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Interpretation bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441452/systematic-review-finds-that-study-data-not-published-in-full-text-articles-have-unclear-impact-on-meta-analyses-results-in-medical-research
#1
Christine M Schmucker, Anette Blümle, Lisa K Schell, Guido Schwarzer, Patrick Oeller, Laura Cabrera, Erik von Elm, Matthias Briel, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis as part of a systematic review aims to provide a thorough, comprehensive and unbiased statistical summary of data from the literature. However, relevant study results could be missing from a meta-analysis because of selective publication and inadequate dissemination. If missing outcome data differ systematically from published ones, a meta-analysis will be biased with an inaccurate assessment of the intervention effect. As part of the EU-funded OPEN project (www...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439881/effect-of-cocoa-on-blood-pressure
#2
REVIEW
Karin Ried, Peter Fakler, Nigel P Stocks
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438274/the-effectiveness-of-acupuncture-acupressure-and-chiropractic-interventions-on-treatment-of-chronic-nonspecific-low-back-pain-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Mohsen Yeganeh, Hamid Reza Baradaran, Mostafa Qorbani, Yousef Moradi, Saeed Dastgiri
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems in adults. The impact of LBP on the individual can cause loss of health status and function related to pain in the back. To reduce the impact of LBP on adults, drug therapy is the most frequently recommended intervention. But over the last decade, a substantial number of randomized clinical trials of non-pharmacological intervention for LBP have been published. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of acupuncture, acupressure and chiropractic (non-pharmacological) interventions on the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain in Iran...
May 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437295/clozapine-associated-agranulocytosis-treatment-with-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-a-systematic-review
#4
John Lally, Steffi Malik, Eromona Whiskey, David M Taylor, Fiona P Gaughran, Amir Krivoy, Robert J Flanagan, Aleksandar Mijovic, James H MacCabe
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, notably neutropenia, which may progress to agranulocytosis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been used to reduce the frequency and duration of clozapine-associated neutropenia. This review aims to explore the use, efficacy, and tolerability of these cytokines in the treatment of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review of published interventional and observational studies, case series, and case reports where G-CSF/GM-CSF was used to treat clozapine-associated agranulocytosis...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436583/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#5
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
April 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436196/bone-mineral-density-and-fractures-after-surgical-menopause-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Ingrid E Fakkert, Natalia Teixeira, Elske Marije Abma, Riemer H J A Slart, Marian J E Mourits, Geertruida H de Bock
BACKGROUND: Oophorectomy is recommended to women at increased ovarian cancer risk. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. OBJECTIVE: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause. SEARCH STRATEGY: A literature search on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library through March 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Primary studies reporting on BMD, T-scores or fracture prevalence in women with surgical menopause and age-matched reference groups...
April 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434585/translating-dynamic-defense-patterns-from-rodents-to-people
#7
REVIEW
D Caroline Blanchard
Specific defensive behaviors of rodents are shaped by features of the eliciting threat stimuli and situation. Threat scenarios confirmed these relationships in people, with results substantially replicated in 4 additional scenario studies. Subsequent human studies involve computer games measuring fear as flight from threat stimuli and anxiety as alternation between two threats. Stabilometric studies have shown reduction in sway (freezing) to inescapable (e.g. with gun pointed at subject) threatening photographs; but enhanced lateral sway (flight attempts) to escapable threats; (gun pointed away from subject)...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434476/a-qualitative-approach-exploring-the-acceptability-of-yoga-for-minorities-living-with-arthritis-where-are-the-people-who-look-like-me
#8
Kimberly R Middleton, Miriam Magaña López, Steffany Haaz Moonaz, Gladys Tataw-Ayuketah, Michael M Ward, Gwenyth R Wallen
OBJECTIVES: To examine the acceptability of yoga research tailored to recruit and retain a minority population (both English and Spanish speaking) with arthritis. Yoga research for arthritis often underrepresents minorities and acceptability for this population has not previously been investigated. DESIGN: Acceptability was evaluated using retention, adherence, journals, and semi-structured exit interviews from twelve participants with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis undergoing an 8-week yoga intervention...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433045/-adherence-to-reporting-guidelines-in-perspectives-in-surgery
#9
O Ryska
INTRODUCTION: Reporting guidelines were established to improve the quality of scientific papers. Currently, the most common are CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials), STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and CARE (Clinical Consensus-based Case Reporting Guideline). Spin can be defined as (un)intentionally biased interpretation of results aimed at convincing readers of a positive benefit of any given intervention. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adherence of papers published in Perspectives in Surgery to CONSORT, STROBE or CARE and to identify the frequency of spin...
2017: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432966/risk-for-eating-disorders-modulates-interpretation-bias-in-a-semantic-priming-task
#10
Kaylee Misener, Maya Libben
The current study used a semantic priming paradigm to investigate the presence of implicit interpretation biases for food and body shape words among 118 undergraduate females. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded while participants made lexical decisions (i.e., word vs. non-word judgments) to lexical targets that were preceded by negatively valenced eating disorder related (e.g., fat-PIZZA), eating disorder unrelated (e.g., party-PIZZA), or semantically unrelated (e.g., umbrella-PIZZA) prime words. Self-reported eating disorder traits were assessed using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE-Q 6...
April 19, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431029/the-chinese-version-of-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-in-schizophrenia-data-of-a-large-scale-mandarin-speaking-population
#11
Liang-Jen Wang, Yu-Chi Huang, Chi-Fa Hung, Chih-Ken Chen, Yi-Chih Chen, Pei-Yi Lee, Si-Ming Wang, Ming-Hsiung Liu, Chia-Ju Lin, Su-Ting Hsu
Objective: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a cognitive assessment tool used to measure the broad aspects of cognition that are most frequently impaired in patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to develop the normative data of the Chinese version of the BACS among the Mandarin-speaking population. Method: This cross-sectional study included 382 healthy participants (age range: 19-79 years; mean age: 48.0 ± 16.7 years, 47.6% men) in Taiwan, who were evaluated with the BACS...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430833/on-the-need-for-quantitative-bias-analysis-in-the-peer-review-process
#12
Matthew P Fox, Timothy L Lash
Peer review is central to the process through which epidemiologists generate evidence to inform public health and medical interventions. Reviewers thereby act as critical gatekeepers to high-quality research. They are asked to carefully consider the validity of the proposed work or research findings by paying careful attention to the methodology and critiquing the importance of the insight gained. However, although many have noted problems with the peer-review system for both manuscripts and grant submissions, few solutions have been proposed to improve the process...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428857/how-repeatable-is-the-environmental-impact-classification-of-alien-taxa-eicat-comparing-independent-global-impact-assessments-of-amphibians
#13
Sabrina Kumschick, G John Measey, Giovanni Vimercati, F Andre de Villiers, Mohlamatsane M Mokhatla, Sarah J Davies, Corey J Thorp, Alexander D Rebelo, Tim M Blackburn, Fred Kraus
The magnitude of impacts some alien species cause to native environments makes them targets for regulation and management. However, which species to target is not always clear, and comparisons of a wide variety of impacts are necessary. Impact scoring systems can aid management prioritization of alien species. For such tools to be objective, they need to be robust to assessor bias. Here, we assess the newly proposed Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) used for amphibians and test how outcomes differ between assessors...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428172/how-are-non-numerical-prognostic-statements-interpreted-and-are-they-subject-to-positive-bias
#14
Anne Moyer, Samantha Siess, Sumeet Bhinder
OBJECTIVES: Frank, clear communication with family members of terminally ill or incapacitated patients has important implications for well-being, satisfaction with care and sound decision-making. However, numerical prognostic statements, particularly more negative ones, have been found to be interpreted in a positively biased manner. Less precise non-numerical statements, preferred by physicians, and particularly statements using threatening terms (dying vs surviving) may be even more subject to such biases...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427805/confounding-causality-and-confusion-the-role-of-intermediate-variables-in-interpreting-observational-studies-in-obstetrics
#15
Cande V Ananth, Enrique F Schisterman
Both prospective and retrospective cohort, and case-control studies are some of the most important study designs in epidemiology because, under certain assumptions, they can mimic a randomized trial when done well. These assumptions include but not limited to properly accounting for two important sources of bias: confounding and selection bias. While not adjusting the causal association for an intermediate variable will yield an unbiased estimate of the exposure-outcome's total causal effect, it is often that obstetricians will want to adjust for an intermediate variable to assess if the intermediate is the underlying driver of the association...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425119/mean-intercept-anisotropy-analysis-of-porous-media-i-analytic-formulae-for-anisotropic-boolean-models
#16
Michael A Klatt, Gerd E Schröder-Turk, Klaus Mecke
PURPOSE: Structure-property relations, which relate the shape of the microstructure to physical properties such as transport or mechanical properties, need sensitive measures of structure. What are suitable fabric tensors to quantify the shape of anisotropic heterogeneous materials? The mean intercept length is among the most commonly used characteristics of anisotropy in porous media, for example, of trabecular bone in medical physics. METHODS: We analyze the orientation-biased Boolean model, a versatile stochastic model that represents microstructures as overlapping grains with an orientation bias towards a preferred direction...
April 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423505/identification-and-analysis-of-mutational-hotspots-in-oncogenes-and-tumour-suppressors
#17
Hanadi Baeissa, Graeme Benstead-Hume, Christopher J Richardson, Frances M G Pearl
BACKGROUND: The key to interpreting the contribution of a disease-associated mutation in the development and progression of cancer is an understanding of the consequences of that mutation both on the function of the affected protein and on the pathways in which that protein is involved. Protein domains encapsulate function and position-specific domain based analysis of mutations have been shown to help elucidate their phenotypes. RESULTS: In this paper we examine the domain biases in oncogenes and tumour suppressors, and find that their domain compositions substantially differ...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422795/trial-design-and-endpoint-evaluation-in-clinical-studies-addressing-chronic-back-pain
#18
Peter Staats
STUDY DESIGN: A review of the literature evaluating clinical trials of chronic back pain. OBJECTIVE: To assist physicians in assessing the quality of clinical trial data to make the most informed treatment decisions. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic pain is a tremendous public health issue, affecting close to 100 million adults in the United States, and costs the American people billions of dollars. One traditional treatment approach, the long-term use of opiate medications, has recently come under intense scrutiny for problems with complications, diversion, abuse, addiction and lack of efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419474/using-advances-from-cognitive-behavioral-models-of-anxiety-to-guide-treatment-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#19
Rachel K Narr, Bethany A Teachman
This case features an adult male with moderate social anxiety disorder and mild depressive symptoms who showed an initial positive response to an earlier experience of cognitive behavior therapy, but then relapsed when he started avoiding social situations again because of continuing beliefs that experiencing anxiety was unacceptable. His treatment at our clinic focused on shifting unhelpful thinking about the likelihood and consequences of becoming anxious and reengaging in avoided social situations so he could learn to tolerate negative affect and uncertainty...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418195/association-between-type-2-diabetes-curative-treatment-and-survival-in-men-with-intermediate-and-high-risk-localised-prostate-cancer
#20
Danielle Crawley, Hans Garmo, Sarah Rudman, Pär Stattin, Björn Zethelius, Lars Holmberg, Jan Adolfsson, Mieke Van Hemelrijck
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if curative prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was received less often by men with both PCa and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as little is known about if a diagnosis of T2DM influences receipt of curative treatment in men with localised PCa. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from Prostate Cancer database Sweden (PCBaSe) from men with T2DM and PCa (n=2,210) was used to compare with those with PCa only (n=23,071). All men had intermediate (T1-2, Gleason score 7 and/or PSA 10-20 ng/ml) or high risk (T3 and/or Gleason score 8-10 and/or PSA 20-50 ng/ml) localised PCa diagnosed between 1(st) January 2006 and 31(st) December 2014...
April 18, 2017: BJU International
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