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Ultra-fast insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748148/clinical-and-biochemical-features-of-different-molecular-etiologies-of-familial-chylomicronemia
#1
Robert A Hegele, Amanda J Berberich, Matthew R Ban, Jian Wang, Andres Digenio, Veronica J Alexander, Laura D'Erasmo, Marcello Arca, Alan Jones, Eric Bruckert, Erik S Stroes, Jean Bergeron, Fernando Civeira, Joseph L Witztum, Daniel Gaudet
BACKGROUND: Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is an ultra-rare phenotype that is usually caused by biallelic mutations in the LPL gene encoding lipoprotein lipase, or less often in APOC2, APOA5, LMF1, or GPIHBP1 genes encoding cofactors or interacting proteins. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated baseline phenotypes among FCS participants in a phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled trial of volanesorsen (NCT02211209). METHODS: Baseline clinical, fasting, and postfat load metabolic markers were assessed...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731442/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-combined-with-ginkgo-polysaccharide-on-weight-blood-glucose-and-glycosylated-serum-protein-in-diabetic-rats
#2
Rongkun Zhu, Jun Xie
Streptozotocin copied diabetic rats model were studied through aerobic exercise combined with ginkgo polysaccharide. Aimed to offering the updating experimental basis to prevent diabetic through aerobic exercise combined with ginkgo polysaccharide, the effect of aerobic exercise combined with ginkgo polysaccharide were discussed on the weight, blood glucose, glucosylated serum protein and the secretion ability of islet β cells, oral glucose tolerance test, islet cell pathological morophological changes and positive expression of Bax and Bcl-2...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559408/review-of-hyperglycaemia-definitions-and-pathophysiology
#3
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
Diabetes mellitus is defined by chronic elevation of blood glucose linked to insulin resistance and/or insulinopaenia. Its diagnosis is based on a fasting blood-glucose level of ≥1.26g/L or, in some countries, a blood glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of >6.5%. Of the several forms of diabetes, type-2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common and is found in patients with other risk factors. In contrast, type-1 diabetes (T1D) is linked to the auto-immune destruction of β-pancreatic cells, leading to insulinopaenia...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548848/effects-of-resveratrol-on-memory-performance-hippocampus-connectivity-and-microstructure-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059414/nicotine-metabolism-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Rachel J Keith, Daniel W Riggs, Daniel J Conklin, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Sanjay Srivastava, Aruni Bhatnagar, Andrew P DeFilippis
Introduction: Metabolism of nicotine has implications for addiction and may be altered in people with type 2 diabetes. Thus, our objective was to analyze nicotine metabolism in adults with and without type 2 diabetes who smoke. Methods: From an existing cross-sectional study, we analyzed nicotine metabolism in urine of 148 smokers, 36 type 2 diabetics (insulin or antidiabetic medication use and/or fasting glucose >126 mg/dL), and 112 non-diabetics. Nicotine metabolism was quantified as the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) = trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC) divided by COT...
September 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918652/investigation-of-pump-compatibility-of-fast-acting-insulin-aspart-in-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes
#6
Eric Zijlstra, Marek Demissie, Tina Graungaard, Tim Heise, Leszek Nosek, Bruce Bode
BACKGROUND: Ultra-fast-acting insulins, such as fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart), have pharmacokinetic properties that may be advantageous for patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), provided that they are compatible with and safe to use in CSII. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, actively controlled trial evaluating compatibility, efficacy, and safety of faster aspart in adults with type 1 diabetes using their own MiniMed Paradigm pump with Quick-Set or Silhouette infusion sets...
January 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806419/effects-of-short-term-dry-immersion-on-bone-remodeling-markers-insulin-and-adipokines
#7
Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Liubov E Amirova, Mireille Thomas, Myriam Normand, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Arnaud Beck, Marie-Claude Costes-Salon, Christine Bonneau, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Laurence Vico
BACKGROUND: Dry immersion (DI), a ground-based model of microgravity previously used in Russia, has been recently implemented in France. The aim of this study was to analyze early events in a short-term DI model in which all conditions are met to investigate who is first challenged from osteo- or adipo-kines and to what extent they are associated to insulin-regulating hormones. METHODS: Twelve healthy men were submitted to a 3-day DI. Fasting blood was collected during pre-immersion phase for the determination of the baseline data collection (BDC), daily during DI (DI24h, DI48H and DI72h), then after recovery (R+3h and R+24h)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651211/effect-of-insulin-degludec-versus-insulin-glargine-on-glycemic-control-and-daily-fasting-blood-glucose-variability-in-insulin-na%C3%A3-ve-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-i-d-got-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yoshimasa Aso, Kunihiro Suzuki, Yasuko Chiba, Minoru Sato, Nobuya Fujita, Yoshihisa Takada, Shunichi Murano, Hisamoto Kuroda
AIMS: Insulin degludec (IDeg) is an ultra-long-acting insulin that has a smooth time/action profile over more than 42h. The present study compared the effects of IDeg and insulin glargine (IGlar) on HbA1c reduction and on within-subject day-to-day variability of fasting blood glucose (FBG) in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly allocated at a 3:1 ratio to receive once-daily IDeg (n=31) or IGlar (n=12)...
August 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397183/prepubertal-ultra-low-dose-estrogen-therapy-is-associated-with-healthier-lipid-profile-than-conventional-estrogen-replacement-for-pubertal-induction-in-adolescent-girls-with-turner-syndrome-preliminary-results
#9
Anna Ruszala, Malgorzata Wojcik, Agata Zygmunt-Gorska, Dominika Janus, Joanna Wojtys, Jerzy B Starzyk
PURPOSE: The metabolic effects of prepubertal low-dose estrogen replacement (LE) therapy in Turner syndrome (TS) have not been fully investigated to date. The present study aimed to compare glucose and lipids metabolism in adolescents with TS on LE and conventional estrogen replacement (CE). METHODS: In 14 TS (mean age 13.8), LE (17β-estradiol, 62.5 μg daily) was introduced before age 12 (mean age 10.5), and followed by a pubertal induction regimen after age 12, and in 14 CE was started after age 12 (mean 14, SD 1...
August 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264172/the-need-for-faster-insulin
#10
REVIEW
Douglas B Muchmore
Considerable progress in treatment of diabetes has been made in the nearly 100 years following the discovery of insulin, and advances in insulin therapy have improved convenience, quality of life, overall glycemic control (A1C), and risk of hypoglycemia. An unmet need remains for a mealtime insulin that can faithfully reproduce the metabolic profile that ensues following meal ingestion in healthy persons. A number of "ultra-fast" insulin programs have been initiated, and Afrezza® (insulin human; Inhalation Powder, MannKind Corporation, Danbury, CT) stands as the first such product to be approved by the US FDA...
January 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185141/pharmacokinetic-properties-of-fast-acting-insulin-aspart-administered-in-different-subcutaneous-injection-regions
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ulrike Hövelmann, Tim Heise, Leszek Nosek, Bettina Sassenfeld, Karen Margrete Due Thomsen, Hanne Haahr
BACKGROUND: Fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is insulin aspart set in a new formulation with faster initial absorption after subcutaneous administration. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic properties, including the absolute bioavailability, of faster aspart when administered subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm or thigh. METHODS: In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial, 21 healthy male subjects received a single injection of faster aspart at five dosing visits: 0...
May 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107503/osteopontin-affects-insulin-vesicle-localization-and-ca2-homeostasis-in-pancreatic-beta-cells-from-female-mice
#12
Anna Wendt, Inês G Mollet, Anki Knutsson, Victor S Bolmgren, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Maria F Gomez, Lena Eliasson
Type 2 diabetic patients suffer from insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion. Osteopontin (OPN), a versatile protein expressed in several tissues throughout the body including the islets of Langerhans, has previously been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Here we have investigated the role of OPN in insulin secretion using an OPN knock out mouse model (OPN-/-). Ultra-structural analyzes of islets from OPN-/- and WT mice indicated weaker cell-cell connections between the islet cells in the OPN-/- mouse compared to WT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873152/a-comparison-of-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-properties-between-faster-acting-insulin-aspart-and-insulin-aspart-in-elderly-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tim Heise, Ulrike Hövelmann, Eric Zijlstra, Kirstine Stender-Petersen, Jacob Bonde Jacobsen, Hanne Haahr
BACKGROUND: Due to population aging, an increasing number of elderly patients with diabetes use insulin. It is therefore important to investigate the characteristics of new insulins in this population. Faster-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is insulin aspart (IAsp) in a new formulation with faster absorption. This study investigated the pharmacological properties of faster aspart in elderly subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, two-period crossover trial, 30 elderly (≥65 years) and 37 younger adults (18-35 years) with T1DM received single subcutaneous faster aspart or IAsp dosing (0...
January 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852608/dba2j-db-db-mice-are-susceptible-to-early-albuminuria-and-glomerulosclerosis-that-correlate-with-systemic-insulin-resistance
#14
Mette V Østergaard, Vanda Pinto, Kirsty Stevenson, Jesper Worm, Lisbeth N Fink, Richard J M Coward
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of kidney failure in the world. To understand important mechanisms underlying this condition, and to develop new therapies, good animal models are required. In mouse models of type 1 diabetes, the DBA/2J strain has been shown to be more susceptible to develop kidney disease than other common strains. We hypothesized this would also be the case in type 2 diabetes. We studied db/db and wild-type (wt) DBA/2J mice and compared these with the db/db BLKS/J mouse, which is currently the most widely used type 2 DN model...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598004/tryptophan-predicts-the-risk-for-future-type-2-diabetes
#15
Tianlu Chen, Xiaojiao Zheng, Xiaojing Ma, Yuqian Bao, Yan Ni, Cheng Hu, Cynthia Rajani, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Weiping Jia, Wei Jia
Recently, 5 amino acids were identified and verified as important metabolites highly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) development. This report aims to assess the association of tryptophan with the development of T2D and to evaluate its performance with existing amino acid markers. A total of 213 participants selected from a ten-year longitudinal Shanghai Diabetes Study (SHDS) were examined in two ways: 1) 51 subjects who developed diabetes and 162 individuals who remained metabolically healthy in 10 years; 2) the same 51 future diabetes and 23 strictly matched ones selected from the 162 healthy individuals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475283/glucose-homeostasis-insulin-resistance-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-beneficial-effects-of-supplementation-with-microalgae-chlorella-vulgaris-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Zahra Sadeghi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Elnaz Vaghef-Mehrabany, Soodabeh Aliashrafi
BACKGROUND: Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) is reported to improve dyslipidemia and hypertension; however, its effect on inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance has not been noticed thus far. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a hepatic symptom of metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the current interventional trial, we aimed to study the effects of C. vulgaris supplementation on glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with NAFLD...
August 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455318/impact-of-diabetes-specific-nutritional-formulas-versus-oatmeal-on-postprandial-glucose-insulin-glp-1-and-postprandial-lipidemia
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Adham Mottalib, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd-Yusof, Mohamed Shehabeldin, David M Pober, Joanna Mitri, Osama Hamdy
Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order...
July 22, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338465/amino-acid-and-biogenic-amine-profile-deviations-in-an-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-a-comparison-between-healthy-and-hyperlipidaemia-individuals-based-on-targeted-metabolomics
#18
Qi Li, Wenbo Gu, Xuan Ma, Yuxin Liu, Lidan Jiang, Rennan Feng, Liyan Liu
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT...
June 21, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014078/cardiovascular-action-of-insulin-in-health-and-disease-endothelial-l-arginine-transport-and-cardiac-voltage-dependent-potassium-channels
#19
REVIEW
Sebastián Dubó, David Gallegos, Lissette Cabrera, Luis Sobrevia, Leandro Zúñiga, Marcelo González
Impairment of insulin signaling on diabetes mellitus has been related to cardiovascular dysfunction, heart failure, and sudden death. In human endothelium, cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1) is related to the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and insulin has a vascular effect in endothelial cells through a signaling pathway that involves increases in hCAT-1 expression and L-arginine transport. This mechanism is disrupted in diabetes, a phenomenon potentiated by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to lower availability of NO and endothelial dysfunction...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26782928/pharmacokinetic-and-prandial-pharmacodynamic-properties-of-insulin-degludec-insulin-aspart-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
Torben Biester, Thomas Danne, Sarah Bläsig, Kerstin Remus, Bärbel Aschemeier, Olga Kordonouri, Lars Bardtrum, Hanne Haahr
Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a soluble coformulation of long-acting insulin degludec and short-acting insulin aspart. This open-label, Phase 1 study aimed to determine the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of IDegAsp in children (6-11 yr), adolescents (12-17 yr), and adults (18-65 yr) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Thirty-eight subjects received single subcutaneous IDegAsp dosing (0.5 U/kg) immediately before a standardized liquid meal (17.3 g carbohydrates/100 mL; adjusted for body weight) followed by plasma glucose (PG) and pharmacokinetic blood sampling for 36 and 57 h, respectively...
December 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
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