Zygmunt-Gorska, Dominika Janus, Joanna Wojtys, Jerzy B Starzyk
PURPOSE: The metabolic effects of prepubertal low-dose estrogen replacement (LE) therapy in Turner syndrome (TS) have not been fully investigated to date. The present study aimed to compare glucose and lipids metabolism in adolescents with TS on LE and conventional estrogen replacement (CE). METHODS: In 14 TS (mean age 13.8), LE (17β-estradiol, 62.5 μg daily) was introduced before age 12 (mean age 10.5), and followed by a pubertal induction regimen after age 12, and in 14 CE was started after age 12 (mean 14, SD 1...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Douglas B Muchmore
Considerable progress in treatment of diabetes has been made in the nearly 100 years following the discovery of insulin, and advances in insulin therapy have improved convenience, quality of life, overall glycemic control (A1C), and risk of hypoglycemia. An unmet need remains for a mealtime insulin that can faithfully reproduce the metabolic profile that ensues following meal ingestion in healthy persons. A number of "ultra-fast" insulin programs have been initiated, and Afrezza® (insulin human; Inhalation Powder, MannKind Corporation, Danbury, CT) stands as the first such product to be approved by the US FDA...
January 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Ulrike Hövelmann, Tim Heise, Leszek Nosek, Bettina Sassenfeld, Karen Margrete Due Thomsen, Hanne Haahr
BACKGROUND: Fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is insulin aspart set in a new formulation with faster initial absorption after subcutaneous administration. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic properties, including the absolute bioavailability, of faster aspart when administered subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm or thigh. METHODS: In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial, 21 healthy male subjects received a single injection of faster aspart at five dosing visits: 0...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
Anna Wendt, Inês G Mollet, Anki Knutsson, Victor S Bolmgren, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Maria F Gomez, Lena Eliasson
Type 2 diabetic patients suffer from insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion. Osteopontin (OPN), a versatile protein expressed in several tissues throughout the body including the islets of Langerhans, has previously been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Here we have investigated the role of OPN in insulin secretion using an OPN knock out mouse model (OPN-/-). Ultra-structural analyzes of islets from OPN-/- and WT mice indicated weaker cell-cell connections between the islet cells in the OPN-/- mouse compared to WT...
2017: PloS One
Tim Heise, Ulrike Hövelmann, Eric Zijlstra, Kirstine Stender-Petersen, Jacob Bonde Jacobsen, Hanne Haahr
BACKGROUND: Due to population aging, an increasing number of elderly patients with diabetes use insulin. It is therefore important to investigate the characteristics of new insulins in this population. Faster-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is insulin aspart (IAsp) in a new formulation with faster absorption. This study investigated the pharmacological properties of faster aspart in elderly subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, two-period crossover trial, 30 elderly (≥65 years) and 37 younger adults (18-35 years) with T1DM received single subcutaneous faster aspart or IAsp dosing (0...
January 2017: Drugs & Aging
Mette V Østergaard, Vanda Pinto, Kirsty Stevenson, Jesper Worm, Lisbeth N Fink, Richard J M Coward
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of kidney failure in the world. To understand important mechanisms underlying this condition, and to develop new therapies, good animal models are required. In mouse models of type 1 diabetes, the DBA/2J strain has been shown to be more susceptible to develop kidney disease than other common strains. We hypothesized this would also be the case in type 2 diabetes. We studied db/db and wild-type (wt) DBA/2J mice and compared these with the db/db BLKS/J mouse, which is currently the most widely used type 2 DN model...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Tianlu Chen, Xiaojiao Zheng, Xiaojing Ma, Yuqian Bao, Yan Ni, Cheng Hu, Cynthia Rajani, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Weiping Jia, Wei Jia
Recently, 5 amino acids were identified and verified as important metabolites highly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) development. This report aims to assess the association of tryptophan with the development of T2D and to evaluate its performance with existing amino acid markers. A total of 213 participants selected from a ten-year longitudinal Shanghai Diabetes Study (SHDS) were examined in two ways: 1) 51 subjects who developed diabetes and 162 individuals who remained metabolically healthy in 10 years; 2) the same 51 future diabetes and 23 strictly matched ones selected from the 162 healthy individuals...
2016: PloS One
Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Zahra Sadeghi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Elnaz Vaghef-Mehrabany, Soodabeh Aliashrafi
BACKGROUND: Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) is reported to improve dyslipidemia and hypertension; however, its effect on inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance has not been noticed thus far. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a hepatic symptom of metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the current interventional trial, we aimed to study the effects of C. vulgaris supplementation on glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with NAFLD...
July 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Adham Mottalib, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd-Yusof, Mohamed Shehabeldin, David M Pober, Joanna Mitri, Osama Hamdy
Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order...
July 22, 2016: Nutrients
Qi Li, Wenbo Gu, Xuan Ma, Yuxin Liu, Lidan Jiang, Rennan Feng, Liyan Liu
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT...
June 21, 2016: Nutrients
Sebastián Dubó, David Gallegos, Lissette Cabrera, Luis Sobrevia, Leandro Zúñiga, Marcelo González
Impairment of insulin signaling on diabetes mellitus has been related to cardiovascular dysfunction, heart failure, and sudden death. In human endothelium, cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1) is related to the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and insulin has a vascular effect in endothelial cells through a signaling pathway that involves increases in hCAT-1 expression and L-arginine transport. This mechanism is disrupted in diabetes, a phenomenon potentiated by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to lower availability of NO and endothelial dysfunction...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Torben Biester, Thomas Danne, Sarah Bläsig, Kerstin Remus, Bärbel Aschemeier, Olga Kordonouri, Lars Bardtrum, Hanne Haahr
Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a soluble coformulation of long-acting insulin degludec and short-acting insulin aspart. This open-label, Phase 1 study aimed to determine the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of IDegAsp in children (6-11 yr), adolescents (12-17 yr), and adults (18-65 yr) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Thirty-eight subjects received single subcutaneous IDegAsp dosing (0.5 U/kg) immediately before a standardized liquid meal (17.3 g carbohydrates/100 mL; adjusted for body weight) followed by plasma glucose (PG) and pharmacokinetic blood sampling for 36 and 57 h, respectively...
January 18, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Eda Cengiz, Bruce Bode, Michelle Van Name, William V Tamborlane
Advances in insulin formulations have been important for diabetes management and achieving optimal glycemic control. Rapid-acting insulin analogs provide a faster time-action profile than regular insulin and are approved for use in pumps. However, the need remains for therapy to deliver a more physiologic insulin profile. New insulin formulations and delivery methods are in development, with the aim of accelerating insulin absorption to accomplish ultra-fast-acting insulin time-action profiles. Furthermore, the integration of continuous glucose monitoring with insulin pump therapy enables on-going adjustment of insulin delivery to optimize glycemic control throughout the day and night...
2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Łukasz Kaska, Monika Proczko, Piotr Wiśniewski, Marta Stankiewicz, Derek Gill, Zbigniew Śledziński
INTRODUCTION: Insulin resistance (IR), the essential step in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), resolves quickly after bariatric surgery, but the effectiveness depends on the type of the procedure. Although the long-term influence on IR improvement is well documented, the mechanisms of the ultra-fast response after restrictive and bypass procedures require explanation. AIM: To determine IR evolution from the initial preparative period to 6 months after the operation, exposing the rapid postoperative response while comparing the 3 bariatric methods, with the belief that the metabolic effect may be correlated with anatomical combinations...
July 2015: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
Hossam M Abdallah, Mohamed A Farag, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim, Salah A Ghareib, Essam A Abdel-Sattar
Diabetes mellitus is possibly the world's largest growing metabolic disorder. Effective treatment of diabetes is increasingly dependent on active constituents of medicinal plants capable of controlling hyperglycemia as well as its secondary complications. Viscum schimperi Engl. is a plant growing in Saudi Arabia and known for its antidiabetic activity. The potential antidiabetic activity of its methanol extract as well as its chloroform, n-butanol, and the remaining water fractions was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at two dose levels...
November 2015: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
D Russell-Jones, M-A Gall, M Niemeyer, M Diamant, S Del Prato
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Basal insulin analogues have a reduced risk of hypoglycaemia compared with NPH insulin, but hypoglycaemia still remains a major impediment to achieving recommended fasting plasma glucose (FPG) targets in patients with diabetes. Insulin degludec (IDeg) is a new basal insulin that forms soluble multihexamers after subcutaneous injection resulting in an ultra-long duration of action and stable glucose-lowering effect. The aim of this analysis was to compare the effect of IDeg on FPG and nocturnal confirmed hypoglycaemia as compared to insulin glargine (IGlar)...
October 2015: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
M Blicher, R Kruger, T Olesen, S Greve, T Hansen, M H Olsen
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to test the impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage (TOD) defined as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arterioclerosis and microvascular damage. DESIGN AND METHOD: In a population based cohort study of 2115 healthy subjects (1049 male 1066 female) with a mean age of 53.1 ± 10.5 without known diabetes or cardiovascular disease we measured fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, lipid profile, soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR), c-reactive protein (CRP), urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), 24-hour ambulatory systolic (24hSBP) and diastolic blood pressure (24hDBP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by M-mode echocardiography, carotid plaques (CP) by carotid ultra sound and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV)...
June 2015: Journal of Hypertension
Peter Bang, Anders Thorell, Christine Carlsson-Skwirut, Olle Ljungqvist, Kerstin Brismar, Jonas Nygren
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving a carbohydrate drink (CHO) before major abdominal surgery display improved insulin sensitivity postoperatively and increased proteolysis of IGFBP-3 (IGFBP-3-PA) compared to patients undergoing similar surgery after overnight fasting. AIMS: We hypothesized that serum IGFBP-3-PA increases bioavailability of circulating IGF-I and preserves insulin sensitivity in patients given CHO. DESIGN: Matched control study...
April 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Brian A Irving, Rickey E Carter, Mattias Soop, Audrey Weymiller, Husnain Syed, Helen Karakelides, Sumit Bhagra, Kevin R Short, Laura Tatpati, Rocco Barazzoni, K Sreekumaran Nair
AIMS: Prior studies have reported that elevated concentrations of several plasma amino acids (AA), particularly branched chain (BCAA) and aromatic AA predict the onset of type 2 diabetes. We sought to test the hypothesis that circulating BCAA, aromatic AA and related AA metabolites decline in response to the use of insulin sensitizing agents in overweight/obese adults with impaired fasting glucose or untreated diabetes. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo, controlled study conducted in twenty five overweight/obese (BMI ~30kg/m(2)) adults with impaired fasting glucose or untreated diabetes...
June 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Dionne E Maessen, Nordin M Hanssen, Jean L Scheijen, Carla J van der Kallen, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Coen D Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that postprandial glucose excursions play an important role in the development of vascular complications. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but glucose-derived formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds may explain why acute hyperglycemia leads to increased risk for diabetes complications. In the current study, we investigated whether α-dicarbonyls are increased after a glucose load in individuals without or with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and type 2 diabetes...
May 2015: Diabetes Care
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