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Interpretation bias

Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stefanie J Schmidt, Ayla Behar, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Leone de Voogd, Reinout W Wiers, Peter J de Jong, Robert J Zwitser, Elske Salemink
INTRODUCTION: Negatively biased interpretations play an important role in anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence, and changing such biases might thus reduce or prevent emotional disorders. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of an online interpretation bias modification training in unselected adolescents to explore its potential in preventing anxiety and depression. METHODS: Participants (N = 173) were randomly allocated to eight online sessions of interpretation or placebo training...
2018: PloS One
A V Moskalev, V S Gladkikh, A A Al'shevskaya, A P Kovalevskiy, A I Sakhanenko, K Yu Orlov, N A Konovalov, A V Krut'ko
To date, a large amount of retrospectively collected data about treatment of neurosurgical pathology have been accumulated. Modern methods of medical statistics are necessary for correct interpretation of the data. The article purpose is to demonstrate application of one of the modern methods, Propensity Score Matching (PSM), in neurosurgery. The use of PSM avoids misinterpretation of retrospectively collected data and obviates errors in planning further prospective studies. For the past 10 years, the number of published international PSM-based studies has increased more than 10-fold, with the number of articles by Russian authors accounting for less than 0...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
E Laurin, K K Thakur, I A Gardner, P Hick, N J G Moody, M S J Crane, I Ernst
Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Izabela Krejtz, Paweł Holas, Marzena Rusanowska, John B Nezlek
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effectiveness of online positive attention bias modification training (ABMT) in inducing positive attention and positive interpretational biases in depressed individuals. METHOD: Clinically depressed individuals (n = 60) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions of 14-day online ABMT. In the positive ABMT condition, a probe replaced positive stimuli in 100% of trials. In the control condition, the probe replaced positive stimuli in 50% of trials...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) is a mathematical model theorized to untangle different cognitive processes involved in binary decision tasks. To test the validity of the diffusion model parameters, several experimental validation studies have been conducted. In these studies, the validity of the threshold separation parameter was tested with speed-accuracy manipulations. Typically, this manipulation not only results in the expected effect on the threshold separation parameter but it also impacts nondecision time: Nondecision time is longer in the accuracy than in the speed condition...
March 14, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Greg D Reynolds, Kelly C Roth
We present an integrative review of research and theory on major factors involved in the early development of attentional biases to faces. Research utilizing behavioral, eye-tracking, and neuroscience measures with infant participants as well as comparative research with animal subjects are reviewed. We begin with coverage of research demonstrating the presence of an attentional bias for faces shortly after birth, such as newborn infants' visual preference for face-like over non-face stimuli. The role of experience and the process of perceptual narrowing in face processing are examined as infants begin to demonstrate enhanced behavioral and neural responsiveness to mother over stranger, female over male, own- over other-race, and native over non-native faces...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nicholas G Larkins, Jonathan C Craig, Armando Teixeira-Pinto
Missing data is an important and common source of bias in clinical research. Readers should be alert to and consider the impact of missing data when reading studies. Beyond preventing missing data in the first place, through good study design and conduct, there are different strategies available to handle data containing missing observations. Complete case analysis is often biased unless data are missing completely at random. Better methods of handling missing data include multiple imputation and models using likelihood-based estimation...
March 13, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Jean-François Boisclair Lachance, Jemma L Webber, Lu Hong, Aaron Dinner, Ilaria Rebay
Cis -regulatory modules (CRMs) are defined by unique combinations of transcription factor-binding sites. Emerging evidence suggests that the number, affinity, and organization of sites play important roles in regulating enhancer output and, ultimately, gene expression. Here, we investigate how the cis -regulatory logic of a tissue-specific CRM responsible for even-skipped ( eve ) induction during cardiogenesis organizes the competing inputs of two E-twenty-six (ETS) members: the activator Pointed (Pnt) and the repressor Yan...
March 13, 2018: Genes & Development
Frederieke Kroon, Cherie Motti, Sam Talbot, Paula Sobral, Marji Puotinen
Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, with microplastic (i.e. <5 mm) contamination a global issue of emerging concern. The lack of universally accepted methods for quantifying microplastic contamination, including consistent application of microscopy, photography, an spectroscopy and photography, may result in unrealistic contamination estimates. Here, we present and apply an analysis workflow tailored to quantifying microplastic contamination in marine waters, incorporating stereomicroscopic visual sorting, microscopic photography and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Greg Keir, Nevenka Bulovic, Neil McIntyre
Setting limits on groundwater extractions is important to ensure sustainable groundwater management. Lack of extraction data can affect interpretations of historical pressure changes, predictions of future impacts, accuracy of groundwater model calibration, and identification of sustainable management options. Yet, many groundwater extractions are unmetered. Therefore, there is a need for models that estimate extraction rates and quantify model outputs uncertainties arising due to a lack of data. This paper develops such a model within the Generalised Linear Modelling (GLM) framework, using a case study of stock and domestic extractions in the Surat Cumulative Management Area, a predominantly cattle farming region in eastern Australia...
March 13, 2018: Ground Water
Martijn J Schuemie, George Hripcsak, Patrick B Ryan, David Madigan, Marc A Suchard
Observational healthcare data, such as electronic health records and administrative claims, offer potential to estimate effects of medical products at scale. Observational studies have often been found to be nonreproducible, however, generating conflicting results even when using the same database to answer the same question. One source of discrepancies is error, both random caused by sampling variability and systematic (for example, because of confounding, selection bias, and measurement error). Only random error is typically quantified but converges to zero as databases become larger, whereas systematic error persists independent from sample size and therefore, increases in relative importance...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hillary L Smith, Kirsten H Dillon, Jesse R Cougle
Interpretation Bias Modification (IBM) is gaining attention in the literature as an intervention that alters cognitive biases and reduces associated symptoms. Forty, primarily college-aged, non-treatment-seeking adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to receive either IBM targeting hostile interpretation bias (IBM-H) or a healthy video control (HVC) condition. Compared to those in HVC, participants in IBM-H reported more benign interpretations and fewer hostile interpretations at posttreatment...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Berta J Summers, Jesse R Cougle
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that computerized interpretation bias modification (IBM) techniques may be useful for modifying thoughts and behaviours relevant to eating pathology; however, little is known about the utility of IBM for decreasing specific eating disorder (ED) symptoms (e.g. bulimia, drive for thinness). AIMS: The current study sought to further examine the utility of IBM for ED symptoms via secondary analyses of an examination of IBM for individuals with elevated body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms (see Summers and Cougle, 2016), as these disorders are both characterized by threat interpretation biases of ambiguous appearance-related information...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Jason N Itri, Sohil H Patel
OBJECTIVE: The field of cognitive science has provided important insights into mental processes underlying the interpretation of imaging examinations. Despite these insights, diagnostic error remains a major obstacle in the goal to improve quality in radiology. In this article, we describe several types of cognitive bias that lead to diagnostic errors in imaging and discuss approaches to mitigate cognitive biases and diagnostic error. CONCLUSION: Radiologists rely on heuristic principles to reduce complex tasks of assessing probabilities and predicting values into simpler judgmental operations...
March 12, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Lisa Engel, Adora Chui, Dorcas E Beaton, Robin E Green, Deirdre R Dawson
OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise the measurement property evidence (i.e., psychometric) for eight observation-based financial management assessment instruments. DATA SOURCES: Seven databases were searched in May 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers used an independent decision-agreement process to select studies of measurement property evidence relevant to populations with adulthood acquired cognitive impairment, appraise the quality of the evidence, and extract data...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Collin W Ahrens, Paul D Rymer, Adam Stow, Jason Bragg, Shannon Dillon, Kate D L Umbers, Rachael Y Dudaniec
Detecting genetic variants under selection using FST outlier analysis (OA) and environmental association analyses (EAA) are popular approaches that provide insight into the genetic basis of local adaptation. Despite the frequent use of OA and EAA approaches and their increasing attractiveness for detecting signatures of selection, their application to field-based empirical data have not been synthesized. Here, we review 66 empirical studies that use Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in OA and EAA. We report trends and biases across biological systems, sequencing methods, approaches, parameters, environmental variables and their influence on detecting signatures of selection...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Emma K Wear, Elizabeth G Wilbanks, Craig E Nelson, Craig A Carlson
Primers targeting the 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA marker gene, used to characterize bacterial and archaeal communities, have recently been re-evaluated for marine planktonic habitats. To investigate whether primer selection affects the ecological interpretation of bacterioplankton populations and community dynamics, amplicon sequencing with four primer sets targeting several hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene was conducted on both mock communities constructed from cloned 16S rRNA genes and a time-series of DNA samples from the temperate coastal Santa Barbara Channel...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Adrian Sayers, Jonathan T Evans, Michael R Whitehouse, Ashley W Blom
Background and purpose - The use of competing risks models is widely advocated in the arthroplasty literature due to a perceived bias in comparison of simple Kaplan-Meier estimates. Proponents of competing risk models in the arthroplasty literature appear to be unaware of the subtle but important differences in interpretation of net and crude failure estimated by competing risk and Kaplan-Meier methods respectively. Methods - Using a simple simulation we illustrate the differences between competing risks and Kaplan-Meier methods...
March 9, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
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