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Interpretation bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347583/quantum-monte-carlo-with-variable-spins-fixed-phase-and-fixed-node-approximations
#1
Cody A Melton, Lubos Mitas
We study several aspects of the recently introduced fixed-phase spinor diffusion Monte Carlo method, in particular, its relation to the fixed-node method and its potential use as a general approach for electronic structure calculations. We illustrate constructions of spinor-based wave functions with the full space-spin symmetry without assigning up or down spin labels to particular electrons, effectively "complexifying" even ordinary real-valued wave functions for Hamiltonians without spin terms. Interestingly, with proper choice of the simulation parameters and spin variables, such fixed-phase calculations enable one to reach also the fixed-node limit...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346806/lithium-and-renal-impairment-a-review-on-a-still-hot-topic
#2
René Ernst Nielsen, Lars Vedel Kessing, Willem A Nolen, Rasmus W Licht
INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results...
January 18, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344333/inverting-the-facing-the-viewer-bias-for-biological-motion-stimuli
#3
Séamas Weech, Nikolaus F Troje
Depth-ambiguous point-light walkers are most frequently seen as facing-the-viewer (FTV). It has been argued that the FTV bias depends on recognising the stimulus as a person. Accordingly, reducing the social relevance of biological motion by presenting stimuli upside down has been shown to reduce FTV bias. Here, we replicated the experiment that reported this finding and added stick figure walkers to the task in order to assess the effect of explicit shape information on facing bias for inverted figures. We measured the FTV bias for upright and inverted stick figure walkers and point-light walkers presented in different azimuth orientations...
January 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343944/quantitative-assessment-of-the-effects-of-chitosan-intervention-on-blood-pressure-control
#4
Haohai Huang, Ying Zou, Honggang Chi
Background: Chitosan is a popular dietary fiber often used to reduce dietary fat absorption to control weight and blood lipids. However, its effects on blood pressure (BP) have not been fully elucidated. We evaluated the effects of chitosan administration on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) through a pooled analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Materials and methods: Electronic searches were conducted in Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EMBASE to identify relevant human placebo-control RCTs...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343048/physiology-intervention-and-outcome-three-critical-questions-about-cerebral-tissue-oxygen-saturation-monitoring
#5
Lingzhong Meng, Shaun E Gruenbaum, Feng Dai, Tianlong Wang
The balance between cerebral tissue oxygen consumption and supply can be continuously assessed by cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) monitor. A construct consisting of three sequential questions, targeting the physiology monitored, the intervention implemented, and the outcomes affected, is proposed to critically appraise this monitor. The impact of the SctO2- guided care on patient outcome was examined through a systematic literature search and meta- analysis. We concluded that the physiology monitored by SctO2 is robust and dynamic, fragile (prone to derangement), and adversely consequential when deranged...
January 17, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341129/diagnosing-crime-and-diagnosing-disease-ii-visual-pattern-perception-and-diagnostic-accuracy
#6
Saty Satya-Murti, Joseph J Lockhart
Previously, we reviewed how general cognitive processes might be susceptible to bias across both forensic and clinical fields, and how interdisciplinary comparisons could reduce error. We discuss several examples of clinical tasks which are heavily dependent on visual processing, comparing them to eyewitness identification (EI). We review the "constructive" nature of visual processing, and how contextual factors influence both medical experts and witnesses in decision making and recall. Overall, studies suggest common cognitive factors uniting these visual tasks, in both their strengths and shortcomings...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339513/projecting-one-s-own-spatial-bias-onto-others-during-a-theory-of-mind-task
#7
Branden J Bio, Taylor W Webb, Michael S A Graziano
Many people show a left-right bias in visual processing. We measured spatial bias in neurotypical participants using a variant of the line bisection task. In the same participants, we measured performance in a social cognition task. This theory-of-mind task measured whether each participant had a processing-speed bias toward the right of, or left of, a cartoon agent about which the participant was thinking. Crucially, the cartoon was rotated such that what was left and right with respect to the cartoon was up and down with respect to the participant...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338859/renal-function-and-outcome-after-heart-transplantation
#8
Oscar Kolsrud, Kristjan Karason, Erik Holmberg, Sven-Erik Ricksten, Marie Felldin, Ola Samuelsson, Göran Dellgren
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) is a risk factor for death and/or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) after heart transplantation (HTx). METHODS: All adult patients (n = 416) who underwent HTx between 1988 and 2010 were included. mGFR was performed both preoperatively and postoperatively as annual follow-up. Eight patients received a concomitant kidney transplant (KTx), and 15 underwent late KTx due to chronic renal failure after HTx...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338066/endoscopic-scoring-indices-for-evaluation-of-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis
#9
REVIEW
Nadia Mohammed Vashist, Mark Samaan, Mahmoud H Mosli, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald, Sigrid A Nelson, G Y Zou, Brian G Feagan, Reena Khanna, Vipul Jairath
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic assessment of mucosal disease activity is routinely used to determine eligibility and response to therapy in clinical trials of ulcerative colitis. The operating properties of the existing endoscopic scoring indices are unclear. OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the development and operating characteristics of endoscopic scoring indices for the evaluation of ulcerative colitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL from inception to 5 July 2016...
January 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336480/species-co-occurrence-networks-can-they-reveal-trophic-and-non-trophic-interactions-in-ecological-communities
#10
Mara A Freilich, Evie Wieters, Bernardo R Broitman, Pablo A Marquet, Sergio A Navarrete
Co-occurrence methods are increasingly utilized in ecology to infer networks of species interactions where detailed knowledge based on empirical studies is difficult to obtain. Their use is particularly common, but not restricted to, microbial networks constructed from metagenomic analyses. In this study, we test the efficacy of this procedure by comparing an inferred network constructed using spatially intensive co-occurrence data from the rocky intertidal zone in central Chile to a well-resolved, empirically-based, species interaction network from the same region...
January 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335747/patellar-resurfacing-versus-patellar-retention-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-systematic-review-of-overlapping-meta-analyses
#11
REVIEW
Alberto Grassi, Riccardo Compagnoni, Paolo Ferrua, Stefano Zaffagnini, Massimo Berruto, Kristian Samuelsson, Eleonor Svantesson, Pietro Randelli
PURPOSE: The need of patellar resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a subject of debate. This systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses aimed to assess and analyze current evidence regarding patellar resurfacing and non-resurfacing in TKA. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in March 2017 in PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared TKA with and without patellar resurfacing considering as outcomes re-operations rate, complications, anterior knee pain, functional scores...
January 15, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334641/do-clinically-anxious-children-cluster-according-to-their-expression-of-factors-that-maintain-child-anxiety
#12
Samantha Pearcey, Anna Alkozei, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Helen Dodd, Kou Murayama, Suzannah Stuijfzand, Cathy Creswell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, yet a significant proportion of children do not benefit from it. CBT for child anxiety disorders typically includes a range of strategies that may not all be applicable for all affected children. This study explored whether there are distinct subgroups of children with anxiety disorders who are characterized by their responses to measures of the key mechanisms that are targeted in CBT (i...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329288/soil-transmitted-helminth-infection-loss-of-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Noel Pabalan, Eloisa Singian, Lani Tabangay, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Michael J Boivin, Amara E Ezeamama
BACKGROUND: Evidence of an adverse influence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections on cognitive function and educational loss is equivocal. Prior meta-analyses have focused on randomized controlled trials only and have not sufficiently explored the potential for disparate influence of STH infection by cognitive domain. We re-examine the hypothesis that STH infection is associated with cognitive deficit and educational loss using data from all primary epidemiologic studies published between 1992 and 2016...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325054/dehydration-survival-of-crop-plants-and-its-measurement
#14
Abraham Blum, Roberto Tuberosa
Dehydration survival under drought stress is defined in this review as the transition from plant activity into a quiescent state of life preservation, which will be terminated by either recovery or death, depending on the stress regime and the plant's resilience. Dehydration survival is a popular phenotype by which functional genomics attempts to test gene function in drought resistance and survival. The available reports on phenotyping and genotyping of dehydration survival in genomic studies indicate that the measurement of this trait is often biased to the extent that misguided interpretations are likely to occur...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323775/van-t-hoff-analysis-in-chiral-chromatography
#15
Leonid D Asnin, Maria V Stepanova
The present review discusses the theory and application of van't Hoff analysis in chiral chromatography, with main focus on liquid chromatography. The topics considered include the physical meaning of van't Hoff equation's parameters, interpretation of thermodynamic data in terms of retention and enantioseparation mechanisms, abnormal behavior of van't Hoff plots, and best practices to avoid biased results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 11, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322825/blood-glucose-monitoring-data-should-be-reported-in-detail-when-studies-about-efficacy-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-systems-are-published
#16
Stefan Pleus, Lutz Heinemann, Guido Freckmann
Recently, two clinical trials about a "sensor-based flash glucose monitoring system" and its efficacy in reducing time in hypoglycemia were published. Interestingly, patients spent more time at low glucose concentrations in these studies than in other studies related to the efficacy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM). Although it is possible that the study populations differed from those in other studies, another potential explanation is that the CGM system used in these two studies had a negative glucose measurement bias...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321858/how-do-steppe-plants-follow-their-optimal-environmental-conditions-or-persist-under-suboptimal-conditions-the-differing-strategies-of-annuals-and-perennials
#17
Hocine Ait Mouheb, Leila Kadik, Cécile Hélène Albert, Rachda Berrached, Andreas Prinzing
For a species to be able to respond to environmental change, it must either succeed in following its optimal environmental conditions or in persisting under suboptimal conditions, but we know very little about what controls these capacities. We parameterized species distribution models (SDMs) for 135 plant species from the Algerian steppes. We interpreted low false-positive rates as reflecting a high capacity to follow optimal environmental conditions and high false-negative rates as a high capacity to persist under suboptimal environmental conditions...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321555/fourier-transform-infrared-microscopy-enables-guidance-of-automated-mass-spectrometry-imaging-to-predefined-tissue-morphologies
#18
Jan-Hinrich Rabe, Denis A Sammour, Sandra Schulz, Bogdan Munteanu, Martina Ott, Katharina Ochs, Peter Hohenberger, Alexander Marx, Michael Platten, Christiane A Opitz, Daniel S Ory, Carsten Hopf
Multimodal imaging combines complementary platforms for spatially resolved tissue analysis that are poised for application in life science and personalized medicine. Unlike established clinical in vivo multimodality imaging, automated workflows for in-depth multimodal molecular ex vivo tissue analysis that combine the speed and ease of spectroscopic imaging with molecular details provided by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) are lagging behind. Here, we present an integrated approach that utilizes non-destructive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI for analysing single-slide tissue specimen...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316568/effect-of-submerged-vs-nonsubmerged-implant-placement-protocols-on-implant-failure-and-marginal-bone-loss-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Ramy Moustafa Moustafa Ali, Ahmed Yaseen Alqutaibi, Amr Salah El-Din Gomaa, Mohamed Farouk Abdallah
PURPOSE: To compare prosthesis and implant failures and marginal bone loss (MBL) resulting from submerged vs nonsubmerged dental implant protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic and manual searches of two databases (MEDLINE [PubMed] and Cochrane) were conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing submerged to nonsubmerged dental implant protocols. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers, and meta-analyses were performed for the included RCTs...
January 2018: International Journal of Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315365/miniscrews-failure-rate-in-orthodontics-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Fahad Alharbi, Mohammed Almuzian, David Bearn
Background: Miniscrews in orthodontics have been mainly used for anchorage without patient compliance in orthodontic treatment. The literature has reported changing failure rates. Objective: The aim of this review was to provide a precise estimation of miniscrew failure rate and the possible risk factors of the mechanically-retained miniscrews. Search method: Electronic search in database was undertaken up to July 2017 through the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Ovid...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
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