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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522994/new-potent-membrane-targeting-antibacterial-peptides-from-viral-capsid-proteins
#1
Susana A Dias, João M Freire, Clara Pérez-Peinado, Marco M Domingues, Diana Gaspar, Nuno Vale, Paula Gomes, David Andreu, Sónia T Henriques, Miguel A R B Castanho, Ana S Veiga
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria urges the development of new antibacterial agents. With a broad spectrum activity, antimicrobial peptides have been considered potential antibacterial drug leads. Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide sequences, namely antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we test the efficacy and mechanism of action of the most promising peptides among those previously identified against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476771/signature-of-microbial-dysbiosis-in-periodontitis
#2
Vincent Meuric, Sandrine Le Gall-David, Emile Boyer, Luis Acuña-Amador, Bénédicte Martin, Shao Bing Fong, Frederique Barloy-Hubler, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet
Periodontitis is driven by a disproportionate host inflammatory immune response induced by an imbalance in the composition of oral bacteria. It instigates microbial dysbiosis along with failed resolution of the chronic destructive inflammation.The objective of this study is to identify microbial signatures for health and chronic periodontitis at the genus level and to propose a model of dysbiosis including the calculation of bacterial ratios. DESIGN AND METHODS: Published sequencing data obtained from several different studies (196 sub-gingival samples from patients with chronic periodontitis and 422 sub-gingival samples from healthy subjects) were pooled and submitted to a new microbiota analysis using the same VAMPS (Visualization and Analysis of Microbial Population Structures) analysis pipeline to identify microbiota specific to health and disease...
May 5, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348137/early-golgi-abnormalities-and-neurodegeneration-upon-loss-of-presynaptic-proteins-munc18-1-syntaxin-1-or-snap-25
#3
Tatiana C Santos, Keimpe Wierda, Jurjen H Broeke, Ruud F Toonen, Matthijs Verhage
The loss of presynaptic proteins Munc18-1, syntaxin-1 or SNAP-25 is known to produce cell death, but the underlying features have not been compared experimentally. Here, we investigated these features in cultured mouse CNS and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Side-by-side comparisons confirmed massive cell death, before synaptogenesis, within 1-4 days in vitro (DIV) upon loss of t-SNAREs (syntaxin-1, SNAP-25) or Munc18-1, but not v-SNAREs (synaptobrevins/VAMP1/2/3 using Tetanus Neurotoxin (TeNT), also in TI-VAMP/VAMP7 knock-out (KO) neurons)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314111/indication-for-differential-sorting-of-the-rat-v-snare-splice-isoforms-vamp-1a-and-1b
#4
Fiona R Rodepeter, Susanne Wiegand, Hans-Georg Lüers, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Anson W Lowe, Michael Bette, Ralf Jacob, Robert Mandic
SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins are essential constituents of the intracellular trafficking machinery. The variable C-terminus in the two rat VAMP-1 splice isoforms VAMP-1a and -1b potentially acts as a sorting signal since similar changes at the C-terminal end of a human VAMP-1 splice isoform resulted in its sorting to mitochondria. To evaluate differences in the subcellular localization of these two v-SNARE proteins, GFP and RFP tagged VAMP-1a and -1b proteins were expressed in HeLa, COS-7 and MDCK cells and evaluated by conventional confocal as well as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy...
March 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264432/electrophysiological-characterization-of-the-antarease-metalloprotease-from-tityus-serrulatus-venom
#5
Irene Zornetta, Michele Scorzeto, Pablo Victor Mendes Dos Reis, Maria E De Lima, Cesare Montecucco, Aram Megighian, Ornella Rossetto
Scorpions are among the oldest venomous living organisms and the family Buthidae is the largest and most medically relevant one. Scorpion venoms include many toxic peptides, but recently, a metalloprotease from Tityus serrulatus called antarease was reported to be capable of cleaving VAMP2, a protein involved in the neuroparalytic syndromes of tetanus and botulism. We have produced antarease and an inactive metalloprotease mutant in a recombinant form and analyzed their enzymatic activity on recombinant VAMP2 in vitro and on mammalian and insect neuromuscular junction...
February 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242757/acute-acinar-pancreatitis-blocks-vesicle-associated-membrane-protein-8-vamp8-dependent-secretion-resulting-in-intracellular-trypsin-accumulation
#6
Scott W Messenger, Elaina K Jones, Conner L Holthaus, Diana D H Thomas, Michelle M Cooley, Jennifer A Byrne, Olga A Mareninova, Anna S Gukovskaya, Guy E Groblewski
Zymogen secretory granules in pancreatic acinar cells express two vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMP), VAMP2 and -8, each controlling 50% of stimulated secretion. Analysis of secretion kinetics identified a first phase (0-2 min) mediated by VAMP2 and second (2-10 min) and third phases (10-30 min) mediated by VAMP8. Induction of acinar pancreatitis by supramaximal cholecystokinin (CCK-8) stimulation inhibits VAMP8-mediated mid- and late-phase but not VAMP2-mediated early-phase secretion. Elevation of cAMP during supramaximal CCK-8 mitigates third-phase secretory inhibition and acinar damage caused by the accumulation of prematurely activated trypsin...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179460/vamp-7-dependent-secretion-at-the-immune-synapse-regulates-antigen-extraction-and-presentation-in-b-lymphocytes
#7
Dorian Obino, Jheimmy Diaz, Juan José Sáez, Jorge Ibañez-Vega, Pablo J Sáez, Martina Alamo, Danielle Lankar, Maria-Isabel Yuseff
Recognition of surface-tethered antigens (Ags) by B-cells leads to the formation of an immune synapse that promotes Ag uptake for presentation onto MHC-II molecules. Extraction of immobilized Ags at the immune synapse of B-cells relies on the local secretion of lysosomes, which are recruited to the Ag contact site by polarization of their microtubule network. Although conserved polarity proteins have been implicated in coordinating cytoskeleton remodeling with lysosome trafficking, the cellular machinery associated with lysosomal vesicles that regulates their docking and secretion at the synaptic interface has not been defined...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163042/munc18b-increases-insulin-granule-fusion-restoring-deficient-insulin-secretion-in-type-2-diabetes-human-and-goto-kakizaki-rat-islets-with-improvement-in-glucose-homeostasis
#8
Tairan Qin, Tao Liang, Dan Zhu, Youhou Kang, Li Xie, Subhankar Dolai, Shuzo Sugita, Noriko Takahashi, Claes-Goran Ostenson, Kate Banks, Herbert Y Gaisano
Reduced pancreatic islet levels of Munc18a/SNARE complex proteins have been postulated to contribute to the deficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in type-2 diabetes (T2D). Whereas much previous work has purported Munc18a/SNARE complex (Syntaxin-1A/VAMP-2/SNAP25) to be primarily involved in predocked secretory granule (SG) fusion, less is known about newcomer SGs that undergo minimal docking time at the plasma membrane before fusion. Newcomer SG fusion has been postulated to involve a distinct SM/SNARE complex (Munc18b/Syntaxin-3/VAMP8/SNAP25), whose levels we find also reduced in islets of T2D humans and T2D Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108526/vaps-and-acbd5-tether-peroxisomes-to-the-er-for-peroxisome-maintenance-and-lipid-homeostasis
#9
Rong Hua, Derrick Cheng, Étienne Coyaud, Spencer Freeman, Erminia Di Pietro, Yuqing Wang, Adriano Vissa, Christopher M Yip, Gregory D Fairn, Nancy Braverman, John H Brumell, William S Trimble, Brian Raught, Peter K Kim
Lipid exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes is necessary for the synthesis and catabolism of lipids, the trafficking of cholesterol, and peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells. However, how lipids are exchanged between these two organelles is not understood. In this study, we report that the ER-resident VAMP-associated proteins A and B (VAPA and VAPB) interact with the peroxisomal membrane protein acyl-CoA binding domain containing 5 (ACBD5) and that this interaction is required to tether the two organelles together, thereby facilitating the lipid exchange between them...
February 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062852/a-proteomic-approach-to-identify-endosomal-cargoes-controlling-cancer-invasiveness
#10
Jesica Diaz-Vera, Sarah Palmer, Juan Ramon Hernandez-Fernaud, Emmanuel Dornier, Louise E Mitchell, Iain Macpherson, Joanne Edwards, Sara Zanivan, Jim C Norman
We have previously shown that Rab17, a small GTPase associated with epithelial polarity, is specifically suppressed by ERK2 (also known as MAPK1) signalling to promote an invasive phenotype. However, the mechanisms through which Rab17 loss permits invasiveness, and the endosomal cargoes that are responsible for mediating this, are unknown. Using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we have found that knockdown of Rab17 leads to a highly selective reduction in the cellular levels of a v-SNARE (Vamp8)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057878/pseudoautosomal-abnormalities-in-terminal-azfb-c-deletions-are-associated-with-isochromosomes-yp-and-may-lead-to-abnormal-growth-and-neuropsychiatric-function
#11
A Castro, F Rodríguez, M Flórez, P López, B Curotto, D Martínez, A Maturana, M C Lardone, C Palma, V Mericq, M Ebensperger, F Cassorla
STUDY QUESTION: Are copy number variations (CNVs) in the pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) frequent in subjects with Y-chromosome microdeletions and can they lead to abnormal stature and/or neuropsychiatric disorders? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only subjects diagnosed with azoospermia factor (AZF)b+c deletions spanning to the end of the Y chromosome (i.e. terminal deletions) harbor Y isochromosomes and/or cells 45,X that lead to pseudoautosomal gene CNVs, which were associated with abnormal stature and/or neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 5, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033683/snare-proteins-play-a-role-in-motor-axon-guidance-in-vertebrates-and-invertebrates
#12
Pablo José Barrecheguren, Oriol Ros, Tiziana Cotrufo, Beat Kunz, Eduardo Soriano, Fausto Ulloa, Esther T Stoeckli, Sofia J Araújo
Axonal growth and guidance rely on correct growth cone responses to guidance cues, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the periphery. Unlike the signaling cascades that link axonal growth to cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about the crosstalk mechanisms between guidance and membrane dynamics and turnover in the axon. Our studies have shown that Netrin-1/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) signaling triggers exocytosis through the SNARE Syntaxin-1 (STX-1) during the formation of commissural pathways...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025172/crispr-cas9-system-mediated-impairment-of-synaptobrevin-vamp-function-in-postmitotic-hippocampal-neurons
#13
Patricia M Horvath, Ege T Kavalali, Lisa M Monteggia
BACKGROUND: The use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming widespread, however current studies have predominantly focused on dividing cells. It is currently unknown if CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in a postmitotic setting to examine non-cell autonomous/presynaptic phenotypes in the resulting genetically heterogeneous cell population. NEW METHOD: A single CRISPR/Cas9 lentivirus was used to transfect a high percentage of primary cultured neurons and target synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2, also called VAMP2)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992096/soluble-n-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor-attachment-protein-receptors-required-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-parasitophorous-vacuole-development
#14
Juan Agustín Cueto, María Cristina Vanrell, Betiana Nebaí Salassa, Sébastien Nola, Thierry Galli, María Isabel Colombo, Patricia Silvia Romano
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is an obligate intracellular parasite that exploits different host vesicular pathways to invade the target cells. Vesicular and target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are key proteins of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery. During the early times of T. cruzi infection, several vesicles are attracted to the parasite contact sites in the plasma membrane. Fusion of these vesicles promotes the formation of the parasitic vacuole and parasite entry...
December 19, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986227/global-surgical-ecosystems-a-need-for-systems-strengthening
#15
Catherine R deVries, Jenna S Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: As surgery is gaining recognition as a critical component of universal health care worldwide, surgical communities have come together with unprecedented unity to advocate for systems to support surgical care. This community has long believed that much care could be performed in a cost-effective manner even in low resource settings, despite skepticism voiced by many in public health. To do so will require the development of new systems and re-vamping of old systems that are not effective...
July 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974903/morphine-antidependence-of-erythroxylum-cuneatum-miq-kurz-in-neurotransmission-processes-in-vitro
#16
Noor Azuin Suliman, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin, Rusliza Basir, Zulkhairi Amom
Opiate abuse has been studied to cause adaptive changes observed in the presynaptic release and the mediated-synaptic plasticity proteins. The involvement of neuronal SNARE proteins reveals the role of the neurotransmitter release in expressing the opioid actions. The present study was designed to determine the effect of the alkaloid extract of Erythroxylum cuneatum (E. cuneatum) against chronic morphine and the influences of E. cuneatum on neurotransmission processes observed in vitro. The human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was treated with the morphine, methadone, or E...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877110/forward-genetic-screen-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-suggests-f57a10-2-and-acp-4-as-suppressors-of-c9orf72-related-phenotypes
#17
Xin Wang, Limin Hao, Taixiang Saur, Katelyn Joyal, Ying Zhao, Desheng Zhai, Jie Li, Mochtar Pribadi, Giovanni Coppola, Bruce M Cohen, Edgar A Buttner
An abnormally expanded GGGGCC repeat in C9ORF72 is the most frequent causal mutation associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Both gain-of-function (gf) and loss-of-function (lf) mechanisms have been involved in C9ORF72 related ALS/FTLD. The gf mechanism of C9ORF72 has been studied in various animal models but not in C. elegans. In the present study, we described mutant C9ORF72 modeling in C. elegans and report the finding of two suppressor genes. We made transgenes containing 9 or 29 repeats of GGGGCC in C9ORF72, driven by either the hsp-16 promoters or the unc-119 promoter...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836773/distinct-roles-of-prolactin-epidermal-growth-factor-and-glucocorticoids-in-%C3%AE-casein-secretion-pathway-in-lactating-mammary-epithelial-cells
#18
Ken Kobayashi, Shoko Oyama, Chinatsu Kuki, Yusaku Tsugami, Kota Matsunaga, Takahiro Suzuki, Takanori Nishimura
Beta-casein is a secretory protein contained in milk. Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) synthesize and secrete β-casein during lactation. However, it remains unclear how the β-casein secretion pathway is developed after parturition. In this study, we focused on prolactin (PRL), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and glucocorticoids, which increase in blood plasma and milk around parturition. MECs cultured with PRL, EGF and dexamethasone (DEX: glucocorticoid analog) developed the β-casein secretion pathway. In the absence of PRL, MECs hardly expressed β-casein...
January 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810382/immunohistochemical-localization-of-snare-core-proteins-in-intrapulpal-and-intradentinal-nerve-fibers-of-rat-molar-teeth
#19
Shiho Honma, Kohki Kadono, Akiyo Kawano, Satoshi Wakisaka
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to elucidate whether three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) core proteins, syntaxin-1, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25kDa (SNAP-25), and vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), are present in the dental pulp of the rat molar at both the light and electron microscopic levels. DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a pan-neuronal marker, syntaxin-1, SNAP-25, and VAMP-2 was performed on decalcified rat molars for light and electron microscopic analyses...
January 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694038/targeting-mast-cells-uncovering-prolific-therapeutic-role-in-myriad-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
The mast cells are integral part of immune system and they have pleiotropic physiological functions in our body. Any type of abnormal stimuli causes the mast cells receptors to spur the otherwise innocuous mast cells to degranulate and release inflammatory mediators like histamine, cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandins. These mediators are involved in various diseases like allergy, asthma, mastocytosis, cardiovascular disorders, etc. Herein, we describe the receptors involved in degranulation of mast cells and are broadly divided into four categories: G-protein coupled receptors, ligand gated ion channels, immunoreceptors and pattern recognition receptors...
November 2016: International Immunopharmacology
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