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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344866/immuno-guided-laser-capture-microdissection-of-glial-cells-for-mrna-analysis
#1
Arnaud B Nicot, Justine Rambeau, Flora Guillot, Alexandra Garcia, David A Laplaud
Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) allows for retrieval of specific cell populations in situ. By combining immunofluorescent labeling with LCM, mRNAs can be probed by qRT-PCR for determining in situ gene expression during health and disease. This approach permits obtaining and analyzing histologically enriched cell populations in a tissue that can be hardly obtained from other methods such as white matter astrocytes from rodents or any individual cell population from archival human or rodent brain tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340410/active-textiles-with-janus-fibres
#2
A P Zakharov, L M Pismen
We describe reshaping of active textiles actuated by bending of Janus fibres comprising both active and passive components. A great variety of shapes, determined by minimising the overall energy of the fabric, can be produced by varying bending directions determined by the orientation of Janus fibres. Under certain conditions, alternative equilibrium states, one absolutely stable and the other metastable coexist, and their relative energy may flip its sign as system parameters, such as the extension upon actuation, change...
January 17, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338732/transcriptional-profile-and-epstein-barr-virus-infection-status-of-laser-cut-immune-infiltrates-from-the-brain-of-patients-with-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Caterina Veroni, Barbara Serafini, Barbara Rosicarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Francesca Aloisi
BACKGROUND: It is debated whether multiple sclerosis (MS) might result from an immunopathological response toward an active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection brought into the central nervous system (CNS) by immigrating B cells. Based on this model, a relationship should exist between the local immune milieu and EBV infection status in the MS brain. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression of viral and cellular genes in brain-infiltrating immune cells. METHODS: Twenty-three postmortem snap-frozen brain tissue blocks from 11 patients with progressive MS were selected based on good RNA quality and prominent immune cell infiltration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335355/snap-crackle-and-pop-when-sneezing-leads-to-crackling-in-the-neck
#4
Wanding Yang, Raguwinder S Sahota, Sudip Das
Spontaneous perforation of the pharynx is an unusual condition. Due to its non-specific presentation and general lack of awareness, diagnosis and intervention may be delayed resulting in potential complications. This case reports a rare spontaneous perforation of the pyriform sinus after a forceful sneeze, leading to cervical subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum.
January 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331210/to-roll-the-eyes-and-snap-a-bite-function-development-and-evolution-of-craniofacial-muscles
#5
REVIEW
Frank R Schubert, Arun J Singh, Oluwatomisin Afoyalan, Chrissa Kioussi, Susanne Dietrich
Craniofacial muscles, muscles that move the eyes, control facial expression and allow food uptake and speech, have long been regarded as a variation on the general body muscle scheme. However, evidence has accumulated that the function of head muscles, their developmental anatomy and the underlying regulatory cascades are distinct. This article reviews the key aspects of craniofacial muscle and muscle stem cell formation and discusses how this differs from the trunk programme of myogenesis; we show novel RNAseq data to support this notion...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327113/storage-stability-study-of-porcine-hepatic-and-intestinal-cytochrome-p450-isoenzymes-by-use-of-a-newly-developed-and-fully-validated-highly-sensitive-hplc-ms-ms-method
#6
Wim Schelstraete, Mathias Devreese, Siska Croubels
Microsomes are an ideal medium to investigate cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism. However, before microsomes are prepared, tissues can be stored for a long time. Studies about the stability of these enzymes in porcine hepatic and intestinal tissues upon storage are lacking. To be able to investigate CYP450 stability in microsomes prepared from these tissues, a highly sensitive and rapid HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six CYP450 metabolites in incubation medium was developed and validated...
January 11, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325666/examining-internet-access-and-social-media-application-use-for-online-nutrition-education-in%C3%A2-snap-ed-participants-in-rural-illinois
#7
Emily Loehmer, Sylvia Smith, Jennifer McCaffrey, Jeremy Davis
OBJECTIVE: To examine Internet access and interest in receiving nutrition education via social media applications among low-income adults participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was distributed during 25 SNAP-Ed classes throughout the 16 southernmost counties of Illinois. RESULTS: From 188 responses, the majority of participants had Internet access (76%). Among participants aged 18-32 years (n = 51), 92% owned a smartphone with Internet access and 57% indicated that they would use online nutrition education, with most interest in e-mail (41%), Facebook (40%), and text messaging (35%)...
January 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324299/boys-with-conduct-problems-and-callous-unemotional-traits-neural-response-to-reward-and-punishment-and-associations-with-treatment-response
#8
Amy L Byrd, Samuel W Hawes, Jeffrey D Burke, Rolf Loeber, Dustin A Pardini
Abnormalities in reward and punishment processing are implicated in the development of conduct problems (CP), particularly among youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, no studies have examined whether CP children with high versus low CU traits exhibit differences in the neural response to reward and punishment. A clinic-referred sample of CP boys with high versus low CU traits (ages 8-11; n = 37) and healthy controls (HC; n = 27) completed a fMRI task assessing reward and punishment processing...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321886/gap-formation-and-dynamics-after-long-term-steady-state-in-an-old-growth-picea-abies-stand-in-norway-above-and-belowground-interactions
#9
Per Holm Nygaard, Line Tau Strand, Arne Oddvar Stuanes
Stand dynamics and the gap initiation prior to gap formation are not well-understood because of its long-term nature and the scarcity of late-successional stands. Reconstruction of such disturbance is normally based on historical records and dendroecological methods. We investigated gap initiation and formation at the fine-scale stand level in the old-growth reserve of Karlshaugen in Norway. Given its long-term conservation history, and thorough mapping in permanent marked plots with spatially referenced trees, it provides an opportunity to present stand development before, during, and after gap formation...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321476/sample-handling-of-gastric-tissue-and-o-glycan-alterations-in-paired-gastric-cancer-and-non-tumorigenic-tissues
#10
Barbara Adamczyk, Chunsheng Jin, Karol Polom, Pedro Muñoz, Miguel A Rojas-Macias, David Zeeberg, Mats Borén, Franco Roviello, Niclas G Karlsson
Sample collection, handling and storage are the most critical steps for ensuring the highest preservation of specimens. Pre-analytical variability can influence the results as protein signatures alter rapidly after tissue excision or during long-term storage. Hence, we evaluated current state-of-the-art biobank preservation methods from a glycomics perspective and analyzed O-glycan alterations occurring in the gastric cancer tissues. Paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were obtained from six patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320824/seroprevalence-of-dirofilaria-immitis-in-cats-from-liaoning-province-northeastern-china
#11
Honglie Hou, Lili Cao, Wenzhi Ren, Dansheng Wang, He Ding, Juan You, Xinhua Yao, Hang Dong, Yanbing Guo, Shuxian Yuan, Xichen Zhang, Pengtao Gong
The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average prevalence was 4.5%. Age and rearing conditions (feral or domestic) were found to be associated with the prevalence of D...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320738/trapping-of-syntaxin1a-in-presynaptic-nanoclusters-by-a-clinically-relevant-general-anesthetic
#12
Adekunle T Bademosi, James Steeves, Shanker Karunanithi, Oressia H Zalucki, Rachel S Gormal, Shu Liu, Elsa Lauwers, Patrik Verstreken, Victor Anggono, Frederic A Meunier, Bruno van Swinderen
Propofol is the most commonly used general anesthetic in humans. Our understanding of its mechanism of action has focused on its capacity to potentiate inhibitory systems in the brain. However, it is unknown whether other neural mechanisms are involved in general anesthesia. Here, we demonstrate that the synaptic release machinery is also a target. Using single-particle tracking photoactivation localization microscopy, we show that clinically relevant concentrations of propofol and etomidate restrict syntaxin1A mobility on the plasma membrane, whereas non-anesthetic analogs produce the opposite effect and increase syntaxin1A mobility...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318027/diagnostic-performances-of-two-rapid-tests-for-detection-of-feline-leukemia-virus-antigen-in-sera-of-experimentally-feline-leukemia-virus-infected-cats
#13
Matthew R Krecic, Sridhar Velineni, Patrick Meeus, Huihao Fan, Michael Loenser
Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of WITNESS FeLV-FIV (Zoetis) and SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo Test (IDEXX) for the detection of FeLV p27 antigen in the sera of experimentally feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats. Methods: Diagnostic sensitivities of WITNESS and SNAP were determined through testing of 47 serum samples collected from cats day 56 post-experimental infection with a virulent FeLV Rickard strain...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314073/electrophysiological-characteristics-of-the-frontal-nerve-in-patients-with-herpetic-ophthalmic-neuralgia
#14
Gang Xu, Chaosheng Zhou, Shasha Liu, Wen Li, Weizhen Tang
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore a method for obtaining sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) of the supratrochlear (STN) and supraorbital (SONs) nerves and evaluate the function of affected nerves in patients with herpetic ophthalmic neuralgia (HON). METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers and 40 subjects with subacute HON participated in this study. RESULTS: The amplitudes and sensory conduction velocities (SCVs) that predicted HON were identified...
January 4, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309744/differential-endopeptidase-activity-of-different-forms-of-type-a-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-unique-relationship-between-the-size-of-the-substrate-and-activity-of-the-enzyme
#15
Ghuncha Ambrin, Raj Kumar, Bal Ram Singh
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs; serotypes A-G) are metalloproteases, which cleave and inactivate cellular proteins essential for neurotransmitter release. In bacterial cultures, BoNTs are secreted as a complex of the neurotoxin and a group of neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs). Under physiological condition (pH 7.4), this complex is believed to be dissociated to separate the neurotoxin from NAPs. BoNT consists of a 50 kDa light (L) chain (LC or catalytic domain) and a 100 kDa heavy (H) chain (or HC) linked through a disulfide bond and other non-covalent interactions...
January 5, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309043/alterations-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-aged-rats-evidence-of-functional-and-morphological-studies
#16
Qiong Xiang, Xian-Hui Li, Xin-Xing Fang, Jing Jia, Jie Ren, Yu-Chun Dong, Cheng Ou-Yang
BACKGROUND: The aging-related disease and associated neurodegenerative complications, such as cognitive impairment, has received increasing attention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to show changes in cognitive behavior and molecular related the synaptic plasticity in aged-induced cognitive deficits rats. METHODS: We used novel object recognition testing and morphological staining as well as western blot to detect changes in cognitive behavior and molecular related the synaptic plasticity...
December 22, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306711/inventory-and-vertical-distribution-of-137cs-239-240pu-and-238pu-in-soil-from-raivavae-and-hiva-oa-two-french-polynesian-islands-in-the-southern-hemisphere
#17
P Bouisset, M Nohl, A Bouville, G Leclerc
Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out by the United States, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China between 1945 and 1980 resulted in radioactive fallout over the earth's surface of long-lived radionuclides, such as 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu that could be detected more than 50 years after their production. In addition, the burnup in the upper atmosphere of a thermoelectric generator fueled by 238Pu, SNAP-9A, contributed to the inventory of 238Pu deposited on the ground. In order to estimate the deposition densities of 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu in French Polynesia, we collected undisturbed soil samples up to 30 cm deep at eight sites in two islands (Hiva Oa, 139°W - 10°S and Raivavae, 148°W - 24°S) in 2015-2016...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301716/snapping-triceps-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Dana Rioux-Forker, Jay Bridgeman, David M Brogan
Snapping triceps syndrome is a rarely diagnosed condition that can present with symptoms of ulnar neuritis or as an isolated problem itself. First described in 1970, this syndrome is minimally present in the literature with a few mechanistic studies, anatomical studies, radiological reports, and occasional case reports or series. In this article, we briefly review the literature, discuss potential causes and typical presentations of snapping triceps syndrome, and describe our operative technique. We also provide a representative case with intraoperative videos that illustrate the pathology and surgical treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299392/rapid-neurophysiological-screening-for-sensory-ganglionopathy-a-novel-approach
#19
Panagiotis Zis, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Ptolemaios Georgios Sarrigiannis, Alexander St John Edward Barker, Dasappaiah Ganesh Rao
Background and Aim: Pure sensory neuropathies involving the dorsal root ganglia are commonly referred to as sensory ganglionopathies (SG). Causes of SG can be inherited (as seen in Friedreich's ataxia) or acquired (e.g. immune-mediated or paraneoplastic). Diagnostic criteria for confirming SG have been published and consist of a combination of clinical and neurophysiological parameters. The aim of our study was to develop a neurophysiological method for rapid screening for diagnosis of SG...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294514/-electrophysiological-and-pathological-features-of-peripheral-nerve-in-rats-exposed-to-1-bromopropane
#20
Q H Du, W J Chen, T Li, D Y Sun
Objective: To study the electrophysiological changes and pathological characteristics of peripheral nerve in rats exposed to 1-bromopropane through chronic inhalation. Methods: 40 male SD rats were randomed divided into 4 groups, and exposed to 1-bromopropane vapor at concentrations of 1 000 mg/m(3), 2 000 mg/m(3), 4 000 mg/m(3) and fresh air respectively, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 12 weeks. The changes of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) , electromyography (EMG) and pathology were observed. Results: After 4 weeks of exposure, the body weights of high dose group are lower than that of the control group...
September 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
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