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Interpretation bias

Rachel A Ryskin, Zhenghan Qi, Melissa C Duff, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
Verbs often participate in more than 1 syntactic structure, but individual verbs can be biased in terms of whether they are used more often with 1 structure or the other. For instance, in a sentence such as "Bop the bunny with the flower," the phrase "with the flower" is more likely to indicate an instrument with which to "bop," rather than which "bunny" to bop. Conversely, in a sentence such as "Choose the cow with the flower," the phrase "with the flower" is more likely to indicate which "cow" to choose. An open question is where these biases come from and whether they continue to be shaped in adulthood in a way that has lasting consequences for real-time processing of language...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Mario Plebani
The last 50years have seen substantial changes in the landscape of laboratory medicine: its role in modern medicine is in evolution and the quality of laboratory services is changing. The need to control and improve quality in clinical laboratories has grown hand in hand with the growth in technological developments leading to an impressive reduction of analytical errors over time. An essential cause of this impressive improvement has been the introduction and monitoring of quality indicators (QIs) such as the analytical performance specifications (in particular bias and imprecision) based on well-established goals...
October 16, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Daniel W Birch, Jerry T Dang, Noah J Switzer, Namdar Manouchehri, Xinzhe Shi, Ghassan Hadi, Shahzeer Karmali
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies on heated insufflation have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Giampietro Zanette, Matteo F Lauriola, Stefano Tamburin
INTRODUCTION: The authors have recently tested a new electrodiagnostic technique for palmar proper digital nerves sensory nerve action potentials in normal controls. Here the authors explored whether it may offer additional information in comparison to mixed nerve wrist stimulation in a series of patients. METHODS: The authors recorded palmar proper digital nerves sensory nerve action potential to selective antidromic webspace stimulation in a group of 19 patients with suspected lesions of median and ulnar nerve hand sensory branches...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Tosoni Annalisa, Guidotti Roberto, Del Gratta Cosimo, Committeri Giorgia, Sestieri Carlo
The human ventral occipito-temporal cortex (OTC) contains areas specialized for particular perceptual/semantic categories, such as faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and places (parahippocampal place area, PPA). This organization has been interpreted as reflecting the visual structure of the world, i.e. perceptual similarity and/or eccentricity biases. However, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown not only that regions of the OTC are modulated by non-visual, action-related object properties but also by motor planning and execution, although the functional role and specificity of this motor-related activity are still unclear...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Anne M Jurek, George Maldonado
PURPOSE: When learning bias analysis, epidemiologists are taught to quantitatively adjust for multiple biases by correcting study results in the reverse order of the error sequence. To understand the error sequence for a particular study, one must carefully examine the health study's epidemiologic data-generating process. In this article, we describe the unique data-generating process of a man-made disaster epidemiologic study. METHODS: We described the data-generating process and conducted a bias analysis for a study associating September 11, 2001 dust cloud exposure and self-reported newly physician-diagnosed asthma among rescue-recovery workers and volunteers...
September 21, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Gareth T Jones, Elizabeth A Jones, Marcus J Beasley, Gary J Macfarlane
The generalisability of randomised controlled trials will be compromised if markers of treatment outcome also affect trial recruitment. In a large trial of chronic widespread pain (CWP), we aimed to determine the extent to which randomised participants represented eligible patients, and whether factors predicting randomisation also influenced trial outcome. Adults from eight UK general practices were surveyed to determine eligibility for a trial of two interventions (exercise, and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT))...
September 29, 2016: Pain
Eric W Djimeu, Annette N Brown
BACKGROUND: Seven new impact evaluations of pilot programs for increasing the demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) provide evidence of what works and what does not. The study findings suggest that financial compensation designed to relieve the opportunity or transportation costs from undergoing the procedure can increase the uptake of VMMC. There is also evidence that programs using peer influence can be effective, although so far only sports-based programs demonstrate a strong effect...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sergio Iannazzo, Gianluca Furneri, Federica Demma, Chiara Distante, Simone Parisi, Veronica Berti, Enrico Fusaro
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (RDs) trigger high costs for healthcare systems and society due to the disability and comorbidity associated with these disease entities. The aim of this study was to analyze patients with RD, assess the use of conventional synthetic and biologic therapies, and estimate the overall cost of treatment in Italy. METHODS: Administrative healthcare claims from the Piedmont region in Northwest Italy were reviewed to identify patients who received disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) between 2007 and 2010...
June 2016: Rheumatol Ther
Mark Doyle, Gerald M Pohost, C Noel Bairey Merz, Leslee J Shaw, George Sopko, William J Rogers, Barry L Sharaf, Carl J Pepine, Diane V Thompson, Geetha Rayarao, Lindsey Tauxe, Sheryl F Kelsey, Robert W W Biederman
BACKGROUND: We introduce an algorithmic approach to optimize diagnostic and prognostic value of gated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) modalities in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. The novel approach: bio-informatics assessment schema (BIAS) forms a mathematical model utilizing MPI data and cardiac metrics generated by one modality to predict the MPI status of another modality. The model identifies cardiac features that either enhance or mask the image-based evidence of ischemia...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Matthew S Thiese, Brenden Ronna, Ulrike Ott
Application and interpretation of statistical evaluation of relationships is a necessary element in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on P value to demonstrate relationships. The traditional level of significance, P<0.05, can be negatively impacted by small sample size, bias, and random error, and has evolved to include interpretation of statistical trends, correction factors for multiple analyses, and acceptance of statistical significance for P>0.05 for complex relationships such as effect modification...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Eva Rasmussen-Barr, Ulrike Held, Wilhelmus Ja Grooten, Pepijn Ddm Roelofs, Bart W Koes, Maurits W van Tulder, Maria M Wertli
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently prescribed drugs for the treatment of sciatica. A previous Cochrane review on the efficacy of NSAIDs summarised findings for acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. This is an update of the original review (2008) focusing on people suffering from sciatica. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of NSAIDs in pain reduction, overall improvement, and reported side effects in people with sciatica...
October 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ernesto Zecca, Cinzia Brunelli, Paola Bracchi, Giuseppe Biancofiore, Carlo De Sangro, Roberto Bortolussi, Luigi Montanari, Marco Maltoni, Cecilia Moro, Ugo Colonna, Gabriele Finco, Maria Teresa Roy, Vittorio Ferrari, Oscar Alabiso, Giovanni Rosti, Stein Kaasa, Augusto Caraceni
: Context Oxycodone and morphine are recommended as first-choice opioids for moderate/severe cancer pain but evidence about their relative tolerability has significant methodological limitations. OBJECTIVES: This study is mainly aimed at comparing the risk of developing adverse events (AEs) with controlled release oral morphine versus oxycodone; secondary aims were comparing their analgesic efficacy and testing heterogeneity in tolerability across different age and renal function subgroups...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Kevin Trentino, Shannon Farmer, Irwin Gross, Aryeh Shander, James Isbister
BACKGROUND: As defined by evidence-based medicine randomized controlled trials rank higher than observational studies in the hierarchy of clinical research. Accordingly, when assessing the effects of treatments on patient outcomes, there is a tendency to focus on the study method rather than also appraising the key elements of study design. A long-standing debate regarding findings of randomized controlled trials compared with those of observational studies, their strengths and limitations and questions regarding causal inference, has recently come into focus in relation to research assessing patient outcomes in transfusion medicine...
October 14, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Courtney Beard, Lara S Rifkin, Thröstur Björgvinsson
BACKGROUND: Interpretation bias, the tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively (or to lack a positive bias), is a cognitive vulnerability associated with psychopathology. However, there is a lack of research characterizing this bias in psychiatric samples, including whether it is also a risk factor for suicidality. This study characterized interpretation bias in a psychiatric sample at risk for suicide and examined the relationship between interpretation bias and suicidality cross-sectionally and prospectively...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jan Plue, Floriane Colas, Alistair G Auffret, Sara A O Cousins
Persistent seed banks are a key plant regeneration strategy, buffering environmental variation to allow population and species persistence. Understanding seed bank functioning within herb layer dynamics is therefore important. However, rather than assessing emergence from the seed bank in herb layer gaps, most studies evaluate the seed bank functioning via a greenhouse census. We hypothesize that greenhouse data may not reflect seed bank driven emergence in disturbance gaps due to methodological differences...
October 14, 2016: Plant Biology
Roman Belousov, E G D Cohen, Lamberto Rondoni
In this paper, we generalize the theory of Brownian motion and the Onsager-Machlup theory of fluctuations for spatially symmetric systems to equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady-state systems with a preferred spatial direction, due to an external force. To do this, we extend the Langevin equation to include a bias, which is introduced by an external force and alters the Gaussian structure of the system's fluctuations. In addition, by solving this extended equation, we provide a physical interpretation for the statistical properties of the fluctuations in these systems...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Maria Jenelyn M Alviar, Tom Hale, Monalisa Dungca
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Dieter Böning
In modern societies there is strong belief in scientific progress. But unfortunately a parallel partial regress occurs because of often evitable mistakes. Mistakes are mainly forgetting, erroneous theories, errors in experiments and manuscripts, prejudice, selected publication of "positive" results and fraud. An example for forgetting is that methods introduced decades ago are used without knowing the underlying theories: basic articles are no longer read nor cited. This omission may cause incorrect interpretation of results...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Erik J Girvan, Cody Gion, Kent McIntosh, Keith Smolkowski
To improve our understanding of where to target interventions, the study examined the extent to which school discipline disproportionality between African American and White students was attributable to racial disparities in teachers' discretionary versus nondiscretionary decisions. The sample consisted of office discipline referral (ODR) records for 1,154,686 students enrolled in 1,824 U.S. schools. Analyses compared the relative contributions of disproportionality in ODRs for subjectively and objectively defined behaviors to overall disproportionality, controlling for relevant school characteristics...
October 13, 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
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