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Artificial eye

Etty Bitton, Vanessa Crncich, Noemie Brunet
BACKGROUND: Refrigerated eye-drops have been advocated in cases of ocular allergies to provide a soothing effect upon instillation. This notion continues to be promoted by practitioners for artificial tears (AT) in the management of dry eye (DE) with little support in the literature. To further substantiate claims of a soothing effect of cold eye-drops, the aim of this study was to determine if refrigeration of an AT enhanced the subjective comfort upon instillation. METHODS: Participants with mild to moderate DE participated in an open label contralateral study of two weeks duration...
February 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Camelia Margareta Bogdănici, Diana Elena Săndulache, Corina Andreea Nechita
The aim of the study was to analyze the effects that gadgets have on eyesight quality. A prospective observational study was conducted from January to July 2016, on 60 people who were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 30 middle school pupils with a mean age of 11.9 ± 1.86 and Group 2 - 30 patients evaluated in the Ophthalmology Clinic, "Sf. Spiridon" Hospital, Iași, with a mean age of 21.36 ± 7.16 years. The clinical parameters observed were the following: visual acuity (VA), objective refraction, binocular vision (BV), fusional amplitude (FA), Schirmer's test...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Shuta Sato, Motoki Takagi, Tasuku Miyoshi
The purpose of this study was to develop a six-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism moving platform to investigate the effects of multimodal sensory feedback information while standing upright. We constructed a custom-designed disturbance-applying instrument (DAI) consisting of a support surface suspended from eight pneumatic artificial muscles. The posture of the support surface was controlled with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback system using an infra-red camera-based real-time 3D motion capture system, and was estimated by step and frequency responses...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
A Soleimani, S H Rasta, T Banaei, A Asgharsharghi Bonab
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine burn intensity in retinal laser photocoagulation based on laser parameters; wavelength, power, beam size and pulse duration, using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), fundus camera, physical eye model and computer simulation in a clinical study. Materials and Methods: Participants were 10 adult patients between 50-80 years with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A multicolor-photo coagulator with 532 nm green and 672 nm red for retina photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy was used to investigate the participants...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Amr Salama, Arwa Elsheikh, Richard Alweis
Episcleritis is the inflammation of the thin, loose, highly vascular connective tissue layer that lies between the conjunctiva and sclera. Incidence is less than 1/1000. It is more common in women and those between 40 and 50 years of age. Most cases are idiopathic. It is classified into simple and nodular. Most attacks resolve within 1-3 months. The nodular type tends to be more recurrent and painful. It presents with acute onset of redness, lacrimation, and photophobia. The diagnosis of is essentially clinical, and eye pain or tenderness should raise the concern for scleritis...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Kelly K Nichols, Edward Holland, Melissa M Toyos, James H Peace, Parag Majmudar, Aparna Raychaudhuri, Mohamed Hamdani, Monica Roy, Amir Shojaei
Purpose: To evaluate ocular comfort of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% among patients with dry eye disease (DED) in the OPUS-3 trial. Methods: OPUS-3 was a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Adults with DED and recent artificial tear use were randomized 1:1 (lifitegrast:placebo) to ophthalmic drops twice daily for 84 days. On days 0 (baseline), 14, 42, and 84, drop comfort score (scale, 0-10; 0 = very comfortable, 10 = very uncomfortable) was measured at 0, 1, 2, and 3 minutes postinstillation...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Ai-Jiao Guan, Xiu-Feng Zhang, Xin Sun, Qian Li, Jun-Feng Xiang, Li-Xia Wang, Ling Lan, Feng-Min Yang, Shu-Juan Xu, Xiao-Meng Guo, Ya-Lin Tang
G-quadruplex has attracted considerable attention due to their prevalent distribution in functional genomic regions and transcripts, which can importantly influence biological processes such as regulation of telomere maintenance, gene transcription and gene translation. Artificial receptor study has been developed for accurate identification of G-quadruplex from DNA species, since it is important for the G-quadruplex related basic research, clinical diagnosis, and therapy. Herein, fluorescent dye ThT-E, a derivative of the known fluorescence probe Thioflavin T (ThT), was designed and synthesized to effectively differentiate various G-quadruplex structures from other nucleic acid forms...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Felix L Struebing, Rebecca King, Ying Li, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Janey L Wiggs, Eldon E Geisert
The present study was designed to identify genomic loci modulating the susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strain set. IOP was elevated by injecting magnetic microspheres into the anterior chamber and blocking the trabecular meshwork using a handheld magnet to impede drainage. The IOP was then measured over the next 21 days. Only animals with IOP greater than 25 mmHg for two consecutive days or an IOP above 30 mmHg on a single day after microsphere-injection were used in this study...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Manoj Mannil, Jochen von Spiczak, Robert Manka, Hatem Alkadhi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test whether texture analysis and machine learning enable the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) on non-contrast-enhanced low radiation dose cardiac computed tomography (CCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we included non-contrast-enhanced electrocardiography-gated low radiation dose CCT image data (effective dose, 0.5 mSv) acquired for the purpose of calcium scoring of 27 patients with acute MI (9 female patients; mean age, 60 ± 12 years), 30 patients with chronic MI (8 female patients; mean age, 68 ± 13 years), and in 30 subjects (9 female patients; mean age, 44 ± 6 years) without cardiac abnormality, hereafter termed controls...
February 8, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Somin Ahn, Youngsub Eom, Boram Kang, Jungboung Park, Hyung Keun Lee, Hyo Myung Kim, Jong Suk Song
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of menthol-containing artificial tears on tear stimulation and ocular surface integrity in normal and dry eye rat models. METHODS: A total of 54 male Lewis rats were used. The levels of tear secretion and tear MUC5AC concentrations were compared between the menthol-containing artificial tear-treated group (menthol group) and the vehicle-treated group (vehicle group). The groups were compared after a single instillation to evaluate the immediate effects, and after repeated instillation (five times a day for 5 days) to evaluate the longer-term effects...
February 8, 2018: Current Eye Research
Xinxin Xiao, Till Siepenkoetter, Peter Ó Conghaile, Donal Leech, Edmond Magner
A lactate/O2 enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) was prepared as a potential power source for wearable micro-electronic devices. Mechanically stable and flexible nanoporous gold (NPG) electrodes were prepared using an electrochemical dealloying method consisting of a pre-anodization process and a subsequent electrochemical cleaning step. Bioanodes were prepared by the electrodeposition of an Os polymer and Pediococcus sp. lactate oxidase onto the electrode. The electrocatalytic response to lactate could be tuned by adjusting the deposition time...
February 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eric Carlson, Winston W Y Kao, Abayomi Ogundele
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of 6 commercially available hyaluronic acid (HA)-containing topical artificial tear products on corneal reepithelialization following injury, in an in vivo mouse model. METHODS: Ninety-six C57Bl/6 mice (16 per treatment group; male to female ratio, 1:1 per group) were anesthetized. Epithelial debridement was performed on 1 cornea per animal, and the debrided eye was imaged. A 30 μL masked test solution containing 1 of 6 artificial tear products was instilled, immediately on debridement, and subsequently, every 2 h, for a total of 4 administrations...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sasikala Thineshkumar, Daniel Nyborg, Peter Ruhlmann, Jakob Grauslund
Artificial iris implants were originally developed for therapeutic purposes but have recently been used for cosmetic alteration of the eye colour. A 21-year-old woman presented with bilateral eye redness, visual loss, raised intraocular pressure, corneal oedema and hyphaema following implantation of artificial irises in Tunisia. Combined medical and surgical management led to improvements, but reduced vision and photophobia persisted. Cosmetic iris implantation can lead to persistently sight-threatening eye complications, and we strongly advise against its use...
January 22, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Joseph D Greer, Tania K Morimoto, Allison M Okamura, Elliot W Hawkes
We describe a new series pneumatic artificial muscle (sPAM) and its application as an actuator for a soft continuum robot. The robot consists of three sPAMs arranged radially round a tubular pneumatic backbone. Analogous to tendons, the sPAMs exert a tension force on the robot's pneumatic backbone, causing bending that is approximately constant curvature. Unlike a traditional tendon driven continuum robot, the robot is entirely soft and contains no hard components, making it safer for human interaction. Models of both the sPAM and soft continuum robot kinematics are presented and experimentally verified...
May 2017: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA: [proceedings]
Sean J McCafferty, Eniko T Enikov, Jim Schwiegerling, Sean M Ashley
Purpose: The aim of the study was to quantify the isolated tear film adhesion error in a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) prism and in a correcting applanation tonometry surface (CATS) prism. Methods: The separation force of a tonometer prism adhered by a tear film to a simulated cornea was measured to quantify an isolated tear film adhesion force. Acrylic hemispheres (7.8 mm radius) used as corneas were lathed over the apical 3.06 mm diameter to simulate full applanation contact with the prism surface for both GAT and CATS prisms...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Kata Miháltz, Eva Maria Faschinger, Pia Veronika Vécsei-Marlovits
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of lipid- versus sodium hyaluronate-based eye drops on optical quality and ocular surface parameters. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with mild-to-moderate dry eye disease were included in a prospective randomized study. Each patient received either lipid- or sodium hyaluronate-based eye drops. Ocular symptom scores, breakup time, Schirmer test, fluorescein staining, noncontact meibography, and aberrometry were evaluated before and after 3 months of therapy...
January 25, 2018: Cornea
Mari Sakamoto, Yoshiko Matsumoto, Sotaro Mori, Kaori Ueda, Yukako Inoue, Takuji Kurimoto, Akiyasu Kanamori, Yuko Yamada, Makoto Nakamura
PURPOSE: We previously reported that eyes with hypotony maculopathy (HM) after trabeculectomy (TLE) exhibited more reduction of axial length (AL) than those without HM, suggesting that inward collapse of the scleral wall may contribute to the development of HM after TLE. However, we did not evaluate change in choroidal thickness (CT), which could influence AL measures. We compared the magnitude and rate of AL and CT changes in eyes with and without HM by simultaneously measuring these parameters before and after TLE...
2018: PloS One
G Vandermeer, Y Chamy, P-J Pisella
Dry eye is defined by a tear film instability resulting in variable but systematic fluctuations in quality of vision. Variability in optical quality can be demonstrated using a double pass aberrometer such as the Optical Quality Analyzing System, Visiometrics (OQAS). The goal of this work is to compare fluctuations in objective quality of vision measured by OQAS between treatment with normal saline eye drops and treatment with carmellose 0.5% and hyaluronic acid 0.1% (Optive Fusion [OF], Allergan) in patients with moderate dry eye syndrome...
January 20, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Angela Magnet, Thiago Santos Gomes, Carmen Pardinas, Natalia Garcia de Blas, Cruz Sadaba, Eugenia Carrillo, Fernando Izquierdo, José Manuel Benítez Del Castillo, Carolina Hurtado, Carmen Del Aguila, Soledad Fenoy
BACKGROUND: The use of contact lenses has increased in recent years as has the incidence of Dry Eye Syndrome, partly due to their use. Artificial tears are the most common treatment option. Since these changes can facilitate Acanthamoeba infection, the present study has been designed to evaluate the effect of three artificial tears treatments in the viability of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 trophozoites. Optava Fusion™, Oculotect®, and Artelac® Splash were selected due to their formulation...
January 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Tong Li, Junhui He, Yue Zhang, Lin Yao, Tingting Ren, Binbin Jin
Unprecedented in situ formation of artificial moth-eye structure is demonstrated by spontaneous nano-phase separation of a silica-based system on substrate. The moth-eye thin film with a homogenously distributed nipples array shows broadband antireflection functionalities. The mechanism of nano-phase separation is unveiled as spinodal decomposition by chemical freezing method and thermodynamic analysis. The current method may provide a new avenue to ready fabrication of patterned nanostructures toward a variety of applications...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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