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Interpretation bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646672/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-visual-cortex-induces-suboptimal-introspection
#1
Megan A K Peters, Jeremy Fesi, Namema Amendi, Jeffrey D Knotts, Hakwan Lau, Tony Ro
Blindsight patients with damage to the visual cortex can discriminate objects but report no conscious visual experience. This provides an intriguing opportunity to allow the study of subjective awareness in isolation from objective performance capacity. However, blindsight is rare, so one promising way to induce the effect in neurologically intact observers is to apply transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the visual cortex. Here, we used a recently-developed criterion-free method to conclusively rule out an important alternative interpretation of TMS-induced performance without awareness: that TMS-induced blindsight may be just due to conservative reporting biases for conscious perception...
June 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646157/current-induced-resistive-state-in-fe-se-te-superconducting-nanostrips
#2
Ciro Nappi, Carlo Camerlingo, Emanuele Enrico, Emilio Bellingeri, Valeria Braccini, Carlo Ferdeghini, Ettore Sarnelli
We study the current-voltage characteristics of Fe(Se,Te) thin films deposited on CaF2 substrates in form of nanostrips (width w ~ λ, λ the London penetration length). In view of a possible application of these materials to superconductive electronics and micro-electronics we focus on transport properties in small magnetic field, the one generated by the bias current. From the characteristics taken at different temperatures we derive estimates for the pinning potential U and the pinning potential range δ for the magnetic flux lines (vortices)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#3
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640484/reporting-of-imaging-diagnostic-accuracy-studies-with-focus-on-mri-subgroup-adherence-to-stard-2015
#4
Patrick Jiho Hong, Daniel A Korevaar, Trevor A McGrath, Hedyeh Ziai, Robert Frank, Mostafa Alabousi, Patrick M M Bossuyt, Matthew D F McInnes
PURPOSE: To evaluate adherence of diagnostic accuracy studies in imaging journals to the STAndards for Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) 2015. The secondary objective was to identify differences in reporting for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE was searched for diagnostic accuracy studies published in imaging journals in 2016. Studies were evaluated for adherence to STARD 2015 (30 items, including expanded imaging specific subitems)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639818/a-critical-examination-of-the-research-and-theoretical-underpinnings-discussed-in-thomson-besner-and-smilek-2016
#5
Nicholas W Fraulini, Gabriella M Hancock, Alexis R Neigel, Victoria L Claypoole, James L Szalma
Thomson, Besner, and Smilek (2016) propose that performance decrements associated with sustained attention are not consistently the result of a decline in perceptual sensitivity. Thomson et al. (2016) present empirical evidence using a novel, nontraditional vigilance task to support their assumptions. However, in the present rebuttal, we argue that the authors have not only have misinterpreted previous research in sustained attention, but also have misapplied those interpretations to their study. Thomson et al...
July 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639802/a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-the-test-of-memory-malingering-among-latin-american-spanish-speaking-adults
#6
Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Diego Rivera, Barry Rosenfeld, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Cognitive efforts tests, such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1997), are widely used internationally, yet there is a dearth of research that has assessed the utility of these measures in different cultures, countries, and languages. This study evaluated the specificity of the TOMM Trial 2 among a sample of 3,590 Spanish-speaking adults residing in 8 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico). Trial 2 TOMM scores were negatively associated with participants' age and positively associated with level of education...
June 22, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639707/dressings-and-topical-agents-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#7
REVIEW
Maggie J Westby, Jo C Dumville, Marta O Soares, Nikki Stubbs, Gill Norman
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as bedsores, decubitus ulcers and pressure injuries, are localised areas of injury to the skin or the underlying tissue, or both. Dressings are widely used to treat pressure ulcers and promote healing, and there are many options to choose from including alginate, hydrocolloid and protease-modulating dressings. Topical agents have also been used as alternatives to dressings in order to promote healing.A clear and current overview of all the evidence is required to facilitate decision-making regarding the use of dressings or topical agents for the treatment of pressure ulcers...
June 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639320/diet-physical-activity-and-behavioural-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-overweight-or-obese-adolescents-aged-12-to-17-years
#8
REVIEW
Lena Al-Khudairy, Emma Loveman, Jill L Colquitt, Emma Mead, Rebecca E Johnson, Hannah Fraser, Joan Olajide, Marie Murphy, Rochelle Marian Velho, Claire O'Malley, Liane B Azevedo, Louisa J Ells, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Karen Rees
BACKGROUND: Adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. Modifying known dietary and behavioural risk factors through behaviour changing interventions (BCI) may help to reduce childhood overweight and obesity. This is an update of a review published in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years...
June 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637593/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-of-transplant-recipients-to-reduce-graft-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injuries-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Waqas Farooqui, Hans Christian Pommergaard, Allan Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplantation is an accepted treatment for end-stage solid organ diseases. During the procedure, ischemia and reperfusion injury may affect graft and patient outcomes. Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIC) has been shown to reduce ischemia and reperfusion injury and can be performed safely. Thus, rIC may potentially improve outcomes after solid organ transplantation. Traditionally, the focus of rIC has been on the donor. However, preconditioning the recipient may be a more suitable approach in transplant settings...
June 15, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637536/mental-health-morbidity-among-people-subject-to-immigration-detention-in-the-uk-a-feasibility-study
#10
P Sen, J Arugnanaseelan, E Connell, C Katona, A A Khan, P Moran, K Robjant, K Slade, J Tan, K Widyaratna, J Youd, A Forrester
AIMS: The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting...
June 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637261/further-simulations-and-analyses-demonstrate-open-problems-of-phylostratigraphy
#11
Bryan A Moyers, Jianzhi Zhang
Phylostratigraphy, originally designed for gene age estimation by BLAST-based protein homology searches of sequenced genomes, has been widely used for studying patterns and inferring mechanisms of gene origination and evolution. We previously showed by computer simulation that phylostratigraphy underestimates gene age for a non-negligible fraction of genes and that the underestimation is severer for genes with certain properties such as fast evolution and short protein sequences. Consequently, many previously reported age distributions of gene properties may have been methodological artifacts rather than biological realities...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635963/single-molecule-analysis-of-steroid-receptor-and-cofactor-action-in-living-cells
#12
Ville Paakinaho, Diego M Presman, David A Ball, Thomas A Johnson, R Louis Schiltz, Peter Levitt, Davide Mazza, Tatsuya Morisaki, Tatiana S Karpova, Gordon L Hager
Population-based assays have been employed extensively to investigate the interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with chromatin and are often interpreted in terms of static and sequential binding. However, fluorescence microscopy techniques reveal a more dynamic binding behaviour of TFs in live cells. Here we analyse the strengths and limitations of in vivo single-molecule tracking and performed a comprehensive analysis on the intranuclear dwell times of four steroid receptors and a number of known cofactors...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634725/analyzing-individual-growth-with-clustered-longitudinal-data-a-comparison-between-model-based-and-design-based-multilevel-approaches
#13
Hsien-Yuan Hsu, John J H Lin, Susan T Skidmore
To prevent biased estimates of intraindividual growth and interindividual variability when working with clustered longitudinal data (e.g., repeated measures nested within students; students nested within schools), individual dependency should be considered. A Monte Carlo study was conducted to examine to what extent two model-based approaches (multilevel latent growth curve model - MLGCM, and maximum model - MM) and one design-based approach (design-based latent growth curve model - D-LGCM) could produce unbiased and efficient parameter estimates of intraindividual growth and interindividual variability given clustered longitudinal data...
June 20, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634655/effect-of-adherence-on-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-relationships-of-oral-targeted-anticancer-drugs
#14
Evelina Cardoso, Chantal Csajka, Marie P Schneider, Nicolas Widmer
The emergence of oral targeted anticancer agents transformed several cancers into chronic conditions with a need for long-term oral treatment. Although cancer is a life-threatening condition, oncology medication adherence-the extent to which a patient follows the drug regimen that is intended by the prescriber-can be suboptimal in the long term, as in any other chronic disease. Poor adherence can impact negatively on clinical outcomes, notably because most of these drugs are given as a standard non-individualized dosage despite marked inter-individual variabilities that can lead to toxic or inefficacious drug concentrations...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634288/qsva-framework-for-rna-quality-correction-in-differential-expression-analysis
#15
Andrew E Jaffe, Ran Tao, Alexis L Norris, Marc Kealhofer, Abhinav Nellore, Joo Heon Shin, Dewey Kim, Yankai Jia, Thomas M Hyde, Joel E Kleinman, Richard E Straub, Jeffrey T Leek, Daniel R Weinberger
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful approach for measuring gene expression levels in cells and tissues, but it relies on high-quality RNA. We demonstrate here that statistical adjustment using existing quality measures largely fails to remove the effects of RNA degradation when RNA quality associates with the outcome of interest. Using RNA-seq data from molecular degradation experiments of human primary tissues, we introduce a method-quality surrogate variable analysis (qSVA)-as a framework for estimating and removing the confounding effect of RNA quality in differential expression analysis...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632597/leadership-communication-and-negotiation-across-a-diverse-workforce-an-aoa-critical-issues-symposium
#16
Denis R Clohisy, Michael J Yaszemski, Joanne Lipman
The current workforce in the United States is rapidly changing and is increasingly inclusive of individuals from a broad range of ages, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds. Engaging and leading a diverse workforce creates great opportunities for innovation and adaptation in our evolving medical economic and clinical care delivery environment. For optimal engagement of employees and partners, orthopaedic surgeons must develop the necessary skills for executing change inside complex organizations and across teams composed of a variety of providers and skilled workers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632021/neuromyelitis-optica-application-of-computer-diagnostics-to-historical-case-reports
#17
Pablo Garcia Reitboeck, Peter Garrard, Timothy Peters
The retrospective diagnosis of illnesses by medical historians can often be difficult and prone to bias, although knowledge of the medical disorders of historical figures is key to the understanding of their behavior and reactions. The recent application of computer diagnostics to historical figures allows an objective differential diagnosis to be accomplished. Taking an example from clinical neurology, we analyzed the earliest reported cases of Devic's disease (neuromyelitis optica) that commonly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord and was previously often confused with multiple sclerosis...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631064/analysis-of-case-parent-trios-for-imprinting-effect-using-a-loglinear-model-with-adjustment-for-sex-of-parent-specific-transmission-ratio-distortion
#18
Lam Opal Huang, Claire Infante-Rivard, Aurélie Labbe
Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is a phenomenon where parental transmission of disease allele to the child does not follow the Mendelian inheritance ratio. TRD occurs in a sex-of-parent-specific or non-sex-of-parent-specific manner. An offset computed from the transmission probability of the minor allele in control-trios can be added to the loglinear model to adjust for TRD. Adjusting the model removes the inflation in the genotype relative risk (RR) estimate and Type 1 error introduced by non-sex-of-parent-specific TRD...
June 19, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630238/impact-of-sex-on-cardiac-troponin-concentrations-a-critical-appraisal
#19
REVIEW
Kai M Eggers, Bertil Lindahl
BACKGROUND: The use of sex-specific cutoffs for cardiac troponin (cTn) is currently debated. Although endorsed by scientific working groups, concerns have been raised that sex-specific cutoffs may have only a small clinical effect at the cost of increased complexity in decision-making. METHODS: We reviewed studies investigating the interrelations between high-sensitivity (hs) cTn results and sex, diagnoses, and outcome. Investigated populations included community-dwelling subjects and patients with stable angina, congestive heart failure, or acute chest pain including those with acute coronary syndromes...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629649/scientists-attitudes-on-science-and-values-case-studies-and-survey-methods-in-philosophy-of-science
#20
Daniel Steel, Chad Gonnerman, Michael O'Rourke
This article examines the relevance of survey data of scientists' attitudes about science and values to case studies in philosophy of science. We describe two methodological challenges confronting such case studies: 1) small samples, and 2) potential for bias in selection, emphasis, and interpretation. Examples are given to illustrate that these challenges can arise for case studies in the science and values literature. We propose that these challenges can be mitigated through an approach in which case studies and survey methods are viewed as complementary, and use data from the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative to illustrate this claim...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
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