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K Vienola, G Jurgens, J Vuorenmaa, J Apajalahti
1. Studies were conducted with tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) to determine their effect on broiler chicken performance and ileal microbiota. TOFA, a product originating from coniferous trees and recovered by fractional distillation of side-streams from pulp production, mainly comprises free long-chain fatty acids (~90%) and resin acids (~8%). Conjugated linolenic acids and pinolenic acid are characteristic fatty acid components of TOFA. 2. TOFA products at 750 mg/kg feed were tested in two 35-day broiler chicken trials, each using a wheat soya-based diet and with 12 replicate pens per treatment...
March 22, 2018: British Poultry Science
Ya-Ting Chuang, Yueh-Juen Hwu
The global incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased in recent decades. The etiology of CDI includes aging as well as the misuse of antibiotics. This highly infectious disease requires that healthcare workers be vigilant and take isolation precautions, particularly in long-term facilities. CDI contributes to the development of severe diarrhea, which may cause imbalance of electrolytes, malabsorption of nutrients, physical disabilities, and psychosocial impacts in older patients. This article explores the pathophysiology, impacts, treatments (e...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
J M Sivik, J Davidson, C M Hale, J J Drabick, G Talamo
BACKGROUND: The most commonly used antibacterial prophylaxis during autologous stem cell transplants (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) involves a fluoroquinolone, such as ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin. We assessed the impact of adding doxycycline to ciprofloxacin as routine antibacterial prophylaxis in these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records and our ASCT database to analyze rates and types of bacterial infections in MM patients who underwent ASCT in our institution...
March 21, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Chaoyang Chen, Chongran Sun, Yi-Rui Wu
A wild-type solventogenic strain Clostridium diolis WST, isolated from mangrove sediments, was characterized to produce high amount of butanol and acetone with negligible level of ethanol and acids from glucose via a unique acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation pathway. Through the genomic sequencing, the assembled draft genome of strain WST is calculated to be 5.85 Mb with a GC content of 29.69% and contains 5263 genes that contribute to the annotation of 5049 protein-coding sequences. Within these annotated genes, the butanol dehydrogenase gene (bdh) was determined to be in a higher amount from strain WST compared to other Clostridial strains, which is positively related to its high-efficient production of butanol...
March 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
E Casari, C De Luca, M Calabrò, C Scuderi, C Daleno, A Ferrario
Background: Clostridium difficile infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality but the optimal method of diagnosis for both patient management and infection prevention remains controversial. Methods: Our hospital made a decision to switch from the use of toxin immunoassay to a stand-alone nucleic acid test. This change was accompanied by the provision of clear sampling guidance and rejection criteria and this study aimed to assess the impact of that change...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Krish Patel, Amee Patel, David Hawes, Janki Shah, Krishna Shah
Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota are known to play paramount role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Innovative sequencing methods have radically expanded our ability to analyze the intestinal microbiome. However, alterations of the GI microbiome in IBD have not yet been fully evaluated. Irregular colonization of the gut has been implicated in chronic intestinal inflammation. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure which aims to restore microbial disturbances to the individual's gut microbiome...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Hongwei Zhang, Jiaqi Lu, Yingying Lu, Qingqing Cai, Haiou Liu, Congjian Xu
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause leading to the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the relationship between genital microbiome and HPV persistence/clearance is not well established. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is one of standard treatments of CIN 2/3 globally, yet little is known about how the LEEP influence genital microbiota. We conducted a prospective study of 26 patients with CIN2/3 who underwent analysis of cervical microbiome before and after 3 months of LEEP treatment...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas V Riley, Deirdre A Collins, Rina Karunakaran, Maria Abdul Kahar, Ariza Adnan, Siti Asma Hassan, Nadiah Hanim Zainul, Fr Mohammed Rustam, Z Abd Wahab, Ramliza Ramli, Yeong Yeh Lee, Hamimah Hassan
Accumulating evidence shows a high prevalence of Clostridium difficile in Southeast Asia associated with a range of clinical presentations. However, severe infections are rarely reported. We investigated C. difficile infection (CDI) across four hospitals in Kuala Lumpur and Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Enzyme immunoassays for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B were performed on diarrhoeal stool specimens collected from patients in 2015 and 2016. Specimens were also cultured and isolates of C. difficile characterised by PCR ribotyping and detection of toxin genes...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Alba Finocchiaro, Sara Marinelli, Federica De Angelis, Valentina Vacca, Siro Luvisetto, Flaminia Pavone
Clinical use of neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum is well established and is continuously expanding, including in treatment of pain conditions. Background : The serotype A (BoNT/A) has been widely investigated, and current data demonstrate that it induces analgesia and modulates nociceptive processing initiated by inflammation or nerve injury. Given that data concerning the serotype B (BoNT/B) are limited, the aim of the present study was to verify if also BoNT/B is able not only to counteract neuropathic pain, but also to interfere with inflammatory and regenerative processes associated with the nerve injury...
March 18, 2018: Toxins
X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, X M Li, D D Ma, S S Chang
The intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3-4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
A Leiva, F Granados-Chinchilla, M Redondo-Solano, M Arrieta-González, E Pineda-Salazar, A Molina
Animal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i...
March 19, 2018: Poultry Science
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jennifer Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jin Huang, Wan Tang, Shengquan Zhu, Meini Du
Butyric acid (C3 H7 COOH) is an important chemical that is widely used in foodstuffs along with in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The bioproduction of butyric acid via large-scale fermentation has the potential to be more economical and efficient than petrochemical synthesis. In this paper, the metabolic pathways involved in the production of butyric acid from Clostridium tyrobutyricum using hexose and pentose as substrates are investigated, and approaches to enhance butyric acid production via genetic modification are discussed...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Bernadette U Ukah, Ogbonnaya Igwe, Peter Ameh
In Ajao Estate, it is believed that poor quality of its groundwater is unconnected to the dislodging of wastewater into the environment by food- and wine-producing industries operating in the area. To ascertain this claim, the impact of this wastewater on microbiological and physicochemical quality of the groundwater was evaluated. Microbiological result of water samples revealed decrease in Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, etc. count from the industrial wastewater dislodging point...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Daniel J Cwikla, Faysal A Yafi
The use of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CCH) has become increasingly widespread for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD) in recent years. Numerous trials have confirmed both its safety and efficacy in appropriately selected patients with this condition. The purpose of this review is to examine pivotal trials demonstrating the efficacy of CCH, revisit viable candidates for treatment with intralesional injection therapy, and provide a summary of injection technique and appropriate management of patients receiving this treatment at the time of therapy and in follow up...
April 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
W Wild, F Bormann, H Sweiti, N Tamimi, D Pichulek, M Divo, P Dörr, M Schwarzbach
Introduction: We report a case of Clostridium perfringens septicemia in a patient presenting with a bleeding ulcer of a jejunal interposition. Case Presentation: An 81-year-old female patient was acutely admitted to our hospital due to hematemesis and melena. She had a history of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor, for which she was receiving second line treatment with sunitinib. She had also undergone a Merendino procedure 4 years prior to presentation. The patient underwent emergency gastroscopy, which revealed a bleeding ulcer in the jejunal interposition...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Raseen Tariq, Dhruvika Mukhija, Arjun Gupta, Siddharth Singh, Darrell S Pardi, Sahil Khanna
Purpose: Statins have pleiotropic effects beyond cholesterol lowering by immune modulation. The association of statins with primary Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is unclear as studies have reported conflicting findings. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between statin use and CDI. Patients and methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science from January 1978 to December 2016 for studies assessing the association between statin use and CDI...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Hajime Kanamori, David J Weber, Maria F Gergen, Lauren M DiBiase, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, William A Rutala
BACKGROUND: Single outbreaks have often been reported in health care settings, but the frequency of outbreaks at a hospital over time has not been described. We examined epidemiologic features of all health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital during a 5-year period. METHODS: Health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital (2012-2016) were retrospectively reviewed through data on comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Ramesh J Pandit, Ankit T Hinsu, Shriram H Patel, Subhash J Jakhesara, Prakash G Koringa, Fosso Bruno, Androniki Psifidi, S V Shah, Chaitanya G Joshi
Zebu (Bos indicus) is a domestic cattle species originating from the Indian subcontinent and now widely domesticated on several continents. In this study, we were particularly interested in understanding the functionally active rumen microbiota of an important Zebu breed, the Gir, under different dietary regimes. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were compared at various taxonomic levels to elucidate the differential microbial population and its functional dynamics in Gir cattle rumen under different roughage dietary regimes...
March 9, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
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