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Marta Aleksandrowicz, Ewa Kozniewska
Vasopressin (arginine vasopressin, AVP) plays a crucial role in maintaining body fluid homeostasis. Excessive release of vasopressin can lead to hyponatremia. Changes in cerebral circulation during vasopressin-induced chronic hyponatremia are not elucidated. The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of chronic vasopressin-induced hyponatremia on the regulation of the tone of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of the rat. Chronic hyponatremia was induced in vivo with the help of vasopressin, released continuously from subcutaneously implanted ALZET mini-osmotic pumps, and a liquid diet...
March 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Teresa Daraio, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Kerstin Brismar, Christina Bark
SNAP-25 is a protein involved in regulated membrane fusion and part of the SNARE complex. It exists as two splicing variants, SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b, which differ in 9 out of 206 amino acids. SNAP-25 together with Syntaxin 1 and VAMP-2 forms the ternary SNARE complex essential for mediating activity-dependent release of hormones and neurotransmitters. The functional difference between SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b is poorly understood as both can participate in SNARE complexes and mediate membrane fusion. However, we recently demonstrated that SNAP-25b-deficiency results in metabolic disease and increased insulin secretion...
March 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
G Möckel, W Miehlke
OBJECTIVE: Tenotomy of the psoas tendon in symptomatic internal coxa saltans or psoas impingement should relieve pain. INDICATIONS: Indicated in conservative treatment-resistant internal coxa saltans and in psoas impingement. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Contraindications are symptomatic psoas pathologies in hip dysplasia patients. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Three different procedures exist with the arthroscopic technique, in which the psoas tenotomy can be performed at one of three different levels...
March 14, 2018: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Bo Jin, Wenhan Hu, Linmei Ye, Balu Krishnan, Thandar Aung, Stephen E Jones, Imad M Najm, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Kai Zhang, Junming Zhu, Jianguo Zhang, Meiping Ding, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang, Zhong Irene Wang
Objective: To investigate the neuroimaging and clinical features associated with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE) in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II. Methods: Patients with histopathologically proven FCD type II were included from three epilepsy centers. SRE was defined according to the video EEG findings and seizure history. Cortical surface reconstruction and volume calculation were performed using FreeSurfer. The lesions were manually delineated on T1 volumetric MRI using the ITK-SNAP software...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Wendi Gosliner, Daniel M Brown, Betty C Sun, Gail Woodward-Lopez, Patricia B Crawford
OBJECTIVE: To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California. DESIGN: Cross-sectional statewide survey. SETTING: Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Sarah L Bornbusch, Jonathan S Lefcheck, J Emmett Duffy
Eusociality, one of the most complex forms of social organization, is thought to have evolved in several animal clades in response to competition for resources and reproductive opportunities. Several species of snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus, the only marine organisms known to exhibit eusociality, form colonies characterized by high reproductive skew, and aggressive territoriality coupled with cooperative defense. In eusocial Synalpheus colonies, individual reproduction is limited to female 'queens', whose fecundity dictates colony growth...
2018: PloS One
Hyemi Bae, Jeongyoon Choi, Young-Won Kim, Donghee Lee, Jung-Ha Kim, Jae-Hong Ko, Hyoweon Bang, Taeho Kim, Inja Lim
This study investigated the expression of voltage-gated K⁺ (KV ) channels in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs), and the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the KV currents, and the underlying phosphorylation mechanisms. In reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, two types of KV channels were detected in HCFs: delayed rectifier K⁺ channel and transient outward K⁺ channel. In whole-cell patch-clamp technique, delayed rectifier K⁺ current (IK ) exhibited fast activation and slow inactivation, while transient outward K⁺ current (Ito ) showed fast activation and inactivation kinetics...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tom Podewin, Julia Ast, Johannes Broichhagen, Nicholas H F Fine, Daniela Nasteska, Philipp Leippe, Manuel Gailer, Teresa Buenaventura, Nisha Kanda, Ben J Jones, Celine M'Kadmi, Jean-Louis Baneres, Jacky Marie, Alejandra Tomas, Dirk Trauner, Anja Hoffmann-Röder, David J Hodson
Understanding the activation and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) using conditional approaches is paramount to developing new therapeutic strategies. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and testing of ExONatide , a benzylguanine-linked peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a class B GPCR required for maintenance of glucose levels in humans. ExONatide covalently binds to SNAP-tagged GLP-1R-expressing cells, leading to prolonged cAMP generation, Ca2+ rises, and intracellular retention of the receptor...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Amanda A Pierce, Steven W Chapman, Laura K Zimmerman, Jennifer C Hurley, Ramon Aravena, John A Cherry, Beth L Parker
Plumes of trichloroethene (TCE) with degradation products occur at a large industrial site in California where TCE as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) entered the fractured sandstone bedrock at many locations beginning in the late 1940s. Groundwater flows rapidly in closely spaced fractures but plume fronts are strongly retarded relative to groundwater flow velocities owing largely to matrix diffusion in early decades and degradation processes in later decades and going forward. Multiple data types show field evidence for both biotic and abiotic dechlorination of TCE and its degradation products, resulting in non-chlorinated compounds...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Chrysoula Vraka, Monika Dumanic, Teresa Racz, Florian Pichler, Cecile Philippe, Theresa Balber, Eva-Maria Klebermass, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser
In drug development, biomarkers for cerebral applications have a lower success rate compared to cardiovascular drugs or tumor therapeutics. One reason is the missing blood brain barrier penetration, caused by the tracer's interaction with efflux transporters such as the P-gp (MDR1 or ABCB1). Aim of this study was the development of a reliable model to measure the interaction of radiotracers with the human efflux transporter P-gp in parallel to the radiolabeling process. LigandTracer® Technology was used with the wildtype cell line MDCKII and the equivalent cell line overexpressing human P-gp (MDCKII-hMDR1)...
February 14, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Pingyu Nan, Darragh M Walsh, Kerry A Landman, Barry D Hughes
Motivated by in vitro time-lapse images of ovarian cancer spheroids inducing mesothelial cell clearance, the traditional agent-based model of cell migration, based on simple volume exclusion, was extended to include the possibility that a cell seeking to move into an occupied location may push the resident cell, and any cells neighbouring it, out of the way to occupy that location. In traditional discrete models of motile cells with volume exclusion such a move would be aborted. We introduce a new shoving mechanism which allows cells to choose the direction to shove cells that expends the least amount of shoving effort (to account for the likely resistance of cells to being pushed)...
2018: PloS One
Marc Beltempo, Prakesh S Shah, Xiang Y Ye, Jehier Afifi, Shoo Lee, Douglas D McMillan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific Score of Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP-II) cut-off scores associated with outcomes in extremely preterm infants, and to examine its contribution to predictive models that include nonmodifiable birth predictors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of 9240 infants born at 22-28 weeks' gestation and admitted to the Canadian Neonatal Network from 2010 to 2015. Outcomes included early and hospital mortality, composite of mortality/morbidity and individual morbidities...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Paul C Norris, Charles N Serhan
Metabolomics enables a systems approach to interrogate the bioactive mediators, their pathways and further metabolites involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of human and animal tissues. New metabololipidomic approaches with mass spectrometry presented in this brief review can now be utilized for the identification and profiling of lipid mediator networks that control inflammation-resolution in human blood and healthy and diseased solid tissues. Coagulation of blood is a protective response that prevents excessive bleeding on injury of blood vessels...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shinyoung Jun, Sowmyanarayanan V Thuppal, Melissa K Maulding, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Dennis A Savaiano, Regan L Bailey
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) program aims to improve nutritional intakes of low-income individuals (<185% poverty threshold). The objective of this study was to describe the compliance with Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains among SNAP-Ed eligible ( n = 3142) and ineligible ( n = 3168) adult women (19-70 years) nationwide and SNAP-Ed participating women in Indiana ( n = 2623), using the NHANES 2007-2012 and Indiana SNAP-Ed survey data, respectively...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
Kaikai Che, Chao Yuan, H Jerry Qi, Julien Meaud
When an architected material with snap-through instabilities is loaded, the unit cells of the architected material snap sequentially to a series of deformed configurations. In this paper, we propose the novel concept of multimaterial viscoelastic architected materials whose snapping sequence can be tuned using temperature as a control parameter. Because different polymers have different temperature-dependent properties, it is possible that one polymer that is stiffer than another polymer at one temperature becomes softer at a higher temperature...
March 7, 2018: Soft Matter
Emanuele Felice Osimo, Katherine Beck, Tiago Reis Marques, Oliver D Howes
Although synaptic loss is thought to be core to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the nature, consistency and magnitude of synaptic protein and mRNA changes has not been systematically appraised. Our objective was thus to systematically review and meta-analyse findings. The entire PubMed database was searched for studies from inception date to the 1st of July 2017. We selected case-control postmortem studies in schizophrenia quantifying synaptic protein or mRNA levels in brain tissue. The difference in protein and mRNA levels between cases and controls was extracted and meta-analysis conducted...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Fathima Banu Raza, Anand Kumar Vaidyanathan, Padmanabhan T Veeravalli, Subhiksha Ravishankar, Aashique S Ali
BACKGROUND: Single piece implant in fixed prosthesis is widely been evaluated, however, long term evaluation of crestal bone loss and the wear of O-ring in single piece ball attachment implant supported overdenture is yet to be evaluated PURPOSE: The present article evaluates the crestal bone loss around single piece ball attachment implants placed bilaterally in the canine region and the wear of O-ring in implant supported overdenture over a period of three years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve completely edentulous patients between the age group of 55-65 years were selected...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Robinder Bahniwal, Jarrett Sell, Abdul Waheed
OBJECTIVE: Determine patient recall, attitudes, and perceptions of their pain contract in a family medicine resident out-patient clinic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design using a telephone survey to all eligible subjects who signed a hardcopy pain contract from August 29, 2014 to May 19, 2016 at a resident outpatient clinic. SETTING: Penn State Hershey Family and Community Medicine Residency clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who signed a hardcopy pain contract at the practice site who met specific inclusion criteria...
January 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Lilan Hong, Mathilde Dumond, Mingyuan Zhu, Satoru Tsugawa, Chun-Biu Li, Arezki Boudaoud, Olivier Hamant, Adrienne H K Roeder
Development is remarkably reproducible, producing organs with the same size, shape, and function repeatedly from individual to individual. For example, every flower on the Antirrhinum> stalk has the same snapping dragon mouth. This reproducibility has allowed taxonomists to classify plants and animals according to their morphology. Yet these reproducible organs are composed of highly variable cells. For example, neighboring cells grow at different rates in Arabidopsis leaves, sepals, and shoot apical meristems...
March 5, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Peter Hsien-Li Peng, Jui-Hui Peng
INTRODUCTION: The tear trough deformity is commonly requested for correction, most often by filler injections. However, the tear trough remains difficult to treat due to its complex anatomy, a variety of other concurrent deformities, and the high risk of complications. OBJECTIVES: To create a standardized categorization, evaluation, and treatment protocol for the management of tear troughs with fillers. METHODS: (1) Patient deformity profiles are determined using three categories of traits: A (Atrophy), B (Bulging), L (Laxity)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
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