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Interpretation bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716668/incomplete-penetrance-in-mitochondrial-optic-neuropathies
#1
Leonardo Caporali, Alessandra Maresca, Mariantonietta Capristo, Valentina Del Dotto, Francesca Tagliavini, Maria Lucia Valentino, Chiara La Morgia, Valerio Carelli
Incomplete penetrance characterizes the two most frequent inherited optic neuropathies, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA), due to genetic errors in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear DNA (nDNA), respectively. For LHON, compelling evidence has accumulated on the complex interplay of mtDNA haplogroups and environmental interacting factors, whereas the nDNA remains essentially non informative. However, a compensatory mechanism of activated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mtDNA copy number, possibly driven by a permissive nDNA background, is documented in LHON; when successful it maintains unaffected the mutation carriers, but in some individuals it might be hampered by tobacco smoking or other environmental factors, resulting in disease onset...
July 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716368/surgeons-and-surgical-trainees-acute-stress-in-real-operations-or-simulation-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Konstantinos Georgiou, Andreas Larentzakis, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute stress in surgery is ubiquitous and has an immediate impact on surgical performance and patient safety. Surgeons react with several coping strategies; however, they recognise the necessity of formal stress management training. Thus, stress assessment is a direct need. Surgical simulation is a validated standardised training milieu designed to replicate real-life situations. It replicates stress, prevents biases, and provides objective metrics. The complexity of stress mechanisms makes stress measurement difficult to quantify and interpret...
July 14, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715495/imagine-the-bright-side-of-life-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-two-types-of-interpretation-bias-modification-procedure-targeting-adolescent-anxiety-and-depression
#3
E L de Voogd, E de Hullu, S Burnett Heyes, S E Blackwell, R W Wiers, E Salemink
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent during adolescence and characterized by negative interpretation biases. Cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) may reduce such biases and improve emotional functioning. However, as findings have been mixed and the traditional scenario training is experienced as relatively boring, a picture-based type of training might be more engaging and effective. METHODS: The current study investigated short- and long-term effects (up to 6 months) and users' experience of two types of CBM-I procedure in adolescents with heightened symptoms of anxiety or depression (N = 119, aged 12-18 year)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714733/keep-your-bias-to-yourself-how-deliberating-with-differently-biased-others-affects-mock-jurors-guilt-decisions-perceptions-of-the-defendant-memories-and-evidence-interpretation
#4
Christine L Ruva, Christina C Guenther
This experiment explored how mock-jurors' (N = 648) guilt decisions, perceptions of the defendant, memories, and evidence interpretation varied as a function of jury type and pretrial publicity (PTP); utilizing a 2 (jury type: pure-PTP vs. mixed-PTP) × 3 (PTP: defendant, victim, and irrelevant) factorial design. Mock-juries (N = 126) were composed of jurors exposed to the same type of PTP (pure-PTP; e.g., defendant-PTP) or different types of PTP (mixed-PTP; e.g., half exposed to defendant-PTP and half to irrelevant-PTP)...
July 17, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714724/gambling-related-cognition-scale-grcs-are-skills-based-games-at-a-disadvantage
#5
David Lévesque, Serge Sévigny, Isabelle Giroux, Christian Jacques
The Gambling-Related Cognition Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) was developed to evaluate gambling-related cognitive distortions for all types of gamblers, regardless of their gambling activities (poker, slot machine, etc.). It is therefore imperative to ascertain the validity of its interpretation across different types of gamblers; however, some skills-related items endorsed by players could be interpreted as a cognitive distortion despite the fact that they play skills-related games. Using an intergroup (168 poker players and 73 video lottery terminal [VLT] players) differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, this study examined the possible manifestation of item biases associated with the GRCS...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710292/the-safety-of-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-and-long-term-outcomes
#6
Nigel Pereira, Claire L O'Neill, Vivian Lu, Zev Rosenwaks, Gianpiero D Palermo
The pioneering of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) approximately 25 years ago revolutionized the treatment of infertile couples. Today, ICSI remains an indispensable part of assisted reproductive treatments (ART) and has resulted in the birth of millions of babies. The 25th anniversary of ICSI marks a chronologic landmark in its evolving history. This landmark also serves as an opportunity to thoroughly appraise the safety of ICSI and analyze the long-term outcomes of ICSI-conceived children. In this review, we collate and analyze salient data accrued over the past 25 years pertaining to the long-term safety of ICSI and ICSI conceptions...
July 14, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709470/the-effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-training-and-oxytocin-administration-on-trust-in-maternal-support-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Martine W F T Verhees, Eva Ceulemans, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Simon de Winter, Guy Bosmans
BACKGROUND: Lack of trust in parental support is a transdiagnostic risk factor for the development of psychological problems throughout the lifespan. Research suggests that children's cognitive attachment representations and related information processing biases could be an important target for interventions aiming to build trust in the parent-child relationship. A paradigm that can alter these biases and increase trust is that of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), during which a target processing bias is systematically trained...
July 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709192/entropy-measures-entropy-estimators-and-their-performance-in-quantifying-complex-dynamics-effects-of-artifacts-nonstationarity-and-long-range-correlations
#8
Wanting Xiong, Luca Faes, Plamen Ch Ivanov
Entropy measures are widely applied to quantify the complexity of dynamical systems in diverse fields. However, the practical application of entropy methods is challenging, due to the variety of entropy measures and estimators and the complexity of real-world time series, including nonstationarities and long-range correlations (LRC). We conduct a systematic study on the performance, bias, and limitations of three basic measures (entropy, conditional entropy, information storage) and three traditionally used estimators (linear, kernel, nearest neighbor)...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708974/overestimation-of-threat-from-neutral-faces-and-voices-in-social-anxiety
#9
Virginie Peschard, Pierre Philippot
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety (SA) is associated with a tendency to interpret social information in a more threatening manner. Most of the research in SA has focused on unimodal exploration (mostly based on facial expressions), thus neglecting the ubiquity of cross-modality. To fill this gap, the present study sought to explore whether SA influences the interpretation of facial and vocal expressions presented separately or jointly. METHODS: Twenty-five high socially anxious (HSA) and 29 low socially anxious (LSA) participants completed a forced two-choice emotion identification task consisting of angry and neutral expressions conveyed by faces, voices or combined faces and voices...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704819/electrical-cardiometry-to-monitor-cardiac-output-in-preterm-infants-with-patent-ductus-arteriosus-a-comparison-with-echocardiography
#10
Kai-Hsiang Hsu, Tai-Wei Wu, I-Hsyuan Wu, Mei-Yin Lai, Shih-Yun Hsu, Hsiao-Wen Huang, Tze-Yee Mok, Reyin Lien
BACKGROUND: Electrical cardiometry (EC) is an impedance-based monitoring that provides noninvasive cardiac output (CO) assessment. Through comparison to transthoracic echocardiography (Echo), the accuracy of EC has been verified. However, left-to-right patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) shunting is a concern because PDA shunts aortic flow to the pulmonary artery and may interfere with EC in measuring CO. OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between EC and Echo in preterm infants with a hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA)...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704620/rasch-model-analysis-gives-new-insights-into-the-structural-validity-of-the-quick-dash-in-patients-with-musculoskeletal-shoulder-pain
#11
Christina Jerosch-Herold, Rachel Chester, Lee Shepstone
Study Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Background The Quick-DASH is a widely used outcome measure which has been extensively evaluated using classical test theory (CTT). Rasch model analysis can identify strengths and weaknesses of rating scales which goes beyond CTT approaches. It uses a mathematical model to test the fit between the observed data and expected responses and converts ordinal-level scores into interval-level measurement. Objective To test the structural validity of the Quick-DASH using Rasch analysis...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704414/examining-the-use-of-amazon-s-mechanical-turk-for-edge-extraction-of-the-occlusal-surface-of-fossilized-bovid-teeth
#12
Gregory J Matthews, George K Thiruvathukal, Maxwell P Luetkemeier, Juliet K Brophy
In order to reconstruct environments associated with Plio-Pleistocene hominins in southern Africa, researchers frequently rely upon the animals associated with the hominins, in particular, animals in the Family Bovidae. Bovids in southern Africa are typically identified by their teeth. However, identifying the taxon of a bovid tooth is challenging due to various biasing factors. Furthermore, inaccurate identification of fossil bovids can have significant consequences on the reconstructed paleoenvironment. Recent research on the classification of bovid fossil teeth has relied on using elliptical Fourier analysis to summarize the shape of the outline of the occlusal surface of the tooth and the resulting harmonic amplitudes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704366/identifying-wildlife-reservoirs-of-neglected-taeniid-tapeworms-non-invasive-diagnosis-of-endemic-taenia-serialis-infection-in-a-wild-primate-population
#13
India Schneider-Crease, Randi H Griffin, Megan A Gomery, Pierre Dorny, John C Noh, Sukwan Handali, Holly M Chastain, Patricia P Wilkins, Charles L Nunn, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Jacinta C Beehner, Thore J Bergman
Despite the global distribution and public health consequences of Taenia tapeworms, the life cycles of taeniids infecting wildlife hosts remain largely undescribed. The larval stage of Taenia serialis commonly parasitizes rodents and lagomorphs, but has been reported in a wide range of hosts that includes geladas (Theropithecus gelada), primates endemic to Ethiopia. Geladas exhibit protuberant larval cysts indicative of advanced T. serialis infection that are associated with high mortality. However, non-protuberant larvae can develop in deep tissue or the abdominal cavity, leading to underestimates of prevalence based solely on observable cysts...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702274/yeast-chemotropism-a-paradigm-shift-in-chemical-gradient-sensing
#14
Amber Ismael, David E Stone
The ability of cells to direct their movement and growth in response to shallow chemical gradients is essential in the life cycles of all eukaryotic organisms. The signaling mechanisms underlying directional sensing in chemotactic cells have been well studied; however, relatively little is known about how chemotropic cells interpret chemical gradients. Recent studies of chemotropism in budding and fission yeast have revealed 2 quite different mechanisms-biased wandering of the polarity complex, and differential internalization of the receptor and G protein...
2017: Cellular Logistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701977/foreign-languages-sound-fast-evidence-from-implicit-rate-normalization
#15
Hans Rutger Bosker, Eva Reinisch
Anecdotal evidence suggests that unfamiliar languages sound faster than one's native language. Empirical evidence for this impression has, so far, come from explicit rate judgments. The aim of the present study was to test whether such perceived rate differences between native and foreign languages (FLs) have effects on implicit speech processing. Our measure of implicit rate perception was "normalization for speech rate": an ambiguous vowel between short /a/ and long /a:/ is interpreted as /a:/ following a fast but as /a/ following a slow carrier sentence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701412/the-effect-of-blinding-on-estimates-of-mortality-in-randomised-clinical-trials-of-intensive-care-interventions-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Carl Thomas Anthon, Anders Granholm, Anders Perner, Jon Henrik Laake, Morten Hylander Møller
INTRODUCTION: Evidence exists that unblinded randomised clinical trials (RCTs) overestimate intervention effects compared with blinded RCTs. It has been suggested that this is less pronounced for objective (ie, not subject to interpretation) outcome measures, including mortality. This may not apply in the intensive care unit (ICU), as most deaths are preceded by decisions to withhold or withdraw treatments. Lack of blinding of physicians in RCTs of ICU interventions may potentially influence the decision towards a higher threshold for discontinuing treatment in patients who receive the investigational treatment and/or a lower threshold for discontinuing treatment in patients who receive the comparator (control)...
July 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701195/a-meta-analysis-of-temporal-changes-of-response-in-the-placebo-arm-of-surgical-randomized-controlled-trials-an-update
#17
Karolina A Wartolowska, Stephen Gerry, Benjamin G Feakins, Gary S Collins, Jonathan Cook, Andrew Judge, Andrew J Carr
BACKGROUND: Temporal changes in the placebo arm of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have not been thoroughly investigated, despite the fact that results of RCTs depend on the comparison between arms. METHODS: In this update of our earlier systematic review and meta-analysis, we set out to investigate the effect of assessment time and number of visits on the magnitude of change from baseline in the placebo arm of these trials. We used linear mixed-effects models to account for within-trial correlations...
July 12, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700585/validation-of-the-sensitivity-of-the-national-emergency-x-radiography-utilization-study-nexus-head-computed-tomographic-ct-decision-instrument-for-selective-imaging-of-blunt-head-injury-patients-an-observational-study
#18
William R Mower, Malkeet Gupta, Robert Rodriguez, Gregory W Hendey
BACKGROUND: Clinicians, afraid of missing intracranial injuries, liberally obtain computed tomographic (CT) head imaging in blunt trauma patients. Prior work suggests that clinical criteria (National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] Head CT decision instrument [DI]) can reliably identify patients with important injuries, while excluding injury, and the need for imaging in many patients. Validating this DI requires confirmation of the hypothesis that the lower 95% confidence limit for its sensitivity in detecting serious injury exceeds 99...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700516/the-validity-of-real-time-data-generated-by-a-wearable-microtechnology-device
#19
Dan Weaving, Sarah Whitehead, Kevin Till, Ben Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of global positioning system (GPS) and micro-electrical-mechanical-system (MEMS) data generated in real-time via a dedicated receiver. Post-session data acted as criterion as it is used to plan the volume and intensity of future training and is downloaded directly from the device. 25 professional rugby league players completed two training sessions wearing a MEMS device (Catapult S5, firmware version: 2.27). During sessions, real-time data was collected via the manufacturer receiver and dedicated software (Openfield v1...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698923/sequence-symmetry-analysis-in-pharmacovigilance-and-pharmacoepidemiologic-studies
#20
REVIEW
Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Nicole Pratt, Cheng-Yang Hsieh, Swu-Jane Lin, Anton Pottegård, Elizabeth E Roughead, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Jesper Hallas
Sequence symmetry analysis (SSA) is a method for detecting adverse drug events by utilizing computerized claims data. The method has been increasingly used to investigate safety concerns of medications and as a pharmacovigilance tool to identify unsuspected side effects. Validation studies have indicated that SSA has moderate sensitivity and high specificity and has robust performance. In this review we present the conceptual framework of SSA and discuss advantages and potential pitfalls of the method in practice...
July 11, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
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