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Interpretation bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804951/allometric-scaling-of-flow-mediated-dilation-is-it-always-helpful
#1
K M McLay, J P Nederveen, J J Koval, D H Paterson, J M Murias
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is calculated as the greatest percent change in arterial diameter following an ischaemic challenge. This Traditional %FMD calculation is thought to have statistical bias towards baseline diameter (Dbase ), which is reduced by allometric scaling. This study examined whether allometric scaling FMD influenced the difference between a group of healthy young and older adults compared to the Traditional %FMD, and to determine whether a New (allometric) scaling %FMD improved the ability to obtain individually scaled FMD...
August 13, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803349/scary-symptoms-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-evidence-for-symptom-interpretation-bias-in-pathological-health-anxiety
#2
Zhimin Yan, Michael Witthöft, Josef Bailer, Carsten Diener, Daniela Mier
Patients with pathological health anxiety (PHA) tend to automatically interpret bodily sensations as sign of a severe illness. To elucidate the neural correlates of this cognitive bias, we applied an functional magnetic resonance imaging adaption of a body-symptom implicit association test with symptom words in patients with PHA (n = 32) in comparison to patients with depression (n = 29) and healthy participants (n = 35). On the behavioral level, patients with PHA did not significantly differ from the control groups...
August 12, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802364/the-reliability-of-flexible-nasolaryngoscopy-in-the-identification-of-vocal-fold-movement-impairment-in-young-infants
#3
Yi-Chun Carol Liu, Tyler McElwee, Mary Musso, Tara L Rosenberg, Julina Ongkasuwan
OBJECTIVE: Flexible nasolaryngoscopy (FNL) is considered the gold standard for evaluation of vocal fold mobility but there has been no data on the reliability of interpretation in the infant population. Visualization may be limited by excessive movement, secretions, or floppy supraglottic structures that prevent accurate diagnosis of vocal fold movement impairment (VFMI). We sought to evaluate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of FNL for the evaluation of VFMI in young infants. STUDY TYPE: Case-control...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800068/galectin-3-performance-in-histologic-a-cytologic-assessment-of-thyroid-nodules-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Pierpaolo Trimboli, Camilla Virili, Francesco Romanelli, Anna Crescenzi, Luca Giovanella
The literature on Galectin-3 (Gal-3) was systematically reviewed to achieve more robust information on its histologic reliability in identifying thyroid cancers and on the concordance between Gal-3 test in histologic and cytologic samples. A computer search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was conducted by combinations of the terms thyroid and Gal-3. Initially, 545 articles were found and, after their critical review, 52 original papers were finally included. They reported 8172 nodules with histologic evaluation of Gal-3, of which 358 with also preoperative FNAC Gal-3 assessment...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799720/its-fungal-barcoding-primers-vs-18s-amf-specific-primers-reveal-similar-amf-based-diversity-patterns-in-roots-and-soils-of-three-mountain-vineyards
#5
A Berruti, A Desirò, S Visentin, O Zecca, P Bonfante
ITS primers commonly used to describe soil fungi are flawed for AMF although it is unknown the extent to which they distort the interpretation of community patterns. Here we focus on how the use of a specific ITS2 fungal barcoding primer pair biased for AMF changes the interpretation of AMF community patterns from three mountain vineyards compared to a novel AMF-specific approach on the 18S. We found that although discrepancies were present in the taxonomic composition of the two resulting datasets, the estimation of diversity patterns among AMF communities was similar and resulted in both primer systems being able to correctly assess the community-structuring effect of location, compartment (root vs...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799518/a-neurodevelopment-and-neuroplasticity-based-framework-for-early-intervention-in-psychotic-disorders
#6
E Bora
In recent years there has been growing interest in early intervention in psychotic disorders and a number of clinical and research programmes have been developed. The clinical staging model has been an essential part of early intervention as it provides the rationale of existing programmes. In medicine, clinical staging is a valuable approach in disorders where primary pathology is progressive in nature. However, the clinical staging model of psychosis has been proposed without establishing first that schizophrenia is a primarily progressive disorder...
August 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795826/competition-and-facilitation-in-compound-conditioning
#7
Gonzalo P Urcelay
Despite the generality and theoretical relevance of cue competition phenomena such as blocking and overshadowing, recent findings suggest that these observations may be due to some degree of publication bias, and that we lack insight into the boundary conditions of these phenomena. The present commentary does not question the existence of cue competition phenomena. Rather, I review findings showing that 3 variables, namely (a) relative stimulus duration, (b) contingency, and (c) contiguity parametrically determine not only whether cue competition is observed, but also whether no cue interaction, or cue facilitation occur...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795239/risk-of-low-energy-fracture-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#8
P Jia, L Bao, H Chen, J Yuan, W Liu, F Feng, J Li, H Tang
In this meta-analysis, evidence of an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and low-energy fractures has been evaluated including 12 observational studies. The results suggested that T2DM patients had an enhanced risk of low-energy fractures. INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients have been shown to be at enhanced risk of fracture injury, but less is known about low-energy fractures among patients with T2DM. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 12 observational studies identified in Medline and EMBASE that included 938,742 participants, including 30,827 low-energy fracture cases...
August 9, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793832/-i-was-thinking-we-would-be-spoon-fed-community-co-researchers-perceptions-of-individual-empowerment-in-participatory-health-research-in-swaziland
#9
Michelle Brear
Empowerment is an influential concept in global public health. Current theoretical models, which were developed in resource-rich countries, conceptualise individual-level empowerment as a process (or outcome) of developing positive self-perceptions, critical thinking expertise and new behaviours. They neglect the social and structural aspects that were central to early conceptualisations of empowerment, and may be culturally biased. My aim was to elucidate lay-people in Swaziland's perspectives about individual-level empowerment...
August 10, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792959/objective-assessment-of-leg-edema-using-ultrasonography-with-a-gel-pad
#10
Terumi Iuchi, Masato Kobayashi, Sayumi Tsuchiya, Naoki Ohno, Misako Dai, Masaru Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Ogai, Aya Sato, Takuto Sawazaki, Tosiaki Miyati, Shinobu Tanaka, Junko Sugama
Ultrasonography (US) is useful for visual detection of edematous tissues to assess subcutaneous echogenicity. However, visualization of subcutaneous echogenicity is interpreted differently among operators because the evaluation is subjective and individual operators have unique knowledge. This study objectively assessed leg edema using US with a gel pad including fat for normalization of echogenicity in subcutaneous tissue. Five younger adults and four elderly people with leg edema were recruited. We compared assessments of US and limb circumference before and after the intervention of vibration to decrease edema in younger adults, and edema prior to going to sleep and reduced edema in the early morning in elderly people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791485/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-an-integrated-care-program-for-schizophrenia-an-analysis-of-routine-data
#11
Linda Kerkemeyer, Jürgen Wasem, Anja Neumann, Werner Brannath, Benjamin Mester, Jürgen Timm, Thomas Wobrock, Claudia Bartels, Peter Falkai, Janine Biermann
In Germany, a regional social health insurance fund provides an integrated care program for patients with schizophrenia (IVS). Based on routine data of the social health insurance, this evaluation examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the IVS compared to the standard care (control group, CG). The primary outcome was the reduction of psychiatric inpatient treatment (days in hospital), and secondary outcomes were schizophrenia-related inpatient treatment, readmission rates, and costs. To reduce selection bias, a propensity score matching was performed...
August 8, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790403/grouping-by-feature-of-cross-modal-flankers-in-temporal-ventriloquism
#12
Michaela Klimova, Shin'ya Nishida, Warrick Roseboom
Signals in one sensory modality can influence perception of another, for example the bias of visual timing by audition: temporal ventriloquism. Strong accounts of temporal ventriloquism hold that the sensory representation of visual signal timing changes to that of the nearby sound. Alternatively, underlying sensory representations do not change. Rather, perceptual grouping processes based on spatial, temporal, and featural information produce best-estimates of global event properties. In support of this interpretation, when feature-based perceptual grouping conflicts with temporal information-based in scenarios that reveal temporal ventriloquism, the effect is abolished...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783743/andrographis-paniculata-chu%C3%A4-n-x%C3%A4-n-li%C3%A3-n-for-symptomatic-relief-of-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-adults-and-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Xiao-Yang Hu, Ruo-Han Wu, Martin Logue, Clara Blondel, Lily Yuen Wan Lai, Beth Stuart, Andrew Flower, Yu-Tong Fei, Michael Moore, Jonathan Shepherd, Jian-Ping Liu, George Lewith
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a substantial threat to public health. Safe and effective alternatives are required to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Andrographis Paniculata (A. Paniculata, Chuān Xīn Lián) has traditionally been used in Indian and Chinese herbal medicine for cough, cold and influenza, suggesting a role in respiratory tract infections (RTIs). This systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of A. Paniculata for symptoms of acute RTIs (ARTIs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782977/using-the-comparison-curve-fix-index-ccfi-in-taxometric-analyses-averaging-curves-standard-errors-and-ccfi-profiles
#14
John Ruscio, Lauren M Carney, Lindsay Dever, Melissa Pliskin, Shirley B Wang
Determining whether a construct is more appropriately conceptualized and assessed in a categorical or a dimensional manner has received considerable research attention in recent years. There are a variety of statistical techniques to address this empirically, and Meehl's (1995) taxometric method has been among the most widely used methods applied to constructs in the areas of personality and psychopathology. In taxometric analysis, the comparison curve fit index (CCFI; Ruscio, Ruscio, & Meron, 2007) is an objective measure of whether parallel analysis of categorical or dimensional comparison data better reproduce empirical data results...
August 7, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782534/variation-in-adrenal-and-thyroid-hormones-with-life-history-stage-in-juvenile-northern-elephant-seals-mirounga-angustirostris
#15
J A Jelincic, M S Tift, D S Houser, D E Crocker
The classical approach to quantifying the impact of stressors on wildlife is through characterization of hormones associated with the generalized stress response. However, interpretation of hormone data can be difficult due to the range of natural variation within a species and potential confounds of individual and life-history variables. Blood adrenal and thyroid hormones were measured in 144 chemically immobilized yearling northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to characterize variation between sexes and across semiannual haul-outs...
August 3, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781231/interpretation-of-cystic-fibrosis-centre-rankings-meaningful-comparisons-or-biased-statistics
#16
EDITORIAL
Sanja Stanojevic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781214/fifty-shades-of-belgian-gray-the-prevalence-of-bdsm-related-fantasies-and-activities-in-the-general-population
#17
Lien Holvoet, Wim Huys, Violette Coppens, Jantien Seeuws, Kris Goethals, Manuel Morrens
BACKGROUND: Bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochism (BDSM) is gaining popularity through the mainstream media. Nevertheless, very little is known about the prevalence of BDSM-related fantasies and activities in the general population. AIM: To determine the prevalence of BDSM fantasies and behavioral involvement in four different age groups of the general population in Belgium. METHODS: By use of a cross-sectional survey questionnaire, the level of interest in several BDSM-related activities was investigated in a sample representative of the general Belgian population (N = 1,027)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780665/sum-scores-in-twin-growth-curve-models-practicality-versus-bias
#18
Justin M Luningham, Daniel B McArtor, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma, Gitta H Lubke
To study behavioral or psychiatric phenotypes, multiple indices of the behavior or disorder are often collected that are thought to best reflect the phenotype. Combining these items into a single score (e.g. a sum score) is a simple and practical approach for modeling such data, but this simplicity can come at a cost in longitudinal studies, where the relevance of individual items often changes as a function of age. Such changes violate the assumptions of longitudinal measurement invariance (MI), and this violation has the potential to obfuscate the interpretation of the results of latent growth models fit to sum scores...
August 5, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780651/hysteropreservation-versus-hysterectomy-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-uterine-prolapse-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Sofia Andrade de Oliveira, Marcelo C M Fonseca, Maria A T Bortolini, Manoel J B C Girão, Matheus T Roque, Rodrigo A Castro
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The efficacy and safety of removing or preserving the uterus during reconstructive pelvic surgery is a matter of debate. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared hysteropreservation and hysterectomy in the management of uterine prolapse. PubMed, Medline, SciELO and LILACS databases were searched from inception until January 2017. We selected only randomized controlled trials and observational cohort prospective comparative studies...
August 5, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771700/systematic-review-of-patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-patients-with-varicose-veins
#20
REVIEW
A Aber, E Poku, P Phillips, M Essat, H Buckley Woods, S Palfreyman, E Kaltenthaler, G Jones, J Michaels
BACKGROUND: Varicose veins can affect quality of life. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) provide a direct report from the patient about the impact of the disease without interpretation from clinicians or anyone else. The aim of this study was to examine the quality of the psychometric evidence for PROMs used in patients with varicose veins. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies that reported the psychometric properties of generic and disease-specific PROMs in patients with varicose veins...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
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