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Craig S Ross, Elizabeth R Henehan, David H Jernigan
OBJECTIVES: To update public health surveillance of alcohol advertising to underage populations by assessing alcohol industry compliance with their voluntary guidelines for US magazine advertisements from 2001 to 2011. METHODS: Using advertising industry standard sources The Nielsen Company and MediaMark, we evaluated youth exposure to alcohol advertising, and relative advertising exposure of youths versus adults, in 168 national magazines. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2011, magazine alcohol advertising seen by youths declined by 62...
January 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Kariolanda C A Rezende, Roger Cardoso Moreira, Lucio Paulo Lima Logrado, Márcio Talhavini, Wendell K T Coltro
This report describes for the first time the use of microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices integrated with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) to investigate the authenticity of seized whiskey samples, which were probably adulterated by simple dilution with tap water. The proposed microfluidic platform was explored for the monitoring of anionic species (Cl(-) and F(-) ) in both original and tampered samples. The best separations were achieved within 70 s using a running buffer composed of lactic acid and histidine (pH = 5...
August 20, 2016: Electrophoresis
B Lüderitz
The cultural and natural scientific ambivalence of the heart and alcohol has long been the subject of philosophical, artistic, intellectual and emotional discussions, not uncommonly in a romanticizing manner. The indulgence of alcoholic beverages in moderation is contrasted by the inestimable risks and dangers of alcohol abuse with many cardiovascular implications, such as cardiac arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy and arterial hypertension. The inspirational mental effects of alcohol have been emphasized in many citations from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages and even in modern times...
September 2016: Herz
M R González-Centeno, K Chira, P-L Teissedre
Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Jacob Lahne, Thomas S Collins, Hildegarde Heymann
In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable...
May 2016: Journal of Food Science
Rachel Sarah Wightman, Robert S Hoffman, Mary Ann Howland, Brian Rice, Rana Biary, Daniel Lugassy
OBJECTIVE: Loperamide, a non-prescription anti-diarrheal agent, is a peripheral mu-opioid receptor agonist that is excluded from the blood-brain barrier by p-glycoprotein at therapeutic doses. Overdoses of loperamide penetrate the central nervous system (CNS), leading to abuse. We report cardiac conduction abnormalities and dysrhythmias after ingestion of a recreational supra-therapeutic dose of loperamide confirmed with an elevated blood loperamide concentration. CASE DETAILS: A 48-year-old woman with a history of alcohol and benzodiazepine abuse presented to the emergency department (ED) with somnolence, weakness and slurred speech...
June 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Chi H J Kao, Karen S Bishop, Yuanye Xu, Dug Yeo Han, Pamela M Murray, Gareth J Marlow, Lynnette R Ferguson
Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi) has been used for the general promotion of health in Asia for many centuries. The common method of consumption is to boil lingzhi in water and then drink the liquid. In this study, we examined the potential anticancer activities of G. lucidum submerged in two commonly consumed forms of alcohol in East Asia: malt whiskey and rice wine. The anticancer effect of G. lucidum, using whiskey and rice wine-based extraction methods, has not been previously reported. The growth inhibition of G...
2016: Genomics Insights
Courtney A Cunningham, Kevin Ku, Gloria R Sue
In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky...
July 2015: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Daniel A Goncalves, Tina McSweeney, Mirian C Santos, Bradley T Jones, George L Donati
In this work, standard dilution analysis (SDA) is combined with microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP OES) to determine seven elements in coffee, green tea, energy drink, beer, whiskey and cachaça (Brazilian hard liquor). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in HNO3 1% v v(-1) is required. Due to relatively low plasma temperatures, matrix effects may compromise accuracies in MIP OES analyzes of complex samples. The method of standard additions (SA) offers enhanced accuracies, but is time-consuming and labor intensive...
February 25, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Nicholas Meyer, Siobhan Gee, Eromona Whiskey, David Taylor, Aleksandar Mijovic, Fiona Gaughran, Sukhi Shergill, James H MacCabe
OBJECTIVE: Certain patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia may be rechallenged with clozapine following previous neutropenia. Evidence guiding patient selection and the effectiveness of lithium and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in rechallenge is limited, and factors associated with successful outcomes are unclear. METHOD: Outcomes were studied in patients rechallenged with clozapine at a tertiary referral center between January 2007 and December 2013, following 1 or more previous trials terminated due to neutropenia, defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Giorgio Famiglini, Fabiana Capriotti, Pierangela Palma, Veronica Termopoli, Achille Cappiello
Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are widely used as tranquilizers and anti-depressive drugs in common clinical practice. However, their ready availability and their synergistic effects with alcohol make them attractive for criminal intentions. To prove criminal action for legal reasons, it is often necessary to analyze beverage residues from a crime scene. Milk-based alcoholic drinks (whiskey creams) are gaining popularity due to their lower alcohol content pleasant taste. However, the complexity of this sample, containing proteins and fatty acids, can mask the presence of drugs or other substances in standard analysis methods...
May 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Paulina Wiśniewska, Tomasz Dymerski, Waldemar Wardencki, Jacek Namieśnik
Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky...
August 30, 2015: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Akira Yokoyama, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Takeshi Mizukami, Toshifumi Matsui, Koichi Shiraishi, Mitsuru Kimura, Sachio Matsushita, Susumu Higuchi, Katsuya Maruyama
AIMS: Alcoholic ketosis and ketoacidosis are metabolic abnormalities often diagnosed in alcoholics in emergency departments. We attempted to identify determinants or factors associated with alcoholic ketosis. METHODS: The subjects of this cross-sectional survey were 1588 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who came to an addiction center within 14 days of their last drink. RESULTS: The results of the dipstick urinalyses revealed a prevalence of ketosis of 34...
November 2014: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Eromona Whiskey, David Taylor
Introduction. The objective of this study was to develop a decision aid that patients and clinicians might use to help the patient in the process of selecting an antipsychotic medication. In addition, we aimed to determine the antipsychotic that patients would choose given the information contained in the leaflet. Method. We designed a questionnaire for patients to appraise the contents of the leaflet, their understanding of the leaflet and the potential impact of the leaflet on compliance and therapeutic relationship between patient and doctor...
2005: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
A I Pardo-García, K Serrano de la Hoz, A Zalacain, G L Alonso, M R Salinas
The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction...
November 15, 2014: Food Chemistry
Thomas S Collins, Jerry Zweigenbaum, Susan E Ebeler
Commercial samples of 63 American whiskeys, including bourbon whiskeys, Tennessee whiskeys, rye whiskeys and other blended whiskeys were analysed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The non-volatile composition of the whiskeys was used to model differences among the samples using discriminant analysis. The blended American whiskeys were readily distinguished from the remaining types. Additionally, most Tennessee whiskeys could be differentiated from bourbon and rye whiskeys...
November 15, 2014: Food Chemistry
Rosa Perestrelo, Catarina Silva, José S Câmara
In this study, the feasibility of solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in tandem with partial least squares discriminant analysis was evaluated as a useful strategy to differentiate wines according to geographical origin (Azores, Canary and Madeira Islands) and types (white, red and fortified wine) based on their global volatile patterns. For this purpose, 34 monovarietal wines from these three wine grape-growing regions were investigated, combining the high throughput extraction efficiency of the solid-phase extraction procedure with the separation and identification ability...
August 2014: Journal of Separation Science
S J Pérez-Olivero, M L Pérez-Pont, J E Conde, J P Pérez-Trujillo
Application of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with high-resolution gas chromatographic (HRGC) analysis was studied for determining lactones in wines. Six different SPME fibers were tested, and the influence of different factors such as temperature and time of desorption, ionic strength, time of extraction, content of sugar, ethanol, tannins and anthocyanins, and pH and influence of SO2 were studied. The proposed HS-SPME-GC method is an appropriate technique for the quantitative analysis of γ-butyrolactone, γ-hexalactone, trans-whiskey lactone, γ-octalactone, cis-whiskey lactone, γ-nonalactone, γ-decalactone, δ-decalactone, and γ-undecalactone in wines...
2014: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Martin Kächele, Yulia B Monakhova, Thomas Kuballa, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis...
April 11, 2014: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mi-Hyang Lee, Jung Hyun Kwak, Gayoung Jeon, Jong-Won Lee, Jang-Ho Seo, Hoon-Sang Lee, Jong Ho Lee
Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD)...
March 2014: Food & Function
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