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Alexander Müller, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann
Aims: This study examines the biomarker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in various alcoholic beverages. Short summary: The biomarker EtG was consistently found to be a natural compound of wine, whereas it was not detected in any of the other tested alcoholic beverages, which included various distilled spirits, liqueurs and beer of different types and geographical origins. Methods: Alcoholic beverages (n = 114) were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay...
May 26, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Graeme Knibb, Andrew Jones, Paul Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that people are poor at estimating the amount of alcohol they have served themselves. Glass shape, the presence of ice, and alcohol consumption may influence the amount of alcohol people pour and estimate they have poured. The aim of these studies was to examine whether these factors would affect pouring behaviour, in the laboratory and in real world environments. METHODS: Across four studies, one laboratory study and three conducted during public engagement events, we tested the effect of glass shape (straight sided highball and tumbler glasses) and, using an ice substitute (whiskey stones), the effect of ice on pouring and estimating a self-defined typical drink...
April 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Narumi Hashikawa-Hobara, Shuta Mishima, Shotaro Nagase, Keishi Morita, Ami Otsuka, Naoya Hashikawa
Although chronic ethanol treatment is known to impair learning and memory, humans commonly consume a range of alcoholic beverages. However, the specific effects of some alcoholic beverages on behavioral performance are largely unknown. The present study compared the effects of a range of alcoholic beverages (plain ethanol solution, red wine, sake and whiskey; with a matched alcohol concentration of 10%) on learning and memory. 6-week-old C57BL6J mice were orally administered alcohol for 7 weeks. The results revealed that red wine treatment exhibited a trend toward improvement of spatial memory and advanced extinction of fear memory...
April 24, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Mary R Gradoville, Byron C Crump, Claudia C Häse, Angelicque E White
Vibrio spp. have been a persistent concern for coastal bivalve hatcheries, which are vulnerable to environmental pathogens in the seawater used for rearing larvae, yet the biogeochemical drivers of oyster-pathogenic Vibrio spp. in their planktonic state are poorly understood. Here, we present data tracking oyster-pathogenic Vibrio bacteria in Netarts Bay and Yaquina Bay in Oregon, USA, as well as in adjacent coastal waters and a local shellfish hatchery, through the 2015 upwelling season. Vibrio populations were quantified using a culture-independent approach of high-throughput Vibrio- specific 16S rRNA gene sequencing paired with droplet digital PCR, and abundances were analyzed in the context of local biogeochemistry...
May 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
S Henrion, A Macé, M M Vallejos, T Roisnel, B Carboni, J M Villalgordo, F Carreaux
An efficient asymmetric synthesis of trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones from aldehydes and enantioenriched γ-carbamate alkenylboronates is reported. The cornerstone of this strategy is the implementation of sequential [3,3]-allyl cyanate rearrangement/allylboration/nucleophilic addition/cyclisation reactions. Diverse γ-butyrolactones such as the flavouring compounds, (+)-trans-whiskey lactone and (+)-trans-cognac lactone, as well as an advanced intermediate towards the first synthesis of natural products, (-)-nicotlactone B and (-)-galbacin, have thus been obtained...
March 7, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Derrick Risner, Avi Shayevitz, Karl Haapala, Lisbeth Meunier-Goddik, Paul Hughes
Whey disposal can be both an environmental and economic challenge for artisanal creameries. Lactose in whey can be fermented to produce ethanol and subsequently distilled. The objective of this study was to use a process-based life cycle analysis to compare carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2 e) emissions and water usage associated with the artisanal or craft production of clear, unaged spirits using whey or malted barley as fermentation substrate. Differences in production were assessed based on key process differences: energy used, water used, distillation by-product disposal, and mass of CO2 produced during fermentation...
April 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Penelope Lowe, Amir Krivoy, Lilla Porffy, Erna Henriksdottir, Whiskey Eromona, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Treatment-resistant schizophrenia is a serious clinical problem. We adopt a systems-level approach positing a greater role for cognitive control mechanisms in the development of psychotic symptoms and illustrate the clinical application of this via a case report of treatment-resistant patients treated successfully with adjunct pro-cognitive serotonergic medication.
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
George Joy, Eromona Whiskey, Mark Bolstridge, Alejandro Porras-Segovia, Theresa A McDonagh, Carla M Plymen, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has a 1% prevalence in the population; 30% of these patients are treatment refractory. Clozapine is the only drug licensed to treat treatment refractory psychosis, but concerns about potential adverse effects result in only a proportion of eligible patients being treated. Although a well-documented neutropenia risk is mitigated by routine blood testing, cardiac toxicity is a commonly cited reason to discontinue clozapine treatment. However, there is little data on the real-life cardiac outcomes in those receiving clozapine treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
John Lally, Steffi Malik, Amir Krivoy, Eromona Whiskey, David M Taylor, Fiona P Gaughran, Robert J Flanagan, Aleksandar Mijovic, James H MacCabe
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, with neutropenia and agranulocytosis of most concern. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been used to support clozapine rechallenge after neutropenia with the aim of maintaining the neutrophil count. This study aims to explore the practice, use, safety, and efficacy of G-CSF in this context. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review to identify all studies investigating or describing G-CSF as a prophylaxis to enable continued clozapine treatment during a rechallenge...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Thiago M G Cardoso, Robert B Channon, Jaclyn A Adkins, Márcio Talhavini, Wendell K T Coltro, Charles S Henry
A colorimetric point-of-care paper-based analytical device (PAD) is developed for detecting adulterated beverages using whiskey falsified with caramel color as a model. Combining principal component analysis and calibration curves facilitated identification of adulteration in samples seized by the Brazilian Federal Police, at only ∼$0.02 per sample.
July 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
John Lally, Steffi Malik, Eromona Whiskey, David M Taylor, Fiona P Gaughran, Amir Krivoy, Robert J Flanagan, Aleksandar Mijovic, James H MacCabe
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, notably neutropenia, which may progress to agranulocytosis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been used to reduce the frequency and duration of clozapine-associated neutropenia. This review aims to explore the use, efficacy, and tolerability of these cytokines in the treatment of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review of published interventional and observational studies, case series, and case reports where G-CSF/GM-CSF was used to treat clozapine-associated agranulocytosis...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Craig S Ross, Elizabeth R Henehan, David H Jernigan
OBJECTIVES: To update public health surveillance of alcohol advertising to underage populations by assessing alcohol industry compliance with their voluntary guidelines for US magazine advertisements from 2001 to 2011. METHODS: Using advertising industry standard sources The Nielsen Company and MediaMark, we evaluated youth exposure to alcohol advertising, and relative advertising exposure of youths versus adults, in 168 national magazines. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2011, magazine alcohol advertising seen by youths declined by 62...
January 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Kariolanda C A Rezende, Roger Cardoso Moreira, Lucio Paulo Lima Logrado, Márcio Talhavini, Wendell K T Coltro
This report describes for the first time the use of microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices integrated with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) to investigate the authenticity of seized whiskey samples, which were probably adulterated by simple dilution with tap water. The proposed microfluidic platform was explored for the monitoring of anionic species (Cl(-) and F(-) ) in both original and tampered samples. The best separations were achieved within 70 s using a running buffer composed of lactic acid and histidine (pH = 5...
October 2016: Electrophoresis
B Lüderitz
The cultural and natural scientific ambivalence of the heart and alcohol has long been the subject of philosophical, artistic, intellectual and emotional discussions, not uncommonly in a romanticizing manner. The indulgence of alcoholic beverages in moderation is contrasted by the inestimable risks and dangers of alcohol abuse with many cardiovascular implications, such as cardiac arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy and arterial hypertension. The inspirational mental effects of alcohol have been emphasized in many citations from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages and even in modern times...
September 2016: Herz
M R González-Centeno, K Chira, P-L Teissedre
Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Jacob Lahne, Thomas S Collins, Hildegarde Heymann
In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable...
May 2016: Journal of Food Science
Rachel Sarah Wightman, Robert S Hoffman, Mary Ann Howland, Brian Rice, Rana Biary, Daniel Lugassy
OBJECTIVE: Loperamide, a non-prescription anti-diarrheal agent, is a peripheral mu-opioid receptor agonist that is excluded from the blood-brain barrier by p-glycoprotein at therapeutic doses. Overdoses of loperamide penetrate the central nervous system (CNS), leading to abuse. We report cardiac conduction abnormalities and dysrhythmias after ingestion of a recreational supra-therapeutic dose of loperamide confirmed with an elevated blood loperamide concentration. CASE DETAILS: A 48-year-old woman with a history of alcohol and benzodiazepine abuse presented to the emergency department (ED) with somnolence, weakness and slurred speech...
June 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Chi H J Kao, Karen S Bishop, Yuanye Xu, Dug Yeo Han, Pamela M Murray, Gareth J Marlow, Lynnette R Ferguson
Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi) has been used for the general promotion of health in Asia for many centuries. The common method of consumption is to boil lingzhi in water and then drink the liquid. In this study, we examined the potential anticancer activities of G. lucidum submerged in two commonly consumed forms of alcohol in East Asia: malt whiskey and rice wine. The anticancer effect of G. lucidum, using whiskey and rice wine-based extraction methods, has not been previously reported. The growth inhibition of G...
2016: Genomics Insights
Courtney A Cunningham, Kevin Ku, Gloria R Sue
In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky...
July 2015: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Daniel A Goncalves, Tina McSweeney, Mirian C Santos, Bradley T Jones, George L Donati
In this work, standard dilution analysis (SDA) is combined with microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP OES) to determine seven elements in coffee, green tea, energy drink, beer, whiskey and cachaça (Brazilian hard liquor). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in HNO3 1% v v(-1) is required. Due to relatively low plasma temperatures, matrix effects may compromise accuracies in MIP OES analyzes of complex samples. The method of standard additions (SA) offers enhanced accuracies, but is time-consuming and labor intensive...
February 25, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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