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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445553/a-novel-rat-head-gaze-determination-system-based-on-optomotor-responses
#1
Mengbo You, Toshiyuki Yamane, Hiroshi Tomita, Eriko Sugano, Takuya Akashi
The optomotor response of animals is commonly used to measure their visual performance, e.g., rats of different genetically altered strains or various drug tests. With the presentation of stimuli using computer screens or projectors, the common idea focuses on measuring the eye movement or head and/or body movement to characterize changes of the head gaze. However, traditional methods rely on either the invasive fixation of animals, or the judgment of a human observer who reports the stimulus-tracking movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445315/the-effect-of-timolol-0-5-on-the-correction-of-myopic-regression-after-lasik
#2
Hong Qi, Caifeng Gao, Yaxin Li, Xue Feng, Miao Wang, Yu Zhang, Yueguo Chen
BACKGROUD: Postlaser in situ keratomileusis (post-LASIK) refractive regression is defined as the gradual, partial, or total loss of initial correction that limits the predictability, efficiency, and long-term stability of LASIK. Our study assesses the effect of Timolol 0.5% on the correction of myopic regression after LASIK. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled study included 62 eyes of 62 patients with myopic regression of -1.18 ± 0.86 diopters (D) after myopic LASIK...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441078/comparison-of-0-3-hypotonic-and-isotonic-sodium-hyaluronate-eye-drops-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-dry-eye
#3
Ying Li, Lian Cui, Hyo Seok Lee, Yeon Soo Kang, Won Choi, Kyung Chul Yoon
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of 0.3% hypotonic and isotonic sodium hyaluronate (SH) eye drops in the treatment of experimental dry eye. METHODS: Experimental dry eye was established in female C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous scopolamine injection and an air draft. The mice were divided into three groups (n = 15): control, preservative-free 0.3% isotonic SH, and preservative-free 0.3% hypotonic SH. The tear volume, tear film break-up time, and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 5 and 10 days after treatment...
April 25, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423413/human-perception-of-subresolution-fineness-of-dense-textures-based-on-image-intensity-statistics
#4
Masataka Sawayama, Shin'ya Nishida, Mikio Shinya
We are surrounded by many textures with fine dense structures, such as human hair and fabrics, whose individual elements are often finer than the spatial resolution limit of the visual system or that of a digitized image. Here we show that human observers have an ability to visually estimate subresolution fineness of those textures. We carried out a psychophysical experiment to show that observers could correctly discriminate differences in the fineness of hair-like dense line textures even when the thinnest line element was much finer than the resolution limit of the eye or that of the display...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416382/isolation-pathogenicity-and-characterization-of-a-novel-bacterial-pathogen-streptococcus-uberis-from-diseased-mandarin-fish-siniperca-chuatsi
#5
Xia Luo, Xiaozhe Fu, Guoli Liao, Ouqin Chang, Zhibin Huang, Ningqiu Li
In recent years, mandarin fish had a high mortality rate associated with abnormal swimming, exophthalmia, corneal opacity and eye hemorrhage on a fish farm located at Foshan city, Guangdong province, China. Three isolates of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were recovered from moribund fish, and designated as SS131025-1, SS131025-2, and SS131025-3. These isolates were identified as Streptococcus uberis according to their morphologic and physio-biochemical characteristics as well as phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA and GapC gene sequences...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414059/a-mouse-ocular-explant-model-that-enables-the-study-of-living-optic-nerve-head-events-after-acute-and-chronic-intraocular-pressure-elevation-focusing-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-and-mitochondria
#6
Elizabeth C Kimball, Mary E Pease, Matthew R Steinhart, Ericka N Oglesby, Ian Pitha, Cathy Nguyen, Harry A Quigley
We developed an explant model of the mouse eye and optic nerve that facilitates the study of retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria in the living optic nerve head (ONH) in an ex vivo environment. Two transgenic mouse strains were used, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein in selected axons and a second strain expressing cyan fluorescent protein in all mitochondria. We viewed an explanted mouse eye and optic nerve by laser scanning microscopy at and behind the ONH, the site of glaucoma injury. Explants from previously untreated mice were studied with the intraocular pressure (IOP) set artificially at normal or elevated levels for several hours...
April 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397148/the-correct-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-management-of-tear-dysfunction-recommendations-of-the-p-i-c-a-s-s-o-board
#7
REVIEW
Maurizio Rolando, Emilia Cantera, Rita Mencucci, Pierangela Rubino, Pasquale Aragona
PURPOSE: To describe a standard approach to manage tear dysfunction (TD), in order to obtain a clinically favourable outcome. TD is a highly prevalent, yet largely underdiagnosed, condition that affects from 5 to 30% of the population above 50 years old. Left untreated, TD is associated with eye discomfort and ocular surface disease, substantially affecting quality of life. Although the prevalence of this problem is increasing significantly, a standard approach to its prevention and treatment is not available yet...
April 10, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384979/correlation-between-visible-length-of-the-iris-and-the-length-of-the-maxillary-central-incisor-using-digital-image-analysis-a-pilot-study
#8
Rohini, Hemalatha, Gopi Naveen Chander, Kuttae Viswanathan Anitha
INTRODUCTION: Complete denture therapy is one such modality where science and art goes hand in hand. Selection of artificial teeth for completely edentulous patients is not easy in the absence of pre extraction records, because till date concrete guidelines do not exist. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between the visible length of the iris and the length of the maxillary central incisor to potentially provide a guide for teeth selection...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384900/efficacy-of-green-tea-extract-for-treatment-of-dry-eye-and-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-study
#9
Mahmood Nejabat, Salehi Ali Reza, Mehdi Zadmehr, Masoud Yasemi, Zahra Sobhani
INTRODUCTION: With an incidence rate of 9%, dry eye is a common problem of the ocular surface, especially in patients more than 40-year-old. Green tea extract has anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, anti-androgen, and immunomodulatory properties. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of green tea extract for treatment of patients with dry eye and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 patients were selected within the age range of 30 to 70 years, and divided into two groups by blocked randomization method...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384718/micrometric-control-of-the-optics-of-the-human-eye-environment-or-genes
#10
Juan Tabernero, Lucía Hervella, Antonio Benito, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Juan R Ordoñana, Marcos Ruiz-Sanchez, José María Marín, Pablo Artal
Purpose: The human eye has typically more optical aberrations than conventional artificial optical systems. While the lower order modes (defocus and astigmatism) are well studied, our purpose is to explore the influence of genes versus the environment on the higher order aberrations of the optical components of the eye. Methods: We have performed a classical twin study in a sample from the Region of Murcia (Spain). Optical aberrations using a Hartmann-Shack sensor (AOnEye Voptica SL, Murcia, Spain) and corneal aberrations (using corneal topography data) were measured in 138 eyes corresponding to 69 twins; 36 monozygotic (MZ) and 33 dizygotic (DZ) pairs (age 55 years, SD 7 years)...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376729/iris-reconstruction-using-autologous-iris-preserved-in-cold-balanced-salt-solution-for-8-hours-in-iatrogenic-total-iridodialysis-during-cataract-surgery-a-case-report
#11
Seung Pil Bang, Jong Hwa Jun
BACKGROUND: A large iris defect or extensive iridodialysis can be an intractable cause of visual disturbance, photophobia, glare, monocular diplopia, or cosmetic deformity. The implantation of an artificial iris substitute could be an effective option, but this can cause a reduction in endothelial cell density. We succeeded in the anatomical restoration of iris tissue that was totally dialyzed out of the eye, and was preserved in cold balanced salt solution for 8 h. Engrafted iris tissue was maintained within the aqueous humor...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367037/analgesic-effect-of-topical-sodium-diclofenac-before-retinal-photocoagulation-for-diabetic-retinopathy-a-randomized-double-masked-placebo-controlled-intraindividual-crossover-clinical-trial
#12
Alireza Ramezani, Morteza Entezari, Mohammad Mehdi Shahbazi, Yosef Semnani, Homayoun Nikkhah, Mehdi Yaseri
PURPOSE: To evaluate the analgesic effect of topical sodium diclofenac 0.1% before retinal laser photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Diabetic patients who were candidates for peripheral laser photocoagulation were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled, intraindividual, two-period, and crossover clinical trial. At the first session and based on randomization, one eye received topical sodium diclofenac 0.1% and the other eye received an artificial tear drop (as placebo) three times before laser treatment...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366364/efficacy-and-perioperative-timing-of-bromfenac-in-the-management-of-ocular-discomfort-after-femtosecond-laser-assisted-laser%C3%A2-in-situ-keratomileusis
#13
Nathan A Cleaveland, Derek W De Mann, Neil E Carlson, Michael L Keil
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and appropriate perioperative timing of the use of topical bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07% after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). SETTING: Keil LASIK Vision Center, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Ocular discomfort was assessed 1, 2, and 5 hours postoperatively and the following morning using the Ocular Comfort Grading Assessment in patients treated with topical bromfenac 0...
February 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364421/development-of-circadian-sleep-regulation-in-the-rat-a-longitudinal-study-under-constant-conditions
#14
Marcos G Frank, Norman F Ruby, Horace Craig Heller, Paul Franken
Study Objectives: To better understand the development of sleep, we characterized the development of circadian rhythms in sleep and wakefulness in the artificially-reared, isolated rat pup using an experimental design that minimized the effects of maternal separation. Methods: Neonatal rats were reared in constant conditions (dim red light) while electroencephalographic and electromyographic signals were continuously recorded for up to 3 weeks. This time period spanned the preweaned and weaned ages...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363785/targeted-delivery-of-hyaluronic-acid-to-the-ocular-surface-by-a-polymer-peptide-conjugate-system-for-dry-eye-disease
#15
David Lee, Qiaozhi Lu, Sven D Sommerfeld, Amanda Chan, Nikhil G Menon, Tannin A Schmidt, Jennifer H Elisseeff, Anirudha Singh
Hyaluronic acid (HA) solutions effectively lubricate the ocular surface and are used for the relief of dry eye related symptoms. However, HA undergoes rapid clearance due to limited adhesion, which necessitates frequent instillation. Conversely, highly viscous artificial tear formulations with HA blur vision and interfere with blinking. Here, we developed an HA-eye drop formulation that selectively binds and retains HA for extended periods of time on the ocular surface. We synthesized a heterobifunctional polymer-peptide system with one end binding HA while the other end binding either sialic acid-containing glycosylated transmembrane molecules on the ocular surface epithelium, or type I collagen molecule within the tissue matrix...
March 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363586/increase-in-tear-film-lipid-layer-thickness-after-instillation-of-3-diquafosol-ophthalmic-solution-in-healthy-human-eyes
#16
Shima Fukuoka, Reiko Arita
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution on tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) in normal human eyes by tear interferometry. METHODS: Forty-seven healthy men (mean age of 42.4 years) randomly received one drop of artificial tears in one eye and one drop of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the other. LLT of each eye was quantified by tear interferometry before and 15, 30, and 60 min after instillation. Ocular symptoms were assessed before and 30 min after instillation...
March 28, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362052/plasmapheresis-intravenous-immunoglobulins-and-autologous-serum-eyedrops-in-the-acute-eye-complications-of-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#17
Antonio Pinna, Eleonora Nuvoli, Francesco Blasetti, Maria Alma Posadinu, Francesco Boscia
PURPOSE: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare, life-threatening, drug-induced, mucocutaneous disease, which can severely affect the ocular surface. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of plasmapheresis, human IV immunoglobulins (IVIg), and autologous serum (AS) eyedrops in the treatment of the severe acute ocular complications of TEN. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients admitted to the Burn Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria-Sassari, Sassari, Italy, from 2009 to 2015, identified 9 patients (2 men, 7 women; mean age 63...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360509/influence-on-ocular-surface-after-cataract-surgery-and-effect-of-topical-diquafosol-on-postoperative-dry-eye-a-multicenter-prospective-randomized-study
#18
Kensaku Miyake, Norihiko Yokoi
PURPOSE: To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS) on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. DESIGN: This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. METHODS: Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359545/automated-identification-of-diabetic-retinopathy-using-deep-learning
#19
Rishab Gargeya, Theodore Leng
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness globally. Performing retinal screening examinations on all diabetic patients is an unmet need, and there are many undiagnosed and untreated cases of DR. The objective of this study was to develop robust diagnostic technology to automate DR screening. Referral of eyes with DR to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation and treatment would aid in reducing the rate of vision loss, enabling timely and accurate diagnoses...
March 27, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346860/comparison-of-short-term-effects-of-diquafosol-and-rebamipide-on-mucin-5ac-level-on-the-rabbit-ocular-surface
#20
Yuichi Hori, Tomofumi Kageyama, Asuka Sakamoto, Tomoaki Shiba, Masatsugu Nakamura, Takatoshi Maeno
PURPOSE: To investigate the short-term effects of 2 new secretagogue eye drops for dry eye, 3% diquafosol tetrasodium ophthalmic solution (diquafosol) and 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension (rebamipide), on the concentration of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) in rabbit tear fluid and conjunctival goblet cells. METHODS: One dose of artificial tears, diquafosol or rebamipide, was instilled into 8 eyes of Japanese white rabbits. MUC5AC concentration in the tear fluid was examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 15 min after instillation and compared with 8 untreated controls...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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