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Artificial eye

Matthew Jacobs, Martin Lopez-Garcia, O-Phart Phrathep, Tracy Lawson, Ruth Oulton, Heather M Whitney
Enhanced light harvesting is an area of interest for optimizing both natural photosynthesis and artificial solar energy capture(1,2). Iridescence has been shown to exist widely and in diverse forms in plants and other photosynthetic organisms and symbioses(3,4), but there has yet to be any direct link demonstrated between iridescence and photosynthesis. Here we show that epidermal chloroplasts, also known as iridoplasts, in shade-dwelling species of Begonia(5), notable for their brilliant blue iridescence, have a photonic crystal structure formed from a periodic arrangement of the light-absorbing thylakoid tissue itself...
October 24, 2016: Nature Plants
Yue Yin, Lan Gong
PURPOSE: To observe reversibility of meibomian gland (MG) dropout and analyze correlated factors and to compare the treatment efficiency with and without eyelid hygiene in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: Consecutive 78 eyes of 78 MGD (stage 2-3) patients who finished follow-up examination after 1-month of treatment were recruited in this retrospective study. All patients were treated with artificial lubricant and eyelid hygiene. Related ocular surface evaluation and meibomian gland assessment were examined...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
D G A B Oonincx, N Volk, J J E Diehl, J J A van Loon, G Belušič
Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Negin Amirshekarizadeh, Hassan Hashemi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur, Ali Mirzajani, Abbasali Yekta, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of cyclopentolate, tropicamide, and artificial tear drops on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in normal eyes with OPD-Scan III (Nidek Inc., Tokyo, Japan). METHODS: In this study, 189 eyes of individuals aged 20 to 35 years were selected as samples. Inclusion criteria were a corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, a minimum size of about 5 mm for the pupil in the dark, hyperopia and myopia less than 5 D, and astigmatism less than 2 D...
September 30, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Yoshiaki Tagawa, Kenichi Namba, Yumi Nakazono, Daiju Iwata, Susumu Ishida
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution for pollen allergic conjunctivitis has already been shown in a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test using cedar pollen as a challenge. The present study investigated the efficacy of this solution against birch pollen conjunctivitis in a CAC test. METHODS: Ten adult subjects (eight males and two females) with asymptomatic birch pollen conjunctivitis were enrolled in this study. The average age of the subjects was 41...
October 6, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Yuqing Yin, Chen Ling Gao, Qi Xiao, Guo Lin, Zian Lin, Zongwei Cai, Huang-Hao Yang
Artificial enzyme mimetics have received considerable attention because natural enzymes have some significant drawbacks, including enzyme autolysis, low catalytic activity, poor recovery and low stability to environmental changes. Herein, we demonstrated a facile approach for one-pot synthesis of hemeprotein-metal organic framework hybrid composites (H-MOFs) by using bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a model reaction system. Surprisingly, the new hybrid composites exhibits 423% increase in peroxidase-like catalytic activity compared to free BHb...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chloe B Spertus, Hussni O Mohammed, Eric C Ledbetter
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution in dogs with experimentally induced recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infection. ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen-free Beagles. PROCEDURES 12 months prior to the beginning of the randomized, masked, placebo-controlled 30-day trial, latent ocular CHV-1 infection was experimentally induced in each dog by topical ocular inoculation of both eyes with a field strain of CHV-1. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by oral administration of prednisolone for 7 days (starting day 1)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Takashi Kojima, Asato Hasegawa, Tomoaki Nakamura, Naoki Isogai, Takahiro Kataoka, Kazuo Ichikawa
PURPOSE: Aniridic keratopathy is vision-threatening condition in patients with aniridia. The keratopathy occurs due to limbal stem cell deficiency. When conventional treatments fail, surgical treatments such as corneal limbal transplantation or cultivated oral mucosal epithelium transplantation are the alternatives. Here, we report our experience with the management and monitoring of the progress of a case with aniridic keratopathy treated with a scleral lens. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 30-year-old woman with aniridic keratopathy in both eyes...
October 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Melissa L-H Võ, Avigael M Aizenman, Jeremy M Wolfe
People are surprisingly bad at knowing where they have looked in a scene. We tested participants' ability to recall their own eye movements in 2 experiments using natural or artificial scenes. In each experiment, participants performed a change-detection (Exp.1) or search (Exp.2) task. On 25% of trials, after 3 seconds of viewing the scene, participants were asked to indicate where they thought they had just fixated. They responded by making mouse clicks on 12 locations in the unchanged scene. After 135 trials, observers saw 10 new scenes and were asked to put 12 clicks where they thought someone else would have looked...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Xinfang Cao, Weiliang Wu, Yang Wang, Chen Xie, Ye Shen
PURPOSE: To compare the longitudinal vault changes after implantation of a posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) (Visian Implantable Contact Lens) with (ICL V4c) and without (ICL V4) a central artificial hole for moderate to high myopia in Chinese eyes. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: This study comprised 78 eyes implanted with the ICL V4c model and 82 eyes implanted with the ICL V4 model at our department by the same surgeon...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Jungmin Yoon, Kyoung Won Nam, Jun Chang Lee, Dong Pyo Jang, In Young Kim
For hearing-impaired individuals with neurological motor deficits or finger/arm amputation due to accident or disease, hearing aid adjustment using a conventional finger manipulation-based remote controller is unavailable, and a more dedicated, hands-free alternative is required. In this study, we propose an eye-blinking-based beamforming control scheme for hearing aid users. Three electroencephalogram signals measured around the ears were utilized to detect eye-blinking patterns based on a three-layer artificial neural network...
September 21, 2016: Artificial Organs
Ana L Pérez-Balbuena, Juan C Ochoa-Tabares, Sandra Belalcazar-Rey, Cristian Urzúa-Salinas, Laura R Saucedo-Rodríguez, Regina Velasco-Ramos, Raúl G Suárez-Sánchez, Adolfo D Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Aldo A Oregón-Miranda
BACKGROUND: Dry eye disease (DED) is multifactorial, affecting 5-34 % of the global adult population and reducing quality of life. The artificial tears or lubricants are the therapy most used for the treatment of DED, due to their low side effect profile, which attempt to modify the properties of the tear film. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a fixed combination of xanthan gum and chondroitin sulfate preservative free on the ocular surface of patients with dry eye disease during 60 days of intervention...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Stanislav V Rozov, Janneke C Zant, Kestutis Gurevicius, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Pertti Panula
AIM: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tiraje Celkan
Plasminogen plays an important role in fibrinolysis as well as wound healing, cell migration, tissue modeling and angiogenesis. Congenital plasminogen deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that leads to the development of thick, wood-like pseudomembranes on mucosal surfaces, mostly seen in conjunctivas named as ''ligneous conjunctivitis''. Local conjunctival use of fresh frozen plazma (FFP) in combination with other eye medications such as cyclosporin and artificial tear drops may relieve the symptoms...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Francesco Baino, Isabel Potestio
In the treatment of severe oculo-orbital traumas, intraocular malignancies or other life-threatening conditions it is sometimes necessary to surgically remove the patient's diseased eye. Following the removal of the eye, an orbital implant is inserted into the anophthalmic socket in order to provide satisfactory volume replacement and restore the aesthetic appearance of a normal eye. Over the last decades, the implant design and the criteria of materials selection evolved from simple non-porous polymeric sphere to devices with more complex shape and functionalities for ensuring better clinical outcomes in the long-term...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
G David, R M Pedrigi, J D Humphrey
Accommodation of the eyes, the mechanism that allows humans to focus their vision on near objects, naturally diminishes with age via presbyopia. People who have undergone cataract surgery, using current surgical methods and artificial lens implants, are also left without the ability to accommodate. The process of accommodation is generally well known; however the specific mechanical details have not been adequately explained due to difficulties and consequences of performing in vivo studies. Most studies have modeled the mechanics of accommodation under assumptions of a linearly elastic, isotropic, homogenous lens and lens capsule...
September 9, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Sajedeh Kioomars, Somayeh Heidari, Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei, Maryam Shayani Rad, Bahman Khameneh, Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri
In this study several Ciprofloxacin (CFX) imprinted and non-imprinted hydrogels were prepared and evaluated as ocular drug delivery systems in aqueous media. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was used as a solvent and backbone monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and CFX as the template molecule. CFX imprinted hydrogels (MIPs) were prepared applying different CFX: MAA molar ratios (1:16, 1:20 and 1:32) in feed composition of monomer solutions...
September 1, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Mélanie J Boileau, Rinosh Mani, Melanie A Breshears, Margi Gilmour, Jared D Taylor, Kenneth D Clinkenbeard
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves. PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63-300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J...
September 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Mauro Masili, Liliane Ventura
BACKGROUND: This work is part of a broader research that focuses on ocular health. Three outlines are the basis of the pyramid that comprehend the research as a whole: authors' previous work, which has provided the public to self-check their own sunglasses regarding the ultraviolet protection compatible to their category; Brazilian national survey in order to improve nationalization of sunglasses standards; and studies conducted on revisiting requirements of worldwide sunglasses standards, in which this work is inserted...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Ozlem Yaren, Kevin M Bradley, Patricia Moussatche, Shuichi Hoshika, Zunyi Yang, Shu Zhu, Stephanie M Karst, Steven A Benner
Noroviruses are the major cause of global viral gastroenteritis with short incubation times and small inoculums required for infection. This creates a need for a rapid molecular test for norovirus for early diagnosis, in the hope of preventing the spread of the disease. Non-chemists generally use off-the shelf reagents and natural DNA to create such tests, suffering from background noise that comes from adventitious DNA and RNA (collectively xNA) that is abundant in real biological samples, especially feces, a common location for norovirus...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
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