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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530439/an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-attentional-biases-towards-affect-in-young-children
#1
Jessica L Burris, Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Susan M Rivera
This study examines attentional biases in the presence of angry, happy and neutral faces using a modified eye tracking version of the dot probe task (DPT). Participants were 111 young children between 9 and 48 months. Children passively viewed an affective attention bias task that consisted of a face pairing (neutral paired with either neutral, angry or happy) for 500 ms that was followed by a 1,500-ms asterisk probe on 1 side of the screen. Congruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the same side of the screen as the emotional face and incongruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the opposite side of the emotional face...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523983/ear-advantage-for-musical-location-and-relative-pitch-effects-of-musical-training-and-attention
#2
Joanna L Hutchison, Timothy L Hubbard, Nicholas A Hubbard, Bart Rypma
Trained musicians have been found to exhibit a right-ear advantage for high tones and a left-ear advantage for low tones. We investigated whether this right/high, left/low pattern of musical processing advantage exists in listeners who had varying levels of musical experience, and whether such a pattern might be modulated by attentional strategy. A dichotic listening paradigm was used in which different melodic sequences were presented to each ear, and listeners attended to (a) the left ear or the right ear or (b) the higher pitched tones or the lower pitched tones...
June 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515708/disrupted-structural-and-functional-networks-and-their-correlation-with-alertness-in-right-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-graph-theory-study
#3
Wenyu Jiang, Jianping Li, Xuemei Chen, Wei Ye, Jinou Zheng
Previous studies have shown that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) involves abnormal structural or functional connectivity in specific brain areas. However, limited comprehensive studies have been conducted on TLE associated changes in the topological organization of structural and functional networks. Additionally, epilepsy is associated with impairment in alertness, a fundamental component of attention. In this study, structural networks were constructed using diffusion tensor imaging tractography, and functional networks were obtained from resting-state functional MRI temporal series correlations in 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) patients and 19 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515541/automaticity-of-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-high-and-low-worriers
#4
Huw Goodwin, Claire Eagleson, Andrew Mathews, Jenny Yiend, Colette Hirsch
Individuals with high levels of worry are more likely than others to attend to possible threats, although the extent of top-down attentional control processes on this bias is unknown. We compared the performance of high (n = 26) and low worriers (n = 26) on a probe discrimination task designed to assess attention to threat cues, under cognitive load or no-load conditions. The expected difference between groups was confirmed, with high worriers being more likely to attend to threat cues than low worriers...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514964/help-problems-in-executing-a-pragmatic-randomized-stepped-wedge-trial-on-the-hospital-elder-life-program-to-prevent-delirium-in-older-patients
#5
Noor Heim, Henk F van Stel, Roelof G Ettema, Roos C van der Mast, Sharon K Inouye, Marieke J Schuurmans
BACKGROUND: A pragmatic, stepped wedge trial design can be an appealing design to evaluate complex interventions in real-life settings. However, there are certain pitfalls that need to be considered. This paper reports on the experiences and lessons learned from the conduct of a cluster randomized, stepped wedge trial evaluating the effect of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) in a Dutch hospital setting to prevent older patients from developing delirium. METHODS: We evaluated our trial which was conducted in eight departments in two hospitals in hospitalized patients aged 70 years or older who were at risk for delirium by reflecting on the assumptions that we had and on what we intended to accomplish when we started, as compared to what we actually realized in the different phases of our study...
May 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513067/interventions-for-cutaneous-molluscum-contagiosum
#6
REVIEW
Johannes C van der Wouden, Renske van der Sande, Emma J Kruithof, Annet Sollie, Lisette Wa van Suijlekom-Smit, Sander Koning
BACKGROUND: Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a pox virus and occurs mainly in children. The infection usually resolves within months in people without immune deficiency, but treatment may be preferred for social and cosmetic reasons or to avoid spreading the infection. A clear evidence base supporting the various treatments is lacking.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006, and updated previously in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of specific treatments and management strategies, including waiting for natural resolution, for cutaneous, non-genital molluscum contagiosum in people without immune deficiency...
May 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511579/does-an-attention-bias-to-appetitive-and-aversive-words-modulate-interference-control-in-youth-with-adhd
#7
Ili Ma, Gabry W Mies, Nanda N J Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Interference control refers to the ability to selectively attend to certain information while ignoring distracting information. This ability can vary as a function of distractor relevance. Distractors that are particularly relevant to an individual may attract more attention than less relevant distractors. This is referred to as attention bias. Weak interference control and altered reward sensitivity are both important features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, interference control is typically studied in isolation...
May 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511238/-subjective-adverse-effects-during-outpatient-cbt-associations-to-patient-and-therapist-variables-and-to-the-therapeutic-alliance
#8
Anne Grüneberger, Franziska Einsle, Jürgen Hoyer, Bernhard Strauß, Michael Linden, Samia Härtling
Background Empirical data on variety, frequency, and prerequisites for unwanted side effects of psychotherapies are important regarding the planning, realization, and quality assurance of treatment. The study describes adverse effects of outpatient psychotherapy treatment and their association with patient, therapist and treatment characteristics. Methods To reduce memory bias, 70 outpatient psychotherapy patients fulfilled the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy (INEP). Data on patients' characteristics (sex, age, impairment), therapists' sex, and therpeutic alliance were collected...
May 16, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504196/human-subthalamic-nucleus-automatic-auditory-change-detection-as-a-basis-for-action-selection
#9
Marcus Heldmann, Thomas F Münte, Lejla Paracka, Frederike Beyer, Norbert Brüggemann, Assel Saryyeva, Dirk Rasche, Joachim K Krauss, Volker M Tronnier
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) shapes motor behavior and is important for the initiation and termination of movements. Here we ask whether the STN takes aggregated sensory information into account, in order to exert this function. To this end, local field potentials (LFP) were recorded in eight patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and receiving deep-brain stimulation of the STN bilaterally. Bipolar recordings were obtained postoperatively from the externalized electrode leads. Patients were passively exposed to trains of auditory stimuli containing global deviants, local deviants or combined global/local deviants...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503440/mnsod-val16ala-polymorphism-associated-with-retinopathy-risk-in-diabetes-a-prisma-compliant-meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#10
Lei Huang, Jun Lyu, Qiu-Ping Liu, Cheng Chen, Tong Wang
AIM: To investigate the association of Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) Val16Ala polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases were searched. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association. Subgroup, sensitivity, and cumulative analyses were performed. Publication bias was also analyzed. RESULTS: Eight studies were included in the pooled analysis...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503291/how-many-more-sample-size-determination-in-studies-of-morphological-integration-and-evolvability
#11
Mark Grabowski, Arthur Porto
1. The variational properties of living organisms are an important component of current evolutionary theory. As a consequence, researchers working on the field of multivariate evolution have increasingly used integration and evolvability statistics as a way of capturing the potentially complex patterns of trait association and their effects over evolutionary trajectories. Little attention has been paid, however, to the cascading effects that inaccurate estimates of trait covariance have on these widely used evolutionary statistics...
May 2017: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502226/stronger-interference-from-distractors-in-the-right-hemifield-during-visual-search
#12
Christophe Carlei, Dirk Kerzel
The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF)...
May 13, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501364/immune-modulation-treatments-where-is%C3%A2-the-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Malene Meisner Hviid, Nick Macklon
While advances in assisted reproductive techniques have been substantial, failure of the apparently viable embryo to implant remains a source of distress and frustration to patients and specialists alike. The unique maternal immunological response to the embryo and the notion that defects in early placentation underlie the great complications of pregnancy have focused attention on the therapeutic potential of peri-implantation immunomodulation. On the face of it, the rationale for this approach is very attractive...
May 10, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500508/the-whereabouts-of-visual-attention-involuntary-attentional-bias-toward-the-default-gaze-direction
#14
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
This study proposed and verified a new hypothesis on the relationship between gaze direction and visual attention: attentional bias by default gaze direction based on eye-head coordination. We conducted a target identification task in which visual stimuli appeared briefly to the left and right of a fixation cross. In Experiment 1, the direction of the participant's head (aligned with the body) was manipulated to the left, front, or right relative to a central fixation point. In Experiment 2, head direction was manipulated to the left, front, or right relative to the body direction...
May 12, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499930/working-memory-and-attentional-bias-on-reinforcing-efficacy-of-food
#15
Katelyn A Carr, Leonard H Epstein
Reinforcing efficacy of food, or the relationship between food prices and purchasing, is related to obesity status and energy intake in adults. Determining how to allocate resources for food is a decision making process influenced by executive functions. Attention to appetitive cues, as well as working memory capacity, or the ability to flexibly control attention while mentally retaining information, may be important executive functions involved in food purchasing decisions. In two studies, we examined how attention bias to food and working memory capacity are related to reinforcing efficacy of both high energy-dense and low energy-dense foods...
May 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499836/inhibitory-control-for-emotional-and-neutral-scenes-in-competition-an-eye-tracking-study-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
Ana García-Blanco, Ladislao Salmerón, Manuel Perea
This study examined the inhibitory control of attention to social scenes in manic, depressive, and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Two scenes were simultaneously presented (happy/threatening/neutral [target] versus control). Participants were asked either to look at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-emotional block) or to avoid looking at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-neutral block) while their eye movements were recorded. The initial orienting (latency and percentage of first fixation) and subsequent attentional engagement (gaze duration) were computed...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497473/topical-analgesics-for-acute-and-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#17
REVIEW
Sheena Derry, Philip J Wiffen, Eija A Kalso, Rae F Bell, Dominic Aldington, Tudor Phillips, Helen Gaskell, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: Topical analgesic drugs are used for a variety of painful conditions. Some are acute, typically strains or sprains, tendinopathy, or muscle aches. Others are chronic, typically osteoarthritis of hand or knee, or neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the analgesic efficacy and associated adverse events of topical analgesics (primarily nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), salicylate rubefacients, capsaicin, and lidocaine) applied to intact skin for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in adults...
May 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497284/exercise-interventions-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-groin-pain-and-injury-in-athletes-a-critical-and-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Paula C Charlton, Michael K Drew, Benjamin F Mentiplay, Alison Grimaldi, Ross A Clark
BACKGROUND: Groin injury is a common musculoskeletal complaint for athletes competing in a variety of sports. The extent to which exercise interventions incorporating external load are an appropriate option for the treatment and prevention of groin injury in athletes is not yet clear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to describe and evaluate exercise therapy interventions and outcomes for the treatment and prevention of groin injury with specific attention to application of external load...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497179/detectable-neuropsychological-differences-in-early-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
S Duke Han, Caroline P Nguyen, Nikki H Stricker, Daniel A Nation
The development of methods for in vivo detection of cerebral beta amyloid retention and tau accumulation have been increasingly useful in characterizing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the association between these biomarkers and eventual AD has been demonstrated among cognitively intact older adults, the link between biomarkers and neurocognitive ability remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that cognitively intact older adults would show statistically discernable differences in neuropsychological performance by amyloid status (amyloid negative = A-, amyloid positive = A+)...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496434/a-critical-assessment-of-the-microorganisms-proposed-to-be-important-to-enhanced-biological-phosphorus-removal-in-full-scale-wastewater-treatment-systems
#20
Mikkel Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Simon J McIlroy, Marta Nierychlo, Søren M Karst, Mads Albertsen, Per H Nielsen
Understanding the microbiology of phosphorus (P) removal is considered essential to knowledge-based optimization of enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) systems. Biological P removal is achieved in these systems by promoting the growth of organisms collectively known as the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Also considered important to EBPR are the glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), which are theorized to compete with the PAOs for resources at the expense of P removal efficiency. Numerous studies have sought to identify the PAOs and their GAOs competitors, with several candidates proposed for each over the last few decades...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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