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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792908/acute-effects-of-caffeine-on-threat-selective-attention-moderation-by-anxiety-and-eeg-theta-beta-ratio
#1
Dana van Son, Rik Schalbroeck, Angelos Angelidis, Nic van der Wee, Willem van der Does, Peter Putman
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous EEG theta/beta ratio (TBR) probably marks prefrontal cortical (PFC) executive control, and its regulation of attentional threat-bias. Caffeine at moderate doses may strengthen executive control through increased PFC catecholamine action, dependent on basal PFC function. GOAL: To test if caffeine affects threat-bias, moderated by baseline frontal TBR and trait-anxiety. METHODS: A pictorial emotional Stroop task was used to assess threat-bias in forty female participants in a cross-over, double-blind study after placebo and 200 mg caffeine...
May 21, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791865/executive-and-arousal-vigilance-decrement-in-the-context-of-the-attentional-networks-the-anti-vea-task
#2
Fernando Gabriel Luna, Julián Marino, Javier Roca, Juan Lupiáñez
BACKGROUND: Vigilance is generally understood as the ability to detect infrequent critical events through long time periods. In tasks like the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), participants tend to detect fewer events across time, a phenomenon known as "vigilance decrement". However, vigilance might also involve sustaining a tonic arousal level. In the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), the vigilance decrement corresponds to an increment across time in both mean and variability of reaction time...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791296/attending-to-what-and-where-background-connectivity-integrates-categorical-and-spatial-attention
#3
Alexa Tompary, Naseem Al-Aidroos, Nicholas B Turk-Browne
Top-down attention prioritizes the processing of goal-relevant information throughout visual cortex based on where that information is found in space and what it looks like. Whereas attentional goals often have both spatial and featural components, most research on the neural basis of attention has examined these components separately. Here we investigated how these attentional components are integrated by examining the attentional modulation of functional connectivity between visual areas with different selectivity...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787955/lower-p300-amplitudes-for-internally-generated-events-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Priyadarshee Abhishek, S Haque Nizamie, Indu Dubey, Nishant Goyal, Sai Krishna Tikka, Hariom Pachori, Devvarta Kumar, Mohammed Zia Ul Haq Katshu
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate difficulty differentiating internally-generated from externally-generated events. An excessive deployment of attention to external events as well as poor processing of self-generated events has been proposed to explain this misattribution. This study was done to understand the neurophysiological basis of source monitoring bias in schizophrenia. METHODS: Seventeen patients and fourteen healthy controls completed a two-stage source monitoring task involving solving a three-letter jumbled word either by the participant or a computer following which they had to identify the correct source of the word - solved by self (internal source monitoring, ISM) or by computer (external source monitoring, ESM) - while EEG was recorded...
May 15, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785354/geographical-variation-in-colour-of-female-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#5
Connor M French, Travis Ingram, Daniel I Bolnick
The ecological multifunctionality of colour often results in multiple selective pressures operating on a single trait. Most research on colour evolution focuses on males because they are the most conspicuous sex in most species. This bias can limit inferences about the ecological drivers of colour evolution. For example, little is known about population divergence in colour of female threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), which is among the most intensively-studied model vertebrates in evolution, ecology, and behaviour...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781770/reduced-cognitive-capacity-impairs-the-malleability-of-older-adults-negative-attitudes-to-stigmatized-individuals
#6
Anne C Krendl
BACKGROUND: Although engaging explicit regulatory strategies may reduce negative bias toward outgroup members, these strategies are cognitively demanding and thus may not be effective for older adults (OA) who have reduced cognitive resources. The current study therefore examines whether individual differences in cognitive capacity disrupt OA' ability to explicitly regulate their bias to stigmatized individuals. METHODS: Young and OA were instructed to explicitly regulate their negative bias toward stigmatized individuals by using an explicit reappraisal strategy...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780342/long-term-efficacy-of-psychosocial-treatments-for-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review
#7
Carlos López-Pinar, Sonia Martínez-Sanchís, Enrique Carbonell-Vayá, Javier Fenollar-Cortés, Julio Sánchez-Meca
Background: Recent evidence suggests that psychosocial treatments, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), are effective interventions for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this review was to determine the long-term efficacy of psychosocial interventions in improving clinically relevant variables, including ADHD core symptoms, clinical global impression (CGI), and global functioning. Methods: In total, nine randomized controlled trials and three uncontrolled single-group pretest-posttest studies were included...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777881/single-incision-laparoscopic-versus-conventional-laparoscopic-right-colectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Boye Dong, Zuyang Luo, Jiabao Lu, Yang Yang, Yixian Song, Jie Cao, Wanglin Li
BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery has gained widespread attention because of its potential benefits such as less skin incision and faster recovery. Up to now, only one meta-analysis (performed in 2013; including 9 studies, a total of 585 cases) compared single-incision laparoscopic right colectomy (SILRC) with conventional laparoscopic right colectomy (CLRC). An updated meta-analysis was undertaken to explore more convinced comparative findings between SILRC and CLRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search for studies that compared SILRC with CLRC was done on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776182/optimal-stabilization-of-boolean-networks-through-collective-influence
#9
Jiannan Wang, Sen Pei, Wei Wei, Xiangnan Feng, Zhiming Zheng
Boolean networks have attracted much attention due to their wide applications in describing dynamics of biological systems. During past decades, much effort has been invested in unveiling how network structure and update rules affect the stability of Boolean networks. In this paper, we aim to identify and control a minimal set of influential nodes that is capable of stabilizing an unstable Boolean network. For locally treelike Boolean networks with biased truth tables, we propose a greedy algorithm to identify influential nodes in Boolean networks by minimizing the largest eigenvalue of a modified nonbacktracking matrix...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774787/variability-of-attention-bias-in-socially-anxious-adolescents-differences-in-fixation-duration-toward-adult-and-adolescent-face-stimuli
#10
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Rebecca Elias, Thomas H Ollendick, Susan W White
Prior research on attention bias in anxious youth, often utilising a visual dot probe task, has yielded inconsistent findings, which may be due to how bias is assessed and/or variability in the phenomenon. The present study utilises eye gaze tracking to assess attention bias in socially anxious adolescents, and explores several methodological and within-subject factors that may contribute to variability in attention bias. Attention bias to threat was measured in forty-two treatment-seeking adolescents (age 12-16 years) diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder...
May 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773755/expectations-do-not-alter-early-sensory-processing-during-perceptual-decision-making
#11
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773511/immobilization-does-not-disrupt-near-hand-attentional-biases
#12
Robert McManus, Laura E Thomas
Observers show biases in attention when viewing objects within versus outside of their hands' grasping space. While the hands' proximity to stimuli plays a key role in these effects, recent evidence suggests an observer's affordances for grasping actions also shape visual processing near the hands. The current study examined the relative contributions of proximity and affordances in introducing attentional biases in peripersonal space. Participants placed a single hand on a visual display and detected targets appearing near or far from the hand...
May 14, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773210/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Thiago da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Sabine Pompéia, Mônica Carolina Miranda
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771543/making-stronger-causal-inferences-accounting-for-selection-bias-in-associations-between-high-performance-work-systems-leadership-and-employee-and-customer-satisfaction
#14
Joseph A Schmidt, Dionne M Pohler
We develop competing hypotheses about the relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) with employee and customer satisfaction. Drawing on 8 years of employee and customer survey data from a financial services firm, we used a recently developed empirical technique-covariate balanced propensity score (CBPS) weighting-to examine if the proposed relationships between HPWS and satisfaction outcomes can be explained by reverse causality, selection effects, or commonly omitted variables such as leadership behavior...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771204/past-present-and-future-challenges-in-health-care-priority-setting
#15
William Hall, Iestyn Williams, Neale Smith, Marthe Gold, Joanna Coast, Lydia Kapiriri, M Danis, Craig Mitton
Purpose Current conditions have intensified the need for health systems to engage in the difficult task of priority setting. As the search for a "magic bullet" is replaced by an appreciation for the interplay between evidence, interests, culture, and outcomes, progress in relation to these dimensions requires assessment of achievements to date and identification of areas where knowledge and practice require attention most urgently. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach An international survey was administered to experts in the area of priority setting...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771117/correlating-charge-transport-to-structure-in-deconstructed-diketopyrrolopyrrole-oligomers-a-case-study-of-a-monomer-in-field-effect-transistors
#16
Alec Pickett, Mika Torkkeli, Tushita Mukhopadhyay, Boregowda Puttaraju, Amrit Laudari, Andreas Lauritzen, Oier Bikondoa, Jakob Kjelstrup-Hansen, Matti Knaapila, Satish Patil, Suchismita Guha
Copolymers based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) cores have attracted a lot of attention due to their high p-type as well as n-type carrier mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (FETs) and high power conversion efficiencies in solar cell structures. We report the structural and charge transport properties of n-dialkyl side-chain substituted thiophene DPP end-capped with a phenyl group (Ph-TDPP-Ph) in FETs which were fabricated by vacuum deposition and solvent coating. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) from bottom-gate, bottom-contact FET architectures were measured with and without biasing...
May 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768469/misidentification-of-sex-for-lampsilis-teres-yellow-sandshell-and-its-implications-for-mussel-conservation-and-wildlife-management
#17
Megan C Hess, Kentaro Inoue, Eric T Tsakiris, Michael Hart, Jennifer Morton, Jack Dudding, Clinton R Robertson, Charles R Randklev
Correct identification of sex is an important component of wildlife management because changes in sex ratios can affect population viability. Identification of sex often relies on external morphology, which can be biased by intermediate or nondistinctive morphotypes and observer experience. For unionid mussels, research has demonstrated that species misidentification is common but less attention has been given to the reliability of sex identification. To evaluate whether this is an issue, we surveyed 117 researchers on their ability to correctly identify sex of Lampsilis teres (Yellow Sandshell), a wide ranging, sexually dimorphic species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768468/early-development-of-attention-to-threat-related-facial-expressions
#18
Jukka M Leppänen, Julia K Cataldo, Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Charles A Nelson
Infants from an early age have a bias to attend more to faces than non-faces and after 5 months are particularly attentive to fearful faces. We examined the specificity of this "fear bias" in 5-, 7-, and 12-month-old infants (N = 269) and 36-month-old children (N = 191) and whether its development is associated with features of the early rearing environment, specifically maternal anxiety and depression symptoms. Attention dwell times were assessed by measuring the latencies of gaze shifts from a stimulus at fixation to a new stimulus in the visual periphery...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768092/are-only-infants-held-more-often-on-the-left-if-so-why-testing-the-attention-emotion-hypothesis-with-an-infant-a-vase-and-two-chimeric-tests-one-emotional-one-not
#19
Lauren Julius Harris, Rodrigo A Cárdenas, Nathaniel D Stewart, Jason B Almerigi
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and dolls but not books or packages on the left side. One reason may be that attention is more often leftward in response to infants, unlike emotionally neutral objects like books and packages. Women's stronger bias may reflect greater responsiveness to infants. Previously, we tested the attention hypothesis by comparing women's side-of-hold of a doll, book, and package with direction-of-attention on the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT) [Harris, L. J., Cárdenas, R. A...
May 16, 2018: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766207/risks-and-prevention-of-surgical-fires-a-systematic-review
#20
I Kezze, N Zoremba, R Rossaint, A Rieg, M Coburn, G Schälte
Surgically induced fire is a life-threatening hazard; this topic has received little attention, although only 3 factors, the so-called fire triad, are needed for surgical fires to occur: an oxidizer, fuel and an ignition source. This systematic review aims to determine the impact of each component and to delegate every staff member an area of responsibility, thus ensuring patient health through prevention or protection. The trial was registered in Prospero CRD42018082656. A database search of eligible, preferably evidence-based studies was conducted...
May 15, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
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