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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636257/covalent-attachment-and-pro-pro-endopeptidase-ppep-1-mediated-release-of-clostridium-difficile-cell-surface-proteins-involved-in-adhesion
#1
REVIEW
Jeroen Corver, Valentina Cordo', Hans C van Leeuwen, Oleg I Klychnikov, Paul J Hensbergen
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile has emerged as an important gut pathogen. This anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium is the main cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. Whereas much is known about the mechanism through which the C. difficile toxins cause diarrhea, relatively little is known about the dynamics of adhesion and motility, which is mediated by cell surface proteins. This review will discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the sortase-mediated covalent attachment of cell surface (adhesion) proteins to the peptidoglycan layer of C...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635316/complications-following-collagenase-treatment-for-dupuytren-contracture
#2
Jennifer Wozniczka, Clifford Canepa, Adam Mirarchi, Joel S Solomon
BACKGROUND: Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection and manipulation is a relatively new method for treating Dupuytren contracture that is growing in popularity. Although side effects such as swelling and ecchymosis are common, they are typically mild and self-limited. Major complications are rare but have included flexor tendon rupture and complex regional pain syndrome. METHODS: This study describes a case report of 2 patients seen at our institution...
June 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#3
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634129/state-of-the-art-review-of-biofuels-production-from-lignocellulose-by-thermophilic-bacteria
#4
REVIEW
Yujia Jiang, Fengxue Xin, Jiasheng Lu, Weiliang Dong, Wenming Zhang, Min Zhang, Hao Wu, Jiangfeng Ma, Min Jiang
Biofuels, including ethanol and butanol, are mainly produced by mesophilic solventogenic yeasts and Clostridium species. However, these microorganisms cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic materials, which are abundant, renewable and non-compete with human demand. More recently, thermophilic bacteria show great potential for biofuels production, which could efficiently degrade lignocellulose through the cost effective consolidated bioprocessing. Especially, it could avoid contamination in the whole process owing to its relatively high fermentation temperature...
June 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633368/impact-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-hospitalization-and-patient-quality-of-life
#5
Mark H Wilcox, Harblas Ahir, John E Coia, Andrew Dodgson, Susan Hopkins, Martin J Llewelyn, Chris Settle, Susan Mclain-Smith, Stephen W Marcella
Objectives: Data quantifying outcomes of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) are lacking. We sought to determine the UK hospital resource use and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with rCDI hospitalizations. Patients and methods: A non-interventional study in six UK acute hospitals collected retrospective clinical and resource use data from medical records of 64 adults hospitalized for rCDI and 64 matched inpatient controls with a first episode only (f)CDI...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632934/a-prospective-microbiome-wide-association-study-of-food-sensitization-and-food-allergy-in-early-childhood
#6
Jessica H Savage, Kathleen A Lee-Sarwar, Joanne Sordillo, Supinda Bunyavanich, Yanjiao Zhou, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Leonard Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Scott T Weiss, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the intestinal microbiome are prospectively associated with the development of asthma; less is known regarding the role of microbiome alterations in food allergy development. METHODS: Intestinal microbiome samples were collected at age 3-6 months in children participating in the follow-up phase of an interventional trial of high dose Vitamin D given during pregnancy. At age 3, sensitization to foods (milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, walnut) was assessed...
June 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631639/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-the-patients-attending-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#8
Lavanya Segar, Joshy M Easow, Sreenivasan Srirangaraj, Mohammad Hanifah, Noyal M Joseph, K S Seetha
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile, a most important nosocomial enteric pathogen, is recognized globally as responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality due to widespread use of antibiotics. AIMS: The study was done to determine the prevalence of C. difficile infection (CDI) among the patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631587/dietary-supplementation-with-a-nucleotide-rich-yeast-extract-modulates-gut-immune-response-and-microflora-in-weaned-pigs-in-response-to-a-sanitary-challenge
#9
S M Waititu, F Yin, R Patterson, A Yitbarek, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the short-term effect of supplementing a nucleotide-rich yeast extract (NRYE) on growth performance, gut structure, immunity and microflora of piglets raised under sanitary and unsanitary conditions. A total of 84, 21-day old piglets were used in this study; 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the clean room that was washed once per week, whereas the other 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the unclean room in which 7 kg of manure from the sow herd was spread on each pen floor on day 1 and 7 and the room was not washed throughout the experiment...
June 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631221/effects-of-gas-condition-on-acetic-acid-fermentation-by-clostridium-thermocellum-and-moorella-thermoacetica-c-thermoaceticum
#10
Harifara Rabemanolontsoa, Dung Van Nguyen, Piradee Jusakulvjit, Shiro Saka
Fermentation with acetogens can be affected by cultivation gas phase, but to date, there is not enough evidence on that matter for Clostridium thermocellum and Moorella thermoacetica. In this work, the effects of sparged CO2 as well as sparged and non-sparged N2 on these microorganisms were studied using glucose and cellobiose as substrates. It was revealed that sparged CO2 and non-sparged N2 supported growth and acetic acid production by C. thermocellum and M. thermoacetica, while sparged N2 inhibited both of the microorganisms...
June 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630239/an-unusual-case-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infection-with-pseudomembranous-colitis-like-lesions-associated-with-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-and-neurological-sequelae
#11
James Kennedy, Lauren Simmonds, Robert Orme, Warren Doherty
A 75-year-old man was admitted with abdominal pain and fresh rectal bleeding. Significantly, he had no risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection. An abdominal CT demonstrated colonic thickening, and flexible sigmoidoscopy identified pseudomembranous colitis-like lesions. After initial treatment as C. difficile colitis, a stool sample revealed Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Antibiotic therapy was stopped due to the risk of lysis-mediated toxin release, but unfortunately, the patient continued to deteriorate...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630128/identification-of-a-d-arabinose-5-phosphate-isomerase-in-the-gram-positive-clostridium-tetani
#12
David L Cech, Katherine Markin, Ronald W Woodard
d-Arabinose-5-phosphate isomerases (APIs) catalyze the interconversion of d-ribulose-5-phosphate and d-arabinose-5-phosphate. Various Gram-negative bacteria, such as the uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073, contain multiple API paralogs (KdsD, GutQ, KpsF and c3406) that have been assigned various cellular functions. The d-arabinose-5-phosphate formed by these enzymes seems to play important roles in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide and group 2 K-antigen capsules, as well as in the regulation of the cellular d-glucitol uptake and uropathogenic infectivity/virulence...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629876/effect-of-antibiotic-stewardship-on-the-incidence-of-infection-and-colonisation-with-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
David Baur, Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Francesco Burkert, Elena Carrara, Federico Foschi, Stefanie Döbele, Evelina Tacconelli
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship programmes have been shown to reduce antibiotic use and hospital costs. We aimed to evaluate evidence of the effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infections and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science for studies published from Jan 1, 1960, to May 31, 2016, that analysed the effect of antibiotic stewardship programmes on the incidence of infection and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile infections in hospital inpatients...
June 16, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628892/structural-characterization-of-wall-and-lipidated-polysaccharides-from-clostridium-perfringens-atcc-13124
#14
Evgeny Vinogradov, Annie Aubry, Susan M Logan
Cell surface polysaccharides produced by C. perfringens ATCC 13124 were analyzed using NMR, chemical and immunological methods. Two distinct polymers were identified. The more abundant PS1 had a structure based on a polymer of β-mannosamine with a number of modifications, including varying levels of substitution at O-6 with PEtN, N-acetylation, and different linkages between monosaccharides. The shortest variant of PS1 represented a lipoteichoic acid. It contained only 1-4-linkages between ManNAc residues, minor branching α-Ribf, and glucosyl-glycerol at the reducing end, which was acylated with linear saturated fatty acids C16, C18, and C20 (dominant)...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626612/postmortem-succession-of-gut-microbial-communities-in-deceased-human%C3%A2-subjects
#15
Jennifer M DeBruyn, Kathleen A Hauther
The human microbiome has demonstrated an importance for the health and functioning in living individuals. However, the fate of the microbiome after death is less understood. In addition to a better understanding of microbe-mediated decomposition processes, postmortem succession of human-associated microbial communities has been suggested as a possible forensic tool for estimating time since death, or postmortem interval (PMI). The objective of our study was to document postmortem changes in human gut bacterial communities...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625981/heterologous-expression-of-the-clostridium-carboxidivorans-co-dehydrogenase-alone-or-together-with-the-acetyl-coa-synthase-enables-clostridium-acetobutylicum-to-both-reduce-co2-and-oxidize-co
#16
Ellinor D Carlson, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. CODH/ACS can reversibly catalyze CO2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO2 and has been well characterized in native hosts...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#17
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625525/recombinant-lactobacillus-casei-expressing-clostridium-perfringens-toxoids-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-%C3%AE-1-gives-protection-against-clostridium-perfringens-in-rabbits
#18
Li Zhao, Zhihou Guo, Jiali Liu, Zi Wang, Ruichong Wang, Yijing Li, Li Wang, Yigang Xu, Lijie Tang, Xinyuan Qiao
The present study used Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 as antigen delivery system to express C. perfringens toxoids α-β2-ε-β1 to construct the recombination Lactobacillus casei pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393. After being induced by 1% xylose, the specificity and integrity of recombinant strain were determined by Western-blotting. Rabbits as native animal model were immunized orally with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 and the titers of specific IgG and sIgA were determined by ELISA. The result showed that oral administration with the recombinants could elicit both local mucosal and systemic immune responses...
June 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625250/-fulminant-clostridium-difficile-colitis-new-challenges-in-critical-care-medicine
#19
Bin Liu
Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC) means severe Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC), which often manifested with severe diarrhea, fever, abdominal distention, electrolyte disorder, hypoalbuminemia, and it can lead to pseudo membrane colonitis, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Now Clostridium difficile (CD) becomes one of the most important medical institutions related infectious pathogens. In particular, the recently discovered mutant CD strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 has high pathogenicity in the global epidemic and its outbreak...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624753/treatment-of-asymptomatic-uti-in-older-delirious-medical-in-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Monidipa Dasgupta, Chris Brymer, Sameer Elsayed
BACKGROUND: Despite clinical practice guidelines, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in older people is frequently treated. A common reason for treating ASB is a change in mental status. OBJECTIVE: To determine how often asymptomatic UTI is treated in older medically ill delirious individuals and its association with functional recovery. METHODS: Consecutive older medical in-patients were screened for delirium, and followed in hospital. Treatment for asymptomatic UTI was defined as documented treatment for a possible urinary tract infection with antibiotics, without concurrent infectious or urinary symptoms...
May 31, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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