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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343109/a-visual-analysis-of-gender-bias-in-contemporary-anatomy-textbooks
#1
Rhiannon Parker, Theresa Larkin, Jon Cockburn
Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age...
March 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342769/a-laboratory-study-on-attentional-bias-as-an-underlying-mechanism-affecting-the-link-between-cortisol-and-performance-leading-to-a-discussion-on-the-nature-of-the-stressor-artificial-vs-psychosocial
#2
Franziska Lautenbach
Although cortisol is assumed to influence performance by affecting cognition during stressful and competitive situations, to date this assumption has not been tested empirically. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the influence of cortisol on performance is mediated by attentional processing of emotional information. Forty-six male golfers were tested in a mixed design. The cold pressor task (CPT) was used to artificially increase cortisol levels in the experimental group relative to the control group, who had to put their forearm in warm water...
March 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339068/iron-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Giovanni Mostile, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Loretta Giuliano, Mario Zappia, Alessandra Nicoletti
A possible association between iron serum levels and Parkinson's disease (PD) using a meta‑analytic approach was evaluated. A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify published observational, case‑control studies dealing with the association between iron blood levels and PD. In both groups, iron blood levels were extracted as means and standard deviations to calculate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity of selected studies was investigated...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335990/trial-type-mixing-substantially-reduces-the-response-set-effect-in-the-stroop-task
#4
Nabil Hasshim, Benjamin A Parris
The response set effect refers to the finding that an irrelevant incongruent colour-word produces greater interference when it is one of the response options (referred to as a response set trial), compared to when it is not (a non-response set trial). Despite being a key effect for models of selective attention, the magnitude of the effect varies considerably across studies. We report two within-subjects experiments that tested the hypothesis that presentation format modulates the magnitude of the response set effect...
March 20, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335040/-new-ways-of-diagnosing-adhd-in-adults
#5
Marco Grabemann, Marco Zimmermann, Laura Strunz, Monika Ebbert-Grabemann, Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard Kis, Christian Mette
Objective Diagnosing Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults requires that ADHD has already been present in childhood. However, recall of ADHD-symptoms in childhood is fallible, for example influenced by mood. Furthermore, diagnostics need a procedure to handle oblivion and judgment biases. The Essen-Interview-for-school-days-related-biography (EIS-B) addresses these problems and offers a tool for retrospectively diagnosing childhood ADHD in adults. Method 36 patients with ADHD, 27 patients with depression or adjustment disorders and 39 healthy controls were included in the pilot study...
March 23, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334398/maintenance-of-social-anxiety-in-stuttering-a-cognitive-behavioral-model
#6
Lisa Iverach, Ronald M Rapee, Quincy J J Wong, Robyn Lowe
Purpose: Stuttering is a speech disorder frequently accompanied by anxiety in social-evaluative situations. A growing body of research has confirmed a significant rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a chronic and disabling anxiety disorder associated with substantial life impairment. Several influential models have described cognitive-behavioral factors that contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety in nonstuttering populations. The purpose of the present article is to apply these leading models to the experience of social anxiety for people who stutter...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334157/overview-of-freshwater-microbial-eukaryotes-diversity-a-first-analysis-of-publicly-available-metabarcoding-data
#7
Didier Debroas, Isabelle Domaizon, Jean-Francois Humbert, Ludwig Jardillier, Cécile Lepère, Anne Oudart, Najwa Taïb
Although they are widespread, diverse, and involved in biogeochemical cycles, microbial eukaryotes attract less attention than their prokaryotic counterparts in environmental microbiology. In this study, we used publicly available 18S barcoding data to define biases that may limit such analyses and to gain an overview of the planktonic microbial eukaryotic diversity in freshwater ecosystems. The richness of the microbial eukaryotes was estimated to 100,798 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) delineating 1267 clusters or phylogenetic units (PUs i...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333581/the-social-construction-of-fibromyalgia-as-a-health-problem-from-the-perspective-of-policies-professionals-and-patients
#8
Erica Briones-Vozmediano
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful chronic disease, suffered mainly by women, that consolidates a number of symptoms and skeletal muscle issues which are little understood. OBJECTIVES: To explore the social construction of FM from the perspective of health policies, patients, and health professionals involved in their medical attention. METHODS: I) Policy review of national and regional health plans in a national and international context, the clinical protocols for fibromyalgia in Spain, and the Parliamentary initials in the European and Spanish context; and ii) Qualitative study involving 28 personal interviews with 16 fibromyalgia patients and 12 interviews with health care professionals in Spain...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331089/diversity-distribution-and-evolution-of-tomato-viruses-in-china-uncovered-by-small-rna-sequencing
#9
Chenxi Xu, Xuepeng Sun, Angela Taylor, Chen Jiao, Yimin Xu, Xiaofeng Cai, Xiaoli Wang, Chenhui Ge, Guanghui Pan, Quanxi Wang, Zhangjun Fei, Quanhua Wang
Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with coldspots and hotspots. Most samples were co-infected by multiple viruses and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329718/a-pilot-investigation-of-acute-inhibitory-control-training-in-cocaine-users
#10
Joseph L Alcorn, Erika Pike, William S Stoops, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush
BACKGROUND: Disrupted response inhibition and presence of drug-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals have predicted poor treatment outcomes. Inhibitory control training could help improve treatment outcomes by strengthening cognitive control. This pilot study assessed the effects of acute inhibitory control training to drug- and non-drug-related cues on response inhibition performance and cocaine-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals. METHODS: Participants who met criteria for a cocaine-use disorder underwent five sessions of inhibitory control training to either non-drug-related cues (i...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328043/csf-tau-and-the-csf-tau-abeta-ratio-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-other-dementias-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#11
REVIEW
Craig Ritchie, Nadja Smailagic, Anna H Noel-Storr, Obioha Ukoumunne, Emma C Ladds, Steven Martin
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that measurable change in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers occurs years in advance of the onset of clinical symptoms (Beckett 2010). In this review, we aimed to assess the ability of CSF tau biomarkers (t-tau and p-tau) and the CSF tau (t-tau or p-tau)/ABeta ratio to enable the detection of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These biomarkers have been proposed as important in new criteria for Alzheimer's disease dementia that incorporate biomarker abnormalities...
March 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327894/statistical-controversies-in-clinical-research-overlap-and-errors-in-the-meta-analyses-of-microrna-genetic-association-studies-in-cancers
#12
J H Park, M Eisenhut, H J Vliet, J I Shin
Background: : Various errors in the design, conduct, and analysis of medical and public health research studies can produce false results and waste valuable resources. While systematic reviews and meta-analyses are arguably considered the most dependable source of evidence-based medicine, increasing numbers of studies are indicating that, on the contrary to the public's belief, many of these investigations are redundant, erroneous, and even biased. Methods: 94 meta-analyses on microRNA polymorphism and risk of cancer were extracted from Pubmed database on August 2016...
January 24, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327251/attentional-and-affective-biases-for-attractive-females-emerge-early-in-development
#13
Jennifer Lynn Rennels, Stephanie Ann Verba
Predominant experience with females early in development results in infants developing an attractive, female-like facial representation that guides children's attention toward and affective preferences for attractive females. When combined with increased interest in the other sex at puberty, these early emerging biases might help explain the robust prosocial and financial biases men exhibit toward attractive women during adulthood.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327232/attention-and-memory-benefits-for-physical-attractiveness-may-mediate-prosocial-biases
#14
David Vaughn Becker
Mating motivations can explain attractiveness benefits, but what proximate mechanisms might serve as efficient causes of these biases? There is growing evidence that visual cues of physical attractiveness capture attention and facilitate memory, enhancing salience in ways that could underlie, for example, preferring one job applicant over another. All of these effects beg deeper questions about the meaning of attractiveness.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325682/5-httlpr-moderates-the-association-between-attention-away-from-angry-faces-and-prospective-depression-among-youth
#15
Jessica L Jenness, Jami F Young, Benjamin L Hankin
Attention bias to emotion has been studied as a risk factor associated with depression. No study has examined whether attention bias within the context of measured genetic risk leads to increased risk for clinical depressive episodes over time. The current study investigated whether genetic risk, as indexed by the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), moderated the relationship between attention bias to emotional faces and clinical depression onset prospectively across 18-months in a community sample of youth (n = 428; mean age = 11...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325118/is-asthma-associated-with-cognitive-impairments-a-meta-analytic-review
#16
Farzin Irani, Jordan Mark Barbone, Janet Beausoleil, Lynn Gerald
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic disease with significant health burden and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities related to diagnosis and treatment. Asthma primarily affects the lungs, but can impact brain function through direct and indirect mechanisms. Some studies have suggested that asthma negatively impacts cognition, while others have failed to identify asthma-related cognitive compromise. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognition in individuals with asthma compared to that in healthy controls...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#17
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323684/shifting-spatial-neglect-with-repeated-line-bisections-possible-role-of-lateralized-attentional-fatigue
#18
Mary Woods, John B Williamson, Keith D White, Charles G Maitland, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Many patients who have signs of neglect immediately after a right hemisphere stroke remain disabled even when they improve on tests of neglect. Few patients are tested for attentional persistence and fatigue despite their importance in many instrumental activities. To investigate whether stimulus repetition might alter the allocation of attention, we repeatedly tested a patient 16 weeks after she developed hemispatial neglect from a right hemisphere stroke. METHODS: During each of three testing sessions given in 1 day, we asked the patient to bisect 90 lines of two lengths, presented in 30-trial blocks in three locations: left, center, and right of her midsagittal plane, partially counterbalanced across sessions...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322748/oxytocin-promotes-attention-to-social-cues-regardless-of-group-membership
#19
Michaela Pfundmair, Clarissa Zwarg, Markus Paulus, Anne Rimpel
The social saliency account proposes that oxytocin (OT) plays a major role in modulating attentional shifts toward social cues at early stages of processing. We investigated how OT promotes early attention toward nonsocial and social stimuli and explored differences between in-group- and out-group-related social cues. After participants intranasally self-administered OT or placebo, they were eye-tracked while observing a nonsocial and social cues that were assigned to the in- or out-group by a minimal group paradigm...
March 23, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321912/boosting-joint-models-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#20
Elisabeth Waldmann, David Taylor-Robinson, Nadja Klein, Thomas Kneib, Tania Pressler, Matthias Schmid, Andreas Mayr
Joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data have gained a lot of attention in the last few years as they are a helpful technique clinical studies where longitudinal outcomes are recorded alongside event times. Those two processes are often linked and the two outcomes should thus be modeled jointly in order to prevent the potential bias introduced by independent modeling. Commonly, joint models are estimated in likelihood-based expectation maximization or Bayesian approaches using frameworks where variable selection is problematic and that do not immediately work for high-dimensional data...
March 21, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
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