keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

attention bias

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348268/is-the-quest-for-signaling-bias-worth-the-effort
#1
Terry Kenakin
The question of whether signaling bias is a viable discovery strategy for drug therapy is discussed as a value proposition. On the positive side, bias if easily identified and quantified in simple in vitro functional assays with little resource expenditure. However, there are valid pharmacological reasons why these in vitro bias numbers may not accurately translate to in vivo therapeutic systems making the expectation of direct correspondence of in vitro bias to in vivo systems a problematic process. Presently, in vitro bias is used simply as a means to identify unique molecules to be advanced to more complex therapeutic assays but from this standpoint alone, the value proposition lies far to the positive...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348040/negative-valence-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-the-relationship-between-amygdala-activity-selective-attention-and-co-occurring-anxiety
#2
John D Herrington, Brenna B Maddox, Alana J McVey, Martin E Franklin, Benjamin E Yerys, Judith S Miller, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: A critical agenda of the National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative is establishing whether domains within the RDoC matrix are truly transdiagnostic. Rates of anxiety disorders are elevated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is unclear whether the same mechanisms contribute to anxiety in individuals with and without ASD. As changes in selective attention are a hallmark of anxiety disorders in non-ASD samples, the identification of these changes in ASD would support the transdiagnostic nature of anxiety...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348038/children-with-fragile-x-syndrome-display-threat-specific-biases-toward-emotion
#3
Jessica L Burris, Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Riley N Sims, Randi J Hagerman, Flora Tassone, Susan M Rivera
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. FXS is caused by a silencing of the FMR1 gene that results in a loss or absence of the gene's protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein. The phenotype of FXS is consistently associated with heightened anxiety, although no previous study has investigated attentional bias toward threat, a hallmark of anxiety disorders, in individuals with FXS. METHODS: The current study employed a passive-viewing eye-tracking version of the dot probe task to investigate attentional biases toward emotional faces in young children with FXS (n = 47) and without FXS (n = 94)...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347927/prevalence-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-in-ethiopia-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Abadi Kidanemariam Berhe, Getachew Mullu Kassa, Gedefaw Abeje Fekadu, Achenef Asmamaw Muche
BACKGROUND: Although hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the leading cause of poor perinatal outcomes in Ethiopia, there is no study that shows the national prevalence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the national pooled prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy from studies conducted in different parts of the country. METHODS: Databases; MEDLINE, PubMed, HINARI, EMBASE, Google Scholar and African Journals Online were searched by using different search terms on HDP and Ethiopia...
January 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347861/positive-emotional-attention-bias-in-young-children-with-symptoms-of-adhd
#5
Amanda Cremone, Claudia I Lugo-Candelas, Elizabeth A Harvey, Jennifer M McDermott, Rebecca M C Spencer
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience emotional dysregulation. Dysregulation can arise from heightened attention to emotional stimuli. Emotional attention biases are associated with a number of adverse socioemotional outcomes including reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors. As reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors are common in children with ADHD, the aim of the current study was to determine whether emotional attention biases are evident in young children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms...
January 18, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345264/giant-spontaneous-exchange-bias-obtained-by-tuning-magnetic-compensation-in-samarium-ferrite-single-crystals
#6
Xiao-Xiong Wang, Shang Gao, Xu Yan, Qiang Li, Jun-Cheng Zhang, Yun-Ze Long, Ke-Qing Ruan, Xiao-Guang Li
Spontaneous exchange bias (SEB) under zero field cooling (ZFC) has recently attracted lots of attention due to its underlying physics and potential applications. Here we report the giant SEB (GSEB) of SmFeO3 single crystals by tuning magnetic compensation by temperature, which is rather convenient. A SEB field of up to 1 T at 3.9 K after ZFC (-1.4 T at 3.9 K after field cooling) was obtained. The SEB shows reciprocal relationship with remnant magnetization.
January 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339799/complementary-therapies-for-fatigue-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-an-integrative-review
#7
Mohamad Baydoun, Debra L Barton
Fatigue after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a persistent problem that limits activities and causes distress. Complementary therapies have shown promising results in improving fatigue in several patient populations. However, it is unknown whether they have the same effect on fatigue in the HSCT population. This integrative review aimed to explore the literature that evaluated complementary therapies for fatigue among HSCT patients. Only eight studies were considered eligible for inclusion in this review...
January 16, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337295/how-to-manipulate-magnetic-states-of-antiferromagnets
#8
Cheng Song, Yunfeng You, Xianzhe Chen, Xiaofeng Zhou, Yuyan Wang, Feng Pan
Antiferromagnetic materials, which have drawn considerable attention recently, have fascinating features: they are robust against perturbation, produce no stray fields, and exhibit ultrafast dynamics. Discerning how to efficiently manipulate the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet is key to the development of antiferromagnetic spintronics. In this review, we introduce four main methods (magnetic, strain, electrical, and optical) to mediate the magnetic states and elaborate on intrinsic origins of different antiferromagnetic materials...
January 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334148/self-powered-si-cds-flexible-photodetector-with-broadband-response-from-325-to-1550-nm-based-on-pyro-phototronic-effect-an-approach-for-photosensing-below-bandgap-energy
#9
Yejing Dai, Xingfu Wang, Wenbo Peng, Cheng Xu, Changsheng Wu, Kai Dong, Ruiyuan Liu, Zhong Lin Wang
Cadmium sulfide (CdS) has received widespread attention as the building block of optoelectronic devices due to its extraordinary optoelectronic properties, low work function, and excellent thermal and chemical stability. Here, a self-powered flexible photodetector (PD) based on p-Si/n-CdS nanowires heterostructure is fabricated. By introducing the pyro-phototronic effect derived from wurtzite structured CdS, the self-powered PD shows a broadband response range, even beyond the bandgap limitation, from UV (325 nm) to near infrared (1550 nm) under zero bias with fast response speed...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331850/attentional-biases-in-patients-suffering-from-unipolar-depression-results-of-a-dot-probe-task-investigation
#10
Wolfgang Trapp, Christoph Kalzendorf, Corinna Baum, Göran Hajak, Stefan Lautenbacher
Cognitive models of depression emphasize the relevance of cognitive biases for development, onset and maintenance of major depressive disorder (MDD). Attentional biases consisting of increased attention to negative, mood congruent stimuli and reduced attention to positive, mood-incongruent stimuli are postulated but have rarely been tested for early attentional processing. Furthermore, the role of concurrent depressive mood as a moderating factor has not been studied to date. Participants comprised 30 patients suffering from MDD and 30 healthy control subjects...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329979/how-acute-stress-may-enhance-subsequent-memory-for-threat-stimuli-outside-the-focus-of-attention-dlpfc-amygdala-decoupling
#11
Yu Luo, Guillén Fernández, Erno Hermans, Susanne Vogel, Yu Zhang, Hong Li, Floris Klumpers
Stress-related disorders, e.g., anxiety and depression, are characterized by decreased top-down control for distracting information, as well as a memory bias for threatening information. However, it is unclear how acute stress biases mnemonic encoding and leads to prioritized storage of threat-related information even if outside the focus of attention. In the current study, healthy adults (N = 53, all male) were randomly assigned to stress induction using the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) or a control condition...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328948/psychopathology-and-episodic-future-thinking-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-specificity-and-episodic-detail
#12
D J Hallford, D W Austin, K Takano, F Raes
Episodic future thinking (EFT) refers to the mental simulation of future events that might be personally-experienced; a crucial mental process in adaptation. Psychiatric disorders are associated with deficits in recalling episodic memory, however, no study has reviewed the empirical literature to assess for similar deficits in EFT. A systematic review comparing psychiatric groups with control groups on the specificity and episodic detail of EFT returned 19 eligible studies. An overall effect of g = -0.84 (95%CI = -1...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325848/a-genetic-investigation-of-sex-bias-in-the-prevalence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Joanna Martin, Raymond K Walters, Ditte Demontis, Manuel Mattheisen, S Hong Lee, Elise Robinson, Isabell Brikell, Laura Ghirardi, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Nicholas Eriksson, Thomas Werge, Preben Bo Mortensen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Naomi R Wray, Barbara Franke, Stephen V Faraone, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar, Anders D Børglum, Benjamin M Neale
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows substantial heritability and is two to seven times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. We examined two putative genetic mechanisms underlying this sex bias: sex-specific heterogeneity and higher burden of risk in female cases. METHODS: We analyzed genome-wide autosomal common variants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and iPSYCH Project (n = 20,183 cases, n = 35,191 controls) and Swedish population register data (n = 77,905 cases, n = 1,874,637 population controls)...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324761/cross-linguistic-regularities-and-learner-biases-reflect-core-mechanics
#14
Brent Strickland, Emmanuel Chemla
Recent research in infant cognition and adult vision suggests that the mechanical object relationships may be more salient and naturally attention grabbing than similar but non-mechanical relationships. Here we examine two novel sources of evidence from language related to this hypothesis. In Experiments 1 and 2, we show that adults preferentially infer that the meaning of a novel preposition refers to a mechanical as opposed to a non-mechanical relationship. Experiments 3 and 4 examine cross-linguistic adpositions obtained on a large scale from machines or from experts, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322673/attentional-bias-towards-sleep-related-stimuli-in-insomnia-disorder-a-behavioural-and-erp-study
#15
Ningning Zhou, Chuanwen Zhao, Ting Yang, Sha Du, Meng Yu, Heyong Shen
Many studies have used behavioural experiments to show an attentional bias towards sleep-related stimuli in people with insomnia disorder. A measurement of event-related potential is needed to investigate the cognitive processing mechanism of the attentional process. The present study used the emotional Stroop paradigm and event-related potentials to measure attentional bias towards sleep-negative, sleep-positive and sleep-unrelated neutral words. The study comprised 16 participants with insomnia disorder and 15 participants who were good sleepers...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322399/when-is-best-worst-best-a-comparison-of-best-worst-scaling-numeric-estimation-and-rating-scales-for-collection-of-semantic-norms
#16
Geoff Hollis, Chris Westbury
Large-scale semantic norms have become both prevalent and influential in recent psycholinguistic research. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the methodological best practices of such norm collection efforts. We compared the quality of semantic norms obtained through rating scales, numeric estimation, and a less commonly used judgment format called best-worst scaling. We found that best-worst scaling usually produces norms with higher predictive validities than other response formats, and does so requiring less data to be collected overall...
January 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320506/thinking-of-me-self-focus-reduces-sharing-and-helping-in-seven-to-eight-year-olds
#17
Sandra Weltzien, Lauren E Marsh, Bruce Hood
By 7-to 8-years of age, most children readily adhere to prosocial norms aimed at benefiting others through giving up time and effort (helping) or resources (sharing). Two studies explored whether sharing and helping by 7-to 8-year olds (N = 180) could be influenced by priming children's attention on themselves or their friends through a semi-structured interview. Results revealed that self-priming led to reductions in both sharing and helping compared to friendship-priming or a control condition. These findings are considered as indicative of the fragile state of prosocial behaviours at this age that can be easily shifted towards more selfish biases by simple priming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317027/identification-of-potential-sphingomyelin-markers-for-the-estimation-of-hematocrit-in-dried-blood-spots-via-a-lipidomic-strategy
#18
Hsiao-Wei Liao, Shu-Wen Lin, Ya-Ting Lin, Ching-Hua Lee, Ching-Hua Kuo
The dried blood spot (DBS) strategy is a convenient and minimally invasive approach to blood sampling. Due to its various advantages, this sampling technique has drawn significant attention in recent years. Hematocrit (HCT)-associated bias is one of the main obstacles that hinder wider DBS application in clinical practice. An accurate HCT estimation method could help calibrate HCT-associated bias and improve the quantification accuracy. This study used a lipidomics profiling strategy to identify HCT estimation markers using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), which provided advantages including the potential for the simultaneous measurements of target drug and HCT values...
March 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314502/erratum-quantitative-evaluation-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-attention-bias-modification-treatment-for-anxiety-disorders
#19
Marian Linetzky, Lee Pergamin-Hight, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311140/visual-short-term-memory-activity-in-parietal-lobe-reflects-cognitive-processes-beyond-attentional-selection
#20
Summer L Sheremata, David C Somers, Sarah Shomstein
Visual attention and short-term memory (VSTM) are distinct yet inter-related processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection, therefore, it is important to determine if overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
33168
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"