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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923021/erratum-dietary-zinc-alters-the-microbiota-and-decreases-resistance-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Joseph P Zackular, Jessica L Moore, Ashley T Jordan, Lillian J Juttukonda, Michael J Noto, Maribeth R Nicholson, Jonathan D Crews, Matthew W Semler, Yaofang Zhang, Lorraine B Ware, M Kay Washington, Walter J Chazin, Richard M Caprioli, Eric P Skaar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922852/hiv-associated-changes-in-the-enteric-microbial-community-potential-role-in-loss-of-homeostasis-and-development-of-systemic-inflammation
#2
David B Gootenberg, Jeffrey M Paer, Jesus-Mario Luevano, Douglas S Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite HIV therapy advances, average life expectancy in HIV-infected individuals on effective treatment is significantly decreased relative to uninfected persons, largely because of increased incidence of inflammation-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction. The enteric microbial community could potentially cause this inflammation, as HIV-driven destruction of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells may disturb the microbiota-mucosal immune system balance, disrupting the stable gut microbiome and leading to further deleterious host outcomes...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922269/genomic-study-of-the-type-ivc-secretion-system-in-clostridium-difficile-understanding-c-difficile-evolution-via-horizontal-gene-transfer
#3
Wen Zhang, Ying Cheng, Pengcheng Du, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongbing Jia, Xianping Li, Jing Wang, Na Han, Yujun Qiang, Chen Chen, Jinxing Lu
Clostridium difficile, the etiological agent of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for ∼20% of antibiotic-related cases of diarrhea and nearly all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Previous data have shown that a substantial proportion (11%) of the C. difficile genome consists of mobile genetic elements, including seven conjugative transposons. However, the mechanism underlying the formation of a mosaic genome in C. difficile is unknown. The type-IV secretion system (T4SS) is the only secretion system known to transfer DNA segments among bacteria...
August 30, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921010/structural-insights-into-substrate-recognition-by-clostridium-difficile-sortase
#4
Jui-Chieh Yin, Chun-Hsien Fei, Yen-Chen Lo, Yu-Yuan Hsiao, Jyun-Cyuan Chang, Jay C Nix, Yuan-Yu Chang, Lee-Wei Yang, I-Hsiu Huang, Shuying Wang
Sortases function as cysteine transpeptidases that catalyze the covalent attachment of virulence-associated surface proteins into the cell wall peptidoglycan in Gram-positive bacteria. The substrate proteins targeted by sortase enzymes have a cell wall sorting signal (CWSS) located at the C-terminus. Up to date, it is still not well understood how sortases with structural resemblance among different classes and diverse species of bacteria achieve substrate specificity. In this study, we focus on elucidating the molecular basis for specific recognition of peptide substrate PPKTG by Clostridium difficile sortase B (Cd-SrtB)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921008/age-related-differences-in-the-luminal-and-mucosa-associated-gut-microbiome-of-broiler-chickens-and-shifts-associated-with-campylobacter-jejuni-infection
#5
Wageha A Awad, Evelyne Mann, Monika Dzieciol, Claudia Hess, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Martin Wagner, Michael Hess
Despite the importance of gut microbiota for broiler performance and health little is known about the composition of this ecosystem, its development and response towards bacterial infections. Therefore, the current study was conducted to address the composition and structure of the microbial community in broiler chickens in a longitudinal study from day 1 to day 28 of age in the gut content and on the mucosa. Additionally, the consequences of a Campylobacter (C.) jejuni infection on the microbial community were assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920416/re-evaluating-the-inhibition-of-stress-erosions-revise-a-protocol-for-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Waleed Alhazzani, Gordon Guyatt, John C Marshall, Richard Hall, John Muscedere, Francois Lauzier, Lehana Thabane, Mohammed Alshahrani, Shane W English, Yaseen M Arabi, Adam M Deane, Tim Karachi, Bram Rochwerg, Simon Finfer, Nick Daneman, Nicole Zytaruk, Diane Heel-Ansdell, Deborah Cook, On Behalf Of
INTRODUCTION: Clinicians routinely administer stress ulcer prophylaxis to mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), most commonly prescribing proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from stress ulceration is low and recent observational studies suggest these agents may increase infections. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial (RCT) is needed to inform modern practice. The aim of this multicenter pilot trial is to determine the feasibility of performing a large RCT to investigate the efficacy and safety of withholding intravenous pantoprazole...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919180/investigation-of-a-mortality-cluster-in-wild-adult-yellow-eyed-penguins-megadyptes-antipodes-at-otago-peninsula-new-zealand
#7
Brett Gartrell, David Agnew, Maurice Alley, Tim Carpenter, Hye Jeong Ha, Laryssa Howe, Stuart Hunter, Kate McInnes, Rex Munday, Roe Wendi, Young Melanie
We investigated an epidemic mortality cluster of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) that involved 67 moribund or dead birds found on various beaches of the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, between January 21 and March 20, 2013. Twenty-four carcases were examined postmortem. Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis and haemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds. Fifteen birds also had haemoglobin-like protein droplets within renal tubular epithelial cells. Despite consistent histological lesions, a cause of death could not be established...
December 6, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918428/correction-chen-s-et-al-identification-of-an-essential-region-for-translocation-of-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b-toxins-2016-8-241
#8
Shuyi Chen, Haiying Wang, Huawei Gu, Chunli Sun, Shan Li, Hanping Feng, Jufang Wang
n/a.
December 2, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918147/genome-analysis-of-a-hyper-acetone-butanol-ethanol-abe-producing-clostridium-acetobutylicum-bkm19
#9
Changhee Cho, Donghui Choe, Yu-Sin Jang, Kyung-Jin Kim, Won Jun Kim, Byung-Kwan Cho, E Terry Papoutsakis, George N Bennett, Do Young Seung, Sang Yup Lee
We previously reported development of a hyper acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) producing Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19 strain capable of producing 30.5% more total solvent by random mutagenesis of its parental strain PJC4BK, which is a buk mutant C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 strain. Here BKM19 and PJC4BK strains were re-sequenced by a high-throughput sequencing technique to understand the mutations responsible for enhanced solvent production. In comparison with the C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK, 13 single nucleotide variants (SNVs), 1 deletion and 1 back mutation SNV were identified in the C...
December 5, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917879/colonic-luminal-microbiota-and-bacterial-metabolite-composition-in-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs-effects-of-food-composition-at-different-times-of-pregnancy
#10
Xiang-Feng Kong, Yu-Jiao Ji, Hua-Wei Li, Qian Zhu, F Blachier, Mei-Mei Geng, Wen Chen, Yu-Long Yin
The gut harbours diverse and complex microbiota, which influence body health including nutrient metabolism, immune development, and protection from pathogens. Pregnancy is associated with immune and metabolic changes that might be related to microbiota compositional dynamics. We therefore investigated the colonic luminal bacteria community in Huanjiang mini-pigs fed diets with different nutrient levels from the first to third trimester of pregnancy. The concentrations of intestinal metabolites including short-chain fat acids, NH3-N, indole, skatole, and bioamines were also determined...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917834/the-crystal-structure-of-the-endoglucanase-cel10-a-family-8-glycosyl-hydrolase-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#11
Ayman Attigani, Lifang Sun, Qing Wang, Yadan Liu, Dingping Bai, Shengping Li, Xiaohong Huang
Cellulases are produced by microorganisms that grow on cellulose biomass. Here, a cellulase, Cel10, was identified in a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Chinese bamboo rat gut. Analysis of substrate specificity showed that Cel10 is able to hydrolyze amorphous carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and crystalline forms of cellulose (Avicel and xylan) but is unable to hydrolyze p-nitrophenol β-D-glucopyranoside (p-NPG), proving that Cel10 is an endoglucanase. A phylogenetic tree analysis indicates that Cel10 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase 8 (GH8) subfamily...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917828/molecular-determinants-of-substrate-specificity-revealed-by-the-structure-of-clostridium-thermocellum-arabinofuranosidase-43a-from-glycosyl-hydrolase-family-43-subfamily-16
#12
Arun Goyal, Shadab Ahmed, Kedar Sharma, Vikas Gupta, Pedro Bule, Victor D Alves, Carlos M G A Fontes, Shabir Najmudin
The recent division of the large glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) into subfamilies offers a renewed opportunity to develop structure-function studies aimed at clarifying the molecular determinants of substrate specificity in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. α-L-Arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) remove arabinose side chains from heteropolysaccharides such as xylan and arabinan. However, there is some evidence suggesting that arabinofuranosidases are substrate-specific, being unable to display a debranching activity on different polysaccharides...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917645/a-chicken-intestinal-ligated-loop-model-to-study-the-virulence-of-clostridium-perfringens-isolates-recovered-from-antibiotic-free-chicken-flocks
#13
Eric Parent, Marie Archambault, Audrey Charlebois, Jocelyn Bernier-Lachance, Martine Boulianne
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a major problem in antibiotic-free (ABF) chicken flocks and specific strains of Clostridium perfringens are known to induce NE. The objective of this study was to develop a chicken intestinal ligated loop model in order to compare the virulence of various C. perfringens strains recovered from consecutive ABF flocks with and without NE. Intestinal loops were surgically prepared in 10 anaesthetized specific-pathogen-free chickens and alternately inoculated with C. perfringens isolates or brain heart infusion (BHI) media...
December 5, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917166/temporal-metagenomic-and-metabolomic-characterization-of-fresh-perennial-ryegrass-degradation-by-rumen-bacteria
#14
Olga L Mayorga, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Eun J Kim, Gordon G Allison, Toby J Wilkinson, Matthew J Hegarty, Michael K Theodorou, Charles J Newbold, Sharon A Huws
Understanding the relationship between ingested plant material and the attached microbiome is essential for developing methodologies to improve ruminant nutrient use efficiency. We have previously shown that perennial ryegrass (PRG) rumen bacterial colonization events follow a primary (up to 4 h) and secondary (after 4 h) pattern based on the differences in diversity of the attached bacteria. In this study, we investigated temporal niche specialization of primary and secondary populations of attached rumen microbiota using metagenomic shotgun sequencing as well as monitoring changes in the plant chemistry using mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917094/pathophysiology-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea
#15
Bruce Yacyshyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917075/management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Layth S Al-Jashaami, Herbert L DuPont
Since the discovery of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the 1970s, there has been an increase in the incidence, severity, and recurrence rate of the disease. We reviewed the recent CDI literature in PubMed published before February 28, 2016 that focused on advances in therapy. Despite a large number of studies describing methods for diagnosing the disease, there is currently no definitive test that identifies this infection with certainty, which complicates therapy. Recommended therapy for CDI includes oral metronidazole for mild cases and oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for moderate to severe cases, each given for 10 to 14 days...
October 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917073/clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Gary R Lichtenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915984/structure-function-and-evolution-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-and-c3-toxins-insight-to-poultry-and-veterinary-vaccines
#18
P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914869/glycolysis-without-pyruvate-kinase-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#19
Daniel G Olson, Manuel Hörl, Tobias Fuhrer, Jingxuan Cui, Jilai Zhou, Marybeth I Maloney, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Liang Tian, Uwe Sauer, Lee R Lynd
The metabolism of Clostridium thermocellum is notable in that it assimilates sugar via the EMP pathway but does not possess a pyruvate kinase enzyme. In the wild type organism, there are three proposed pathways for conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate, which differ in their cofactor usage. One path uses pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), another pathway uses the combined activities of PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) and oxaloacetate decarboxylase (ODC). Yet another pathway, the malate shunt, uses the combined activities of PEPCK, malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme...
November 30, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914813/normal-human-gingival-fibroblasts-undergo-cytostasis-and-apoptosis-after-long-term-exposure-to-butyric-acid
#20
Michihiro Shirasugi, Keisuke Nishioka, Toshiro Yamamoto, Takaaki Nakaya, Narisato Kanamura
The causes of periodontal disease are complex. Butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mRNA expression. Butyric acid produced by Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory T cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. Mice lacking Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. By contrast, butyric acid in the oral cavity worsens periodontal disease...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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