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Insulin resistance AND ectopic fat AND neck

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25816312/not-all-fats-are-created-equal-adipose-vs-ectopic-fat-implication-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Melania Gaggini, Chiara Saponaro, Amalia Gastaldelli
Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ that acts not only as a fuel storage but also is able to secrete adipokines that can modulate inflammation. Most of the fat is composed of white adipocytes (WAT), although also brown/beige adipocytes (BAT/BeAT) have been found in humans. BAT is located close to the neck but also among WAT in the epicardial fat and perivascular fat. Adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of macrophages impair adipose tissue metabolism determining "adiposopathy" (i.e., sick fat) and increasing the risk to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases...
April 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25035342/links-between-ectopic-fat-and-vascular-disease-in-humans
#2
REVIEW
Soo Lim, James B Meigs
The average of overweight individual can have differential fat depots in target organs or specific compartments of the body. This ectopic fat distribution may be more of a predictive factor for cardiovascular risk than obesity. Abdominal visceral obesity, a representative ectopic fat, is robustly associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Fat depots in the liver and muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic risk by affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. Pericardial fat and perivascular fat affect coronary atherosclerosis, cardiac function, and hemodynamics...
September 2014: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24063931/ectopic-fat-and-cardiometabolic-and-vascular-risk
#3
REVIEW
Soo Lim, James B Meigs
Given that the variation in how regional adipose tissue handles and stores excess dietary energy has substantial cardiometabolic implications, ectopic fat distribution might be an important predictor of cardiometabolic and vascular risk, in addition to overall obesity itself. Conceptually, ectopic fat depots may be divided into systemically acting fat depots and locally acting fat depots. Systemically acting fat depots include visceral fat, fat in the liver, muscle, or neck, and subcutaneous fat. Accumulation in the abdominal visceral area, compared with overall obesity, has an equally or more important role in the development of cardiometabolic risk...
November 5, 2013: International Journal of Cardiology
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