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Interpretation bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214312/update-treatment-of-necrobiosis-lipoidica
#1
REVIEW
Melanie Peckruhn, Jörg Tittelbach, Peter Elsner
Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare granulomatous disease of hitherto unclear etiology frequently seen in patients with diabetes. Characterized by its potential for ulcerations, it often presents a serious burden for those affected. There are currently neither German nor European guidelines for the treatment of NL. At the same time, standard treatment with topical or intralesional corticosteroids does not always show satisfactory results. We therefore set out to evaluate whether the various treatment regimens published since 2000 have actually expanded the therapeutic armamentarium in a relevant manner...
February 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212943/effects-of-acute-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-manipulations-in-the-aci-paradigm-depend-on-the-basal-valence-of-cognitive-judgement-bias-in-rats
#2
Joanna Golebiowska, Rafal Rygula
Recent findings have revealed that pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic (DA) function by the administration of a DA precursor (dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; L-DOPA), but not the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, increases an optimism bias in humans. To test whether dopamine might play a similar role in non-human animals, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of acute injections of L-DOPA, the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol, and the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211582/what-can-genome-wide-association-studies-tell-us-about-the-evolutionary-forces-maintaining-genetic-variation-for-quantitative-traits
#3
REVIEW
Emily B Josephs, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Understanding the evolutionary forces that shape genetic variation within species has long been a goal of evolutionary biology. Integrating data for the genetic architecture of traits from genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) along with the development of new population genetic methods for identifying selection in sequence data may allow us to evaluate the roles of mutation-selection balance and balancing selection in shaping genetic variation at various scales...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210485/directional-bias-in-the-perception-of-cast-shadows
#4
Tomomi Koizumi, Hiroyuki Ito, Shoji Sunaga, Masaki Ogawa
Previous studies have demonstrated that the perception of shading is based upon assumptions about lighting direction, for example, light from above. However, it is not clear whether these assumptions are used in the perception of cast shadows. Moreover, it is unclear whether a perceptual interaction exists between shading and cast shadows because until now they have been studied separately. In this study, we investigated through three experiments whether the light-from-above (or another direction) assumption is used in interpreting ambiguous cast shadows, and whether shading information influences the interpretation of cast shadows...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208752/meta-analysis-on-the-association-of-aldh2-polymorphisms-and-type-2-diabetic-mellitus-diabetic-retinopathy
#5
Guang-Yi Li, Zi-Bo Li, Fang Li, Li-Ping Dong, Liang Tang, Ju Xiang, Jian-Ming Li, Mei-Hua Bao
Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) is a disease with high prevalence and a major cause for death worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major manifestation of diabetes. Aldehyde dehydrogenease 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. It has been found that the polymorphism in ALDH2 rs671 is probably associated with the risk of T2DM and DR. However, a lot of inconsistency and controversy still exists. In order to get a more precise and comprehensive estimation for the association between ALDH2 polymorphism with the risk of T2DM and DR, we conducted the present meta-analysis...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208641/temporal-trends-in-satellite-derived-erythemal-uvb-and-implications-for-ambient-sun-exposure-assessment
#6
Marvin Langston, Leslie Dennis, Charles Lynch, Denise Roe, Heidi Brown
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US) to inform UVR exposure assessment and determine the potential magnitude of misclassification bias created by ignoring these trends. Monthly UVB data remotely sensed from various NASA satellites were used to investigate changes over time in the United States using linear regression with a harmonic function...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206794/the-devil-is-in-the-details-comparisons-of-episodic-simulations-of-positive-and-negative-future-events
#7
Vannia A Puig, Karl K Szpunar
Over the past decade, psychologists have devoted considerable attention to episodic simulation-the ability to imagine specific hypothetical events. Perhaps one of the most consistent patterns of data to emerge from this literature is that positive simulations of the future are rated as more detailed than negative simulations of the future, a pattern of results that is commonly interpreted as evidence for a positivity bias in future thinking. In the present article, we demonstrate across two experiments that negative future events are consistently simulated in more detail than positive future events when frequency of prior thinking is taken into account as a possible confounding variable and when level of detail associated with simulated events is assessed using an objective scoring criterion...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202078/examples-of-sex-gender-sensitivity-in-epidemiological-research-results-of-an-evaluation-of-original-articles-published-in-jech-2006-2014
#8
Ingeborg Jahn, Claudia Börnhorst, Frauke Günther, Tilman Brand
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, sex and gender biases have been identified in various areas of biomedical and public health research, leading to compromised validity of research findings. As a response, methodological requirements were developed but these are rarely translated into research practice. The aim of this study is to provide good practice examples of sex/gender sensitive health research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of research articles published in JECH between 2006 and 2014...
February 15, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202010/on-the-censored-cost-effectiveness-analysis-using-copula-information
#9
Charles Fontaine, Jean-Pierre Daurès, Paul Landais
BACKGROUND: Information and theory beyond copula concepts are essential to understand the dependence relationship between several marginal covariates distributions. In a therapeutic trial data scheme, most of the time, censoring occurs. That could lead to a biased interpretation of the dependence relationship between marginal distributions. Furthermore, it could result in a biased inference of the joint probability distribution function. A particular case is the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), which has shown its utility in many medico-economic studies and where censoring often occurs...
February 15, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201989/revisiting-phylogenetic-signal-strong-or-negligible-impacts-of-polytomies-and-branch-length-information
#10
Rafael Molina-Venegas, Miguel Á Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Inaccurate estimates of phylogenetic signal may mislead interpretations of many ecological and evolutionary processes, and hence understanding where potential sources of uncertainty may lay has become a priority for comparative studies. Importantly, the sensitivity of phylogenetic signal indices and their associated statistical tests to incompletely resolved phylogenies and suboptimal branch-length information has been only partially investigated. METHODS: Here, we use simulations of trait evolution along phylogenetic trees to assess whether incompletely resolved phylogenies (polytomic chronograms) and phylogenies with suboptimal branch-length information (pseudo-chronograms) could produce directional biases in significance tests (p-values) associated with Blomberg et al...
February 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198138/do-cognitive-distortions-explain-the-longitudinal-relationship-between-life-adversity-and-emotional-and-behavioural-problems-in-secondary-school-children
#11
Constantina Panourgia, Amanda Comoretto
Research has shown that children exposed to life adversity are at higher risk of negative developmental outcomes than those enduring lower stress levels. Life adversity can lead, among other things, to emotional and behavioural problems. Several factors have been studied to explain this relationship, with several investigators underlining the role of thought structures such as cognitive distortions, which refer to negatively biased information-processing of external events. This can help explain why some individuals characterised by adverse personal life stories interpret ambiguous events in a negatively biased way...
February 15, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197543/impedance-spectrum-in-cortical-tissue-implications-for-propagation-of-lfp-signals-on-the-microscopic-level
#12
Stéphanie Miceli, Torbjørn V Ness, Gaute T Einevoll, Dirk Schubert
Brain research investigating electrical activity within neural tissue is producing an increasing amount of physiological data including local field potentials (LFPs) obtained via extracellular in vivo and in vitro recordings. In order to correctly interpret such electrophysiological data, it is vital to adequately understand the electrical properties of neural tissue itself. An ongoing controversy in the field of neuroscience is whether such frequency-dependent effects bias LFP recordings and affect the proper interpretation of the signal...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195028/academic-judgments-under-uncertainty-a-study-of-collective-anchoring-effects-in-swedish-research-council-panel-groups
#13
Lambros Roumbanis
This article focuses on anchoring effects in the process of peer reviewing research proposals. Anchoring effects are commonly seen as the result of flaws in human judgment, as cognitive biases that stem from specific heuristics that guide people when they involve their intuition in solving a problem. Here, the cognitive biases will be analyzed from a sociological point of view, as interactional and aggregated phenomena. The article is based on direct observations of ten panel groups evaluating research proposals in the natural and engineering sciences for the Swedish Research Council...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193260/evaluating-the-effect-of-annotation-size-on-measures-of-semantic-similarity
#14
Maxat Kulmanov, Robert Hoehndorf
BACKGROUND: Ontologies are widely used as metadata in biological and biomedical datasets. Measures of semantic similarity utilize ontologies to determine how similar two entities annotated with classes from ontologies are, and semantic similarity is increasingly applied in applications ranging from diagnosis of disease to investigation in gene networks and functions of gene products. RESULTS: Here, we analyze a large number of semantic similarity measures and the sensitivity of similarity values to the number of annotations of entities, difference in annotation size and to the depth or specificity of annotation classes...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191653/generalized-hostile-interpretation-bias-regarding-facial-expressions-characteristic-of-pathological-aggressive-behavior
#15
Danique Smeijers, Mike Rinck, Erik Bulten, Thom van den Heuvel, Robbert-Jan Verkes
Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED)...
February 12, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190464/a-chinese-patent-medicine-salvia-miltiorrhiza-depside-salts-for-infusion-combined-with-conventional-treatment-for-patients-with-angina-pectoris-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Yili Zhang, Yanming Xie, Xing Liao, Qiulei Jia, Yan Chai
BACKGROUND: Currently, many trials have been conducted to investigate the beneficial and harmful effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salts for infusion for treating patients with angina pectoris. It is important to systematically and criticallyevaluate the existing literature into providing a pooled effect to examine outcomes of angina pectoris with Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salts for infusion. PURPOSE: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine the clinical curative effect and safety of Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salts for infusion for angina pectoris and provide clear evidence to inform clinical practice...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188612/hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
REVIEW
Ahizechukwu C Eke, George U Eleje, Uzoamaka A Eke, Yun Xia, Jiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis is a viral infection of the liver. It is mainly transmitted between people through contact with infected blood, frequently from mother to baby in-utero. Hepatitis B poses significant risk to the fetus and up to 85% of infants infected by their mothers at birth develop chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a purified solution of human immunoglobulin that could be administered to the mother, newborn, or both. HBIG offers protection against HBV infection when administered to pregnant women who test positive for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or both...
February 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188025/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-children-a-focus-on-intellectual-disability
#18
REVIEW
Jo Sourbron, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Alfons Kessels, Helenius Jurgen Schelhaas, Lieven Lagae, Marian Majoie
INTRODUCTION: Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) can be an efficacious add-on treatment in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, who are not eligible for surgery. Evidence of VNS efficacy in children with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to review all available VNS data in the pediatric population (≤18 years old) and focus on the subpopulation with ID since appropriate treatment of these children is often challenging and complex...
January 30, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187937/anticipating-species-distributions-handling-sampling-effort-bias-under-a-bayesian-framework
#19
Duccio Rocchini, Carol X Garzon-Lopez, Matteo Marcantonio, Valerio Amici, Giovanni Bacaro, Lucy Bastin, Neil Brummitt, Alessandro Chiarucci, Giles M Foody, Heidi C Hauffe, Kate S He, Carlo Ricotta, Annapaola Rizzoli, Roberto Rosà
Anticipating species distributions in space and time is necessary for effective biodiversity conservation and for prioritising management interventions. This is especially true when considering invasive species. In such a case, anticipating their spread is important to effectively plan management actions. However, considering uncertainty in the output of species distribution models is critical for correctly interpreting results and avoiding inappropriate decision-making. In particular, when dealing with species inventories, the bias resulting from sampling effort may lead to an over- or under-estimation of the local density of occurrences of a species...
February 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187303/response-bias-related-impairment-of-early-subjective-face-discrimination-in-social-anxiety-disorders-an-event-related-potential-study
#20
Yanyan Qi, Ruolei Gu, Jianqin Cao, Xuejing Bi, Haiyan Wu, Xun Liu
Considerable research has shown that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is accompanied by various negative cognitive biases, such as social feedback expectancy bias, memory bias, and interpretation bias. However, whether the memory bias in individuals with SAD is actually a manifestation of response bias, and whether such response bias is associated with deficits in face discrimination, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated response bias (i.e., a tendency to recognize more negative evaluations) to faces with positive (social acceptance) or negative (social rejection) social evaluations in individuals with SAD and healthy controls (HCs) using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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