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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107679/meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-impulsivity-and-substance-related-cognitive-biases
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Leung, Petra K Staiger, Melissa Hayden, Jarrad A G Lum, Kate Hall, Victoria Manning, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that substance-related cognitive biases (attentional, memory, and approach bias) contribute to the maintenance and development of substance misuse. Impulsivity has been suggested to influence how cognitive biases contribute to substance misuse, possibly by biasing incentive salience attribution processes. However, the strength and moderators of the relationship between impulsivity and substance-related cognitive biases has yet to be empirically examined...
January 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106662/medication-adherence-interventions-among-hypertensive-black-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Todd M Ruppar, Jacqueline M Dunbar-Jacob, David R Mehr, Lisa Lewis, Vicki S Conn
BACKGROUND: Black adults have higher rates of hypertension and lower rates of blood pressure (BP) control than white adults. Improving BP control requires attention to use of antihypertensive medications, but antihypertensive regimen adherence remains low, preventing improved BP control. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a comprehensive search and systematic review of intervention studies testing interventions to improve adherence to BP medications among black adults with hypertension...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103833/prevalence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-children-and-adolescents-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Tingting Wang, Kaihua Liu, Zhanzhan Li, Yang Xu, Yuan Liu, Wenpei Shi, Lizhang Chen
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common childhood neurobehavioural disorder, can produce a series of negative effects on children, adolescents, and even adults as well as place a serious economic burden on families and society. However, the prevalence of ADHD is not well understood in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in China using a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu and CBM databases, and relevant articles published from inception to March 1, 2016, that provided the prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in China were reviewed...
January 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103638/music-interventions-for-acquired-brain-injury
#4
REVIEW
Wendy L Magee, Imogen Clark, Jeanette Tamplin, Joke Bradt
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, and sensory processing, and in emotional disturbances, which can severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music interventions have been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions, and sensory perceptions. An update of the systematic review published in 2010 was needed to gauge the efficacy of music interventions in rehabilitation for people with ABI...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103483/dynamic-interaction-between-reinforcement-learning-and-attention-in-multidimensional-environments
#5
Yuan Chang Leong, Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Vivian DeWoskin, Yael Niv
Little is known about the relationship between attention and learning during decision making. Using eye tracking and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we measured participants' dimensional attention as they performed a trial-and-error learning task in which only one of three stimulus dimensions was relevant for reward at any given time. Analysis of participants' choices revealed that attention biased both value computation during choice and value update during learning. Value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and prediction errors in the striatum were similarly biased by attention...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101895/on-the-rarity-of-dioecy-in-flowering-plants
#6
Jos Käfer, Gabriel A B Marais, John R Pannell
Dioecy, the co-existence of separate male and female individuals in a population, is a rare but phylogenetically widespread sexual system in flowering plants. While research has concentrated on why and how dioecy evolves from hermaphroditism, the question of why dioecy is rare, despite repeated transitions to it, has received much less attention. Previous phylogenetic and theoretical studies have suggested that dioecy might be an evolutionary dead end. However, recent research indicates that the phylogenetic support for this hypothesis is attributable to a methodological bias, and that there is no evidence for reduced diversification in dioecious angiosperms...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#7
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096283/laba-lama-combination-in-copd-a-meta-analysis-on-the-duration-of-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Luigino Calzetta, Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Ermanno Puxeddu, Mario Cazzola, Maria Gabriella Matera
When there are no randomised clinical trials directly comparing all relevant treatment options, an indirect treatment comparison via meta-analysis of the available clinical evidence is an acceptable alternative. However, meta-analyses may be very misleading if not adequately performed. Here, we propose and validate a simple and effective approach to meta-analysis for exploring the effectiveness of long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) fixed-dose combinations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095819/adhd-comorbid-disorders-and-psychosocial-functioning-how-representative-is-a-child-cohort-study-findings-from-a-national-patient-registry
#9
Beate Oerbeck, Kristin Romvig Overgaard, Stian Thoresen Aspenes, Are Hugo Pripp, Marianne Mordre, Heidi Aase, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Pal Zeiner
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies often report findings on children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but may be biased by self-selection. The representativeness of cohort studies needs to be investigated to determine whether their findings can be generalised to the general child population. The aim of the present study was to examine the representativeness of child ADHD in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The study population was children born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008 registered with hyperkinetic disorders (hereafter ADHD) in the Norwegian Patient Registry during the years 2008-2013, and two groups of children with ADHD were identified in: 1...
January 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#10
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092778/electrocortical-consequences-of-image-processing-the-influence-of-working-memory-load-and-worry
#11
Evan J White, DeMond M Grant
Research suggests that worry precludes emotional processing as well as biases attentional processes. Although there is burgeoning evidence for the relationship between executive functioning and worry, more research in this area is needed. A recent theory suggests one mechanism for the negative effects of worry on neural indicators of attention may be working memory load, however few studies have examined this directly. The goal of the current study was to document the influence of both visual and verbal working memory load and worry on attention allocation during processing of emotional images in a cued image paradigm...
January 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092198/attentional-bias-in-excessive-internet-gamers-experimental-investigations-using-an-addiction-stroop-and-a-visual-probe
#12
Franziska Jeromin, Nele Nyenhuis, Antonia Barke
Background and aims Internet Gaming Disorder is included in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5(th) edition) as a disorder that merits further research. The diagnostic criteria are based on those for Substance Use Disorder and Gambling Disorder. Excessive gamblers and persons with Substance Use Disorder show attentional biases towards stimuli related to their addictions. We investigated whether excessive Internet gamers show a similar attentional bias, by using two established experimental paradigms...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092078/the-dot-probe-task-to-measure-emotional-attention-a-suitable-measure-in-comparative-studies
#13
Rianne van Rooijen, Annemie Ploeger, Mariska E Kret
For social animals, attending to and recognizing the emotional expressions of other individuals is of crucial importance for their survival and likely has a deep evolutionary origin. Gaining insight into how emotional expressions evolved as adaptations over the course of evolution can be achieved by making direct cross-species comparisons. To that extent, experimental paradigms that are suitable for investigating emotional processing across species need to be developed and evaluated. The emotional dot-probe task, which measures attention allocation toward emotional stimuli, has this potential...
January 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088987/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-lineage-bias-in-aging-hematopoiesis
#14
REVIEW
Harold K Elias, David Bryder, Christopher Y Park
Although hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have traditionally been thought to possess the ability to give rise to all the mature cell types in the hematopoietic system, this conception of hematopoiesis was based on evaluation of hematopoietic output from large numbers of HSCs using transplantation models.  More recent studies evaluating HSCs at the clonal or near-clonal level, both in transplantation studies and during in situ hematopoiesis, have established that individual HSCs can exhibit lineage bias, giving rise to myeloid-biased, lymphoid-biased, or more balanced differentiation, with the proportion of myeloid-biased HSCs increasing with age...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088557/meta-analysis-of-organizational-skills-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Aida Bikic, Brian Reichow, Spencer A McCauley, Karim Ibrahim, Denis G Sukhodolsky
BACKGROUND: In addition to problems with attention and hyperactivity, children with ADHD present with poor organizational skills required for managing time and materials in academic projects. Organizational skills training (OST) has been increasingly used to address these deficits. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of OST in children with ADHD. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence of the effects of OST for children with ADHD for organizational skills, attention, and academic performance...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088534/the-social-transmission-of-metacontrol-policies-mechanisms-underlying-the-interpersonal-transfer-of-persistence-and-flexibility
#16
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Lorenza S Colzato
Humans often face binary cognitive-control dilemmas, with the choice between persistence and flexibility being a crucial one. Tackling these dilemmas requires metacontrol, i.e., the control of the current cognitive-control policy. As predicted from functional, psychometric, neuroscientific, and modeling approaches, interindividual variability in metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility could be demonstrated in metacontrol-sensitive tasks. These biases covary systematically with genetic predispositions regarding mesofrontal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic functioning and the individualistic or collectivistic nature of the cultural background...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081452/differential-white-matter-involvement-associated-with-distinct-visuospatial-deficits-after-right-hemisphere-stroke
#17
Alex R Carter, Mark P McAvoy, Joshua S Siegel, Xin Hong, Serguei V Astafiev, Jennifer Rengachary, Kristi Zinn, Nicholas V Metcalf, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
Visuospatial attention depends on the integration of multiple processes, and people with right hemisphere lesions after a stroke may exhibit severe or no visuospatial deficits. The anatomy of core components of visuospatial attention is an area of intense interest. Here we examine the relationship between the disruption of core components of attention and lesion distribution in a heterogeneous group (N = 70) of patients with right hemisphere strokes regardless of the presence of clinical neglect. Deficits of lateralized spatial orienting, measured as the difference in reaction times for responding to visual targets in the contralesional or ipsilesional visual field, and deficits in re-orienting attention, as measured by the difference in reaction times for invalidly versus validly cued targets, were measured using a computerized spatial orienting task...
December 20, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080116/recognition-memory-for-hue-prototypical-bias-and-the-role-of-labeling
#18
Laura Jane Kelly, Evan Heit
How does the concurrent use of language affect perception and memory for exemplars? Labels cue more general category information than a specific exemplar. Applying labels can affect the resulting memory for an exemplar. Here 3 alternative hypotheses are proposed for the role of labeling an exemplar at encoding: (a) labels distort memory toward the label prototype, (b) labels guide the level of specificity needed in the current context, and (c) labels direct attention to the label's referent among all possible features within a visual scene...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080087/perceptual-salience-does-not-influence-emotional-arousal-s-impairing-effects-on-top-down-attention
#19
Matthew R Sutherland, Douglas A McQuiggan, Jennifer D Ryan, Mara Mather
Emotional arousal impairs top-down attentional control while strengthening bottom-up attentional biases. In this study, we examined whether top-down impairments due to arousal can be modulated by increasing the perceptual salience of the target stimulus. To examine this question, we briefly displayed positive and negative arousing images prior to the encoding of 2 emotionally neutral items, 1 of which was to be remembered and 1 of which was perceptually salient (the to-be-remembered and the salient items were either the same item or different items)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074450/forget-me-if-you-can-attentional-capture-by-to-be-remembered-and-to-be-forgotten-visual-stimuli
#20
Edyta Sasin, Candice C Morey, Mark Nieuwenstein
Previous studies on directed forgetting in visual working memory (VWM) have shown that, if people are cued to remember only a subset of the items currently held in VWM, they will completely forget the uncued, no longer relevant items. While this finding is indicative of selective remembering, it remains unclear whether directed forgetting can also occur in the absence of any concurrent to-be-remembered information. In the current study, we addressed this matter by asking participants to memorize a single object that could be followed by a cue to forget or remember this object...
January 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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