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Donglai Wang, Ning Kon, Gorka Lasso, Le Jiang, Wenchuan Leng, Wei-Guo Zhu, Jun Qin, Barry Honig, Wei Gu
Although lysine acetylation is now recognized as a general protein modification for both histones and non-histone proteins, the mechanisms of acetylation-mediated actions are not completely understood. Acetylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of p53 (also known as TP53) was an early example of non-histone protein acetylation and its precise role remains unclear. Lysine acetylation often creates binding sites for bromodomain-containing 'reader' proteins. Here we use a proteomic screen to identify the oncoprotein SET as a major cellular factor whose binding with p53 is dependent on CTD acetylation status...
September 14, 2016: Nature
Ying Wu, Xiaohong Zhou, Christopher O Barnes, Maria DeLucia, Aina E Cohen, Angela M Gronenborn, Jinwoo Ahn, Guillermo Calero
The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr is required for efficient viral infection of macrophages and promotion of viral replication in T cells. Vpr's biological activities are closely linked to the interaction with human DCAF1, a cellular substrate receptor of the Cullin4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) of the host ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated protein degradation pathway. The molecular details of how Vpr usurps the protein degradation pathway have not been delineated. Here we present the crystal structure of the DDB1-DCAF1-HIV-1-Vpr-uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2) complex...
October 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Yanling Yan, Fang Huang, Ting Yuan, Binlian Sun, Rongge Yang
Coinfection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs at a high frequency, in which HIV shows a promotion of HCV-derived liver diseases. However, the mechanism of how this occurs is not well understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr enhances HCV RNA replication in cell culture. Because Vpr performs most of its functions through host protein VprBP (DCAF1), the role of VprBP in the regulation of HCV by Vpr was investigated in this study...
September 2, 2016: Virus Research
M Brodhun, V Stahn, A Harder
Schwannomas are benign Schwann cell-derived tumors of the peripheral nerve sheath often involving the vestibular cranial nerve (vestibular schwannoma). Histologically, they consist of bipolar spindle cells and show a moderate cellularity. Typically, Antoni A regions with a storiform pattern and loose Antoni B regions are intermingled. Verocay bodies are the pathognomonic palisading structures. Malignant transformation is rare. Merlin (schwannomin), the protein product of NF2, is inactivated by mutations, loss of heterozygosity or methylation...
July 15, 2016: HNO
Xiaohong Zhou, Maria DeLucia, Jinwoo Ahn
Evolutionarily conserved structure-selective endonuclease MUS81 forms a complex with EME1 and further associates with another endonuclease SLX4-SLX1 to form a four-subunit complex of MUS81-EME1-SLX4-SLX1, coordinating distinctive biochemical activities of both endonucleases in DNA repair. Viral protein R (Vpr), a highly conserved accessory protein in primate lentiviruses, was previously reported to bind SLX4 to mediate down-regulation of MUS81. However, the detailed mechanism underlying MUS81 down-regulation is unclear...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kasia Hrecka, Caili Hao, Ming-Chieh Shun, Sarabpreet Kaur, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Jacek Skowronski
HIV replication in nondividing host cells occurs in the presence of high concentrations of noncanonical dUTP, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) cytidine deaminases, and SAMHD1 (a cell cycle-regulated dNTP triphosphohydrolase) dNTPase, which maintains low concentrations of canonical dNTPs in these cells. These conditions favor the introduction of marks of DNA damage into viral cDNA, and thereby prime it for processing by DNA repair enzymes. Accessory protein Vpr, found in all primate lentiviruses, and its HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVsm paralogue Vpx, hijack the CRL4(DCAF1) E3 ubiquitin ligase to alleviate some of these conditions, but the extent of their interactions with DNA repair proteins has not been thoroughly characterized...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hichem Lahouassa, Marie-Lise Blondot, Lise Chauveau, Ghina Chougui, Marina Morel, Marjorie Leduc, François Guillonneau, Bertha Cecilia Ramirez, Olivier Schwartz, Florence Margottin-Goguet
Viruses often interfere with the DNA damage response to better replicate in their hosts. The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) protein has been reported to modulate the activity of the DNA repair structure-specific endonuclease subunit (SLX4) complex and to promote cell cycle arrest. Vpr also interferes with the base-excision repair pathway by antagonizing the uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung2) enzyme. Using an unbiased quantitative proteomic screen, we report that Vpr down-regulates helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a DNA translocase involved in the repair of damaged replication forks...
May 10, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Weiguo Ren, Shourong Shen, Zhenqiang Sun, Peng Shu, Xiaohua Shen, Chibin Bu, Feiyan Ai, Xuemei Zhang, Anliu Tang, Li Tian, Guiyuan Li, Xiayu Li, Jian Ma
Chronic intestinal inflammation is closely associated with colon cancer development and STAT3 seems to take center stage in bridging chronic inflammation to colon cancer progress. Here, we discovered that DICER1 was significantly downregulated in response to IL-6 or LPS stimulation and identified a novel mechanism for DICER1 downregulation via proteasomal degradation by ubiquitin ligase complex of CUL4A(DCAF1) in colon cancer cells. Meanwhile, PI3K-AKT signaling pathway phosphorylated DICER1 and contributed to its proteasomal degradation...
June 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Jian Kang, Jingwei Hou, Ke Zhao, Xiao-Fang Yu, Juan Du
Primate SAMHD1 proteins are potent inhibitors of viruses, including retroviruses such as HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. Vpx, a distinctive viral protein expressed by HIV-2 and some SIVs, induces SAMHD1 degradation by forming a Vpx-DCAF1-based ubiquitin ligase complex. Either the N- or the C-terminus of SAMHD1 is critical for Vpx-induced degradation, depending on the types of SAMHD1 and Vpx proteins. However, it was not fully understood whether other regions of SAMHD1 also contribute to its depletion by Vpx. In the present study, we report that SAMHD1 from chicken (SAMHD1GG) was not degraded by SIVmac Vpx, in contrast with results for human SAMHD1 (SAMHD1HS)...
February 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
L Zhou, J Lyons-Rimmer, S Ammoun, J Müller, E Lasonder, V Sharma, E Ercolano, D Hilton, I Taiwo, M Barczyk, C O Hanemann
Merlin has broad tumor-suppressor functions as its mutations have been identified in multiple benign tumors and malignant cancers. In all schwannomas, the majority of meningiomas and 1/3 of ependymomas Merlin loss is causative. In neurofibromatosis type 2, a dominantly inherited tumor disease because of the loss of Merlin, patients suffer from multiple nervous system tumors and die on average around age 40. Chemotherapy is not effective and tumor localization and multiplicity make surgery and radiosurgery challenging and morbidity is often considerable...
June 30, 2016: Oncogene
Chao Yu, Shu-Yan Ji, Qian-Qian Sha, Qing-Yuan Sun, Heng-Yu Fan
Oocyte meiosis is a specialized cell cycle that gives rise to fertilizable haploid gametes and is precisely controlled in various dimensions. We recently found that E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4 is required for female fertility by regulating DNA hydroxymethylation to maintain oocyte survival and to promote zygotic genome reprogramming. However, not all phenotypes of CRL4-deleted oocytes could be explained by this mechanism. Here we show that CRL4 controls oocyte meiotic maturation by proteasomal degradation of protein phosphatase 2A scaffold subunit, PP2A-A...
2015: Nature Communications
David R Collins, Jay Lubow, Zana Lukic, Michael Mashiba, Kathleen L Collins
Vpr is a conserved primate lentiviral protein that promotes infection of T lymphocytes in vivo by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that Vpr and its cellular co-factor, DCAF1, are necessary for efficient cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 from macrophages to CD4+ T lymphocytes when there is inadequate cell-free virus to support direct T lymphocyte infection. Remarkably, Vpr functioned to counteract a macrophage-specific intrinsic antiviral pathway that targeted Env-containing virions to LAMP1+ lysosomal compartments...
July 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Eun-Shil Jung, Ye-Ji Sim, Hoe-Su Jeong, Su-Jin Kim, Ye-Jin Yun, Joo-Hoon Song, Su-Hee Jeon, Chungyoul Choe, Kyung-Tae Park, Chang-Hoon Kim, Kye-Seong Kim
Skeletal muscle cell differentiation requires a family of proteins called myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) to which MyoD belongs. The activity of MyoD is under epigenetic regulation, however, the molecular mechanism by which histone KMTs and KDMs regulate MyoD transcriptional activity through methylation remains to be determined. Here we provide evidence for a unique regulatory mechanism of MyoD transcriptional activity through demethylation by Jmjd2C demethylase whose level increases during muscle differentiation...
August 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ying Wu, Leonardus M I Koharudin, Jennifer Mehrens, Maria DeLucia, Chang-Hyeok Byeon, In-Ja L Byeon, Guillermo Calero, Jinwoo Ahn, Angela M Gronenborn
Sterile α motif (SAM) and histidine/aspartate (HD)-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) restricts human/simian immunodeficiency virus infection in certain cell types and is counteracted by the virulence factor Vpx. Current evidence indicates that Vpx recruits SAMHD1 to the Cullin4-Ring Finger E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) by facilitating an interaction between SAMHD1 and the substrate receptor DDB1- and Cullin4-associated factor 1 (DCAF1), thereby targeting SAMHD1 for proteasome-dependent down-regulation. Host-pathogen co-evolution and positive selection at the interfaces of host-pathogen complexes are associated with sequence divergence and varying functional consequences...
July 17, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Youjun Li, Hao Zhou, Fengzhi Li, Siew Wee Chan, Zhijie Lin, Zhiyi Wei, Zhou Yang, Fusheng Guo, Chun Jye Lim, Wancai Xing, Yuequan Shen, Wanjin Hong, Jiafu Long, Mingjie Zhang
The tumor suppressor Merlin/NF2 functions upstream of the core Hippo pathway kinases Lats1/2 and Mst1/2, as well as the nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1). Numerous mutations of Merlin have been identified in Neurofibromatosis type 2 and other cancer patients. Despite more than two decades of research, the upstream regulator of Merlin in the Hippo pathway remains unknown. Here we show by high-resolution crystal structures that the Lats1/2-binding site on the Merlin FERM domain is physically blocked by Merlin's auto-inhibitory tail...
July 2015: Cell Research
Masashi Shingai, Sarah Welbourn, Jason M Brenchley, Priyamvada Acharya, Eri Miyagi, Ronald J Plishka, Alicia Buckler-White, Peter D Kwong, Yoshiaki Nishimura, Klaus Strebel, Malcolm A Martin
For nearly 20 years, the principal biological function of the HIV-2/SIV Vpx gene has been thought to be required for optimal virus replication in myeloid cells. Mechanistically, this Vpx activity was recently reported to involve the degradation of Sterile Alpha Motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) in this cell lineage. Here we show that when macaques were inoculated with either the T cell tropic SIVmac239 or the macrophage tropic SIVmac316 carrying a Vpx point mutation that abrogates the recruitment of DCAF1 and the ensuing degradation of endogenous SAMHD1 in cultured CD4+ T cells, virus acquisition, progeny virion production in memory CD4+ T cells during acute infection, and the maintenance of set-point viremia were greatly attenuated...
May 2015: PLoS Pathogens
David Schwefel, Virginie C Boucherit, Evangelos Christodoulou, Philip A Walker, Jonathan P Stoye, Kate N Bishop, Ian A Taylor
The SAMHD1 triphosphohydrolase inhibits HIV-1 infection of myeloid and resting T cells by depleting dNTPs. To overcome SAMHD1, HIV-2 and some SIVs encode either of two lineages of the accessory protein Vpx that bind the SAMHD1 N or C terminus and redirect the host cullin-4 ubiquitin ligase to target SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation. We present the ternary complex of Vpx from SIV that infects mandrills (SIVmnd-2) with the cullin-4 substrate receptor, DCAF1, and N-terminal and SAM domains from mandrill SAMHD1...
April 8, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Jian Li, Fengwen Xu, Siqi Hu, Jinming Zhou, Shan Mei, Xiaoxiao Zhao, Shan Cen, Qi Jin, Chen Liang, Fei Guo
SAMHD1 (SAM domain- and HD domain-containing protein 1) inhibits HIV-1 infection of myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T-cells. Two lineages of primate lentiviruses, the sooty mangabey SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) (SIVsm)/macaque SIV (SIVmac)/HIV-2 lineage and the red-capped mangabey SIV (SIVrcm) lineage, carry a SAMHD1 antagonist called Vpx. Vpx recognizes SAMHD1 and recruits a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex that is composed of CUL4 (Cullin4), DDB1 (damaged DNA-binding protein 1) and a member of the DCAF (DDB1/CUL4-associated factor) family called DCAF1...
June 1, 2015: Biochemical Journal
Xianjun Liu, Haoran Guo, Hong Wang, Richard Markham, Wei Wei, Xiao-Fang Yu
Although the Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been shown to act as a transcriptional activator of the HIV-1 LTR and certain host genes, the current study demonstrates that it can also function as a potent inhibitor of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle arrest and apoptotic functions of Vpr required recruitment of the CRL4(DCAF1) E3 ligase, but this complex is shown not to be required for inhibition of the CMV promoter. We identified conserved sites (A30/V31) from diverse Vpr from HIV/SIV that were critical for blocking the CMV promoter activity...
April 3, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
George Boateng Kyei, Xiaogang Cheng, Rashmi Ramani, Lee Ratner
The restriction factor SAMHD1 limits HIV-1 replication in noncycling cells. SIV and HIV-2 overcome this restriction via the accessory protein Vpx, which targets SAMHD1 for degradation through interactions with the host ubiquitin ligase adaptor DCAF1. However, the factors used by HIV-1 to replicate in macrophages, despite the presence of the restriction factor SAMHD1, are unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified cyclin L2 as a DCAF1-interacting protein required for HIV-1 replication in macrophages...
January 14, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
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