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Lei Liu, Wataru Ito, Alexei Morozov
The observational fear (OF) paradigm in rodents, in which the subject is exposed to a distressed conspecific, elicits contextual fear learning and enhances future passive avoidance learning, which may model certain behavioral traits resulting from traumatic experiences in humans. Because these behaviors affected by the OF, require dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), we searched for synaptic adaptations in dmPFC resulting from OF in mice by recording synaptic responses in dmPFC layer V pyramidal neurons elicited by repeated 5 Hz electrical stimulation of dmPFC layer I, or by optogenetic stimulation of specific interneurons ex vivo one day after OF...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jin Qian, Mengmeng Shen, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Yanhui Ao, Jingjing Liu, Kun Li
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an emerging contaminant, whose presence has been detected in different compartments of the environment in many countries. In this study, the effects of soil characteristics and phosphate competition on the adsorption of PFOS on soils were investigated. Results from batch sorption experiments showed that all the adsorption isotherms of PFOS on three tested soils were nonlinear. In experiments without the addition of phosphate (P) to the soil solution, the Freundlich sorption affinity (Kf) of PFOS on S (original soil), S1 (soil from which soil organic matter (SOM) had been removed), and S2 (soil from which both SOM and ferric oxides had been removed) were 23...
December 3, 2016: Chemosphere
Avula Anil Kumar, Anirban Som, Paolo Longo, Chennu Sudhakar, Radha Gobinda Bhuin, Soujit Sen Gupta, Anshup, Mohan Udhaya Sankar, Amrita Chaudhary, Ramesh Kumar, Thalappil Pradeep
Arsenic-free drinking water, independent of electrical power and piped water supply, is possible only through advanced and affordable materials with large uptake capacities. Confined metastable 2-line ferrihydrite, stable at ambient temperature, shows continuous arsenic uptake in the presence of other complex species in natural drinking water and an affordable water purification device has been made using the same.
December 5, 2016: Advanced Materials
Kristina Lings, Mathilde Faurholdt Lauridsen, Lars Kjærsgaard Hansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Mengdi Zhang, Zhonghua Xia, Aixia Yan
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is a key enzyme in the inflammatory path. Inhibitors of 5-LOX are useful for the treatment of diseases like arthritis, cancer, and asthma. We have collected a dataset including 220 human 5-LOX inhibitors for classification. A self-organizing map (SOM), a support vector machine (SVM), and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm were used to build models with selected descriptors for classifying 5-LOX inhibitors into active and weakly active ones. MACCS fingerprints were used in this model building process...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Diversity
Mariana Consiglio Kasemodel, Jacqueline Zanin Lima, Isabel Kimiko Sakamoto, Maria Bernadete Amancio Varesche, Julio Cesar Trofino, Valéria Guimarães Silvestre Rodrigues
Improper disposal of mining waste is still considered a global problem, and further details on the contamination by potentially toxic metals are required for a proper assessment. In this context, it is important to have a combined view of the chemical and biological changes in the mining dump area. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the Pb, Zn and Cd contamination in a slag disposal area using the integration of geochemical and microbiological data. Analyses of soil organic matter (SOM), pH, Eh, pseudo-total concentration of metals, sequential extraction and microbial community by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were conducted...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
M A Adejumobi, G O Awe, T P Abegunrin, O M Oyetunji, T S Kareem
Irrigated agriculture is one of the significant contributors to the food security of the millennium development goals (MDGs); however, the modification of soil matrix by irrigation could alter the overall soil health due to changes in soil properties and processes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on soil quality status of the Ikere center pivot irrigation project site in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Disturbed soil samples were collected from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 90-cm layers from four different sites in three replicates, within the project location for the determination of soil bio-chemical properties...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Peter Lamb, Hayden Croft
Rugby coaches and analysts often use notational data describing match events to assess their team's performance and to devise strategic plans for upcoming matches. However, given the volume and complexity of the data available, it is difficult for them to recognize high-dimensional relationships among the available performance variables. A nonlinear approach using self-organizing maps (SOM) can help visualize the performance of a team and its opponents as well as the subsequent suitability of certain game styles, given the style of the opponent...
November 2016: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Cynthia M Kallenbach, Serita D Frey, A Stuart Grandy
Soil organic matter (SOM) and the carbon and nutrients therein drive fundamental submicron- to global-scale biogeochemical processes and influence carbon-climate feedbacks. Consensus is emerging that microbial materials are an important constituent of stable SOM, and new conceptual and quantitative SOM models are rapidly incorporating this view. However, direct evidence demonstrating that microbial residues account for the chemistry, stability and abundance of SOM is still lacking. Further, emerging models emphasize the stabilization of microbial-derived SOM by abiotic mechanisms, while the effects of microbial physiology on microbial residue production remain unclear...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
Sumit Som, Ankitkumar K Patel, Virender Sethi, Haroon Faraz, Irfan Admani, Atish Mathur, Joseph E Parrillo, Pranaychandra Vaidya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Nika Guberina, Michael Forsting, Adrian Ringelstein
To evaluate the dose-reduction potential with different lens protectors for patients undergoing cranial computed tomography (CT) scans. Eye lens dose was assessed in vitro (α-Al2O3:C thermoluminescence dosemeters) using an Alderson-Rando phantom(®) in cranial CT protocols at different CT scanners (SOMATOM-Definition-AS+(®)(CT1) and SOMATOM-Definition-Flash(®) (CT2)) using two different lens-protection systems (Somatex(®) (SOM) and Medical Imaging Systems(®) (MIS)). Summarised percentage of the transmitted photons: (1) CT1 (a) unenhanced CT (nCT) with gantry angulation: SOM = 103%, MIS = 111%; (2) CT2 (a) nCT without gantry angulation: SOM = 81%, MIS = 91%; (b) CT angiography (CTA) with automatic dose-modulation technique: SOM = 39%, MIS = 74%; (c) CTA without dose-modulation technique: SOM = 22%, MIS = 48%; (d) CT perfusion: SOM = 44%, MIS = 69%...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Da-Som Kim, Jeong-Ran Choi, Jeong-Ae Ko, Kangmin Kim
Bacterial luminescence is the end-product of biochemical reactions catalyzed by the luciferase enzyme. Nowadays, this fascinating phenomenon has been widely used as reporter and/or sensors to detect a variety of biological and environmental processes. The enhancement or diversification of the luciferase activities will increase the versatility of bacterial luminescence. Here, to establish the strategy for luciferase engineering, we summarized the identity and relevant roles of key amino acid residues modulating luciferase in Vibrio harveyi, a model luminous bacterium...
November 21, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Anima Majumder, Laxmidhar Behera, Venkatesh K Subramanian
This paper presents a novel automatic facial expressions recognition system (AFERS) using the deep network framework. The proposed AFERS consists of four steps: 1) geometric features extraction; 2) regional local binary pattern (LBP) features extraction; 3) fusion of both the features using autoencoders; and 4) classification using Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM)-based classifier. This paper makes three distinct contributions. The proposed deep network consisting of autoencoders and the SOM-based classifier is computationally more efficient and performance wise more accurate...
November 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Anirban Som, Sulagna Bhattacharjee, Souvik Maitra, Mahesh K Arora, Dalim Kumar Baidya
INTRODUCTION: 5-Hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are the most commonly used drugs for postoperative nausea vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis. Dexamethasone is another antiemetic with proven efficacy in reducing PONV. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the combination of dexamethasone and 5-HT3 antagonist versus a 5-HT3 antagonist alone as prophylaxis of PONV in laparoscopic surgical patients...
December 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Wen-Ping Tsai, Shih-Pin Huang, Su-Ting Cheng, Kwang-Tsao Shao, Fi-John Chang
The steep slopes of rivers can easily lead to large variations in river water quality during typhoon seasons in Taiwan, which may poses significant impacts on riverine eco-hydrological environments. This study aims to investigate the relationship between fish communities and water quality by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comprehending the upstream eco-hydrological system in northern Taiwan. We collected a total of 276 heterogeneous datasets with 8 water quality parameters and 25 fish species from 10 sampling sites...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew Adamiak, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study was to establish the origin and chemical phenotyping of neurons involved in skin innervation of the porcine hind leg. The dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar (L4-L6) and sacral (S1-S3) spinal nerves were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB). The morphometric analysis of FB-positive (FB+)neurons showed that in the L4, L5, S1 and S2 DRGs, the small-sized perikarya constituted the major population, whereas in the L6 and S3 DRGs the medium-sized cells made up the major population...
November 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
Di-Wei Huang, Rodolphe J Gentili, Garrett E Katz, James A Reggia
Inspired by the oscillatory nature of cerebral cortex activity, we recently proposed and studied self-organizing maps (SOMs) based on limit cycle neural activity in an attempt to improve the information efficiency and robustness of conventional single-node, single-pattern representations. Here we explore for the first time the use of limit cycle SOMs to build a neural architecture that controls a robotic arm by solving inverse kinematics in reach-and-hold tasks. This multi-map architecture integrates open-loop and closed-loop controls that learn to self-organize oscillatory neural representations and to harness non-fixed-point neural activity even for fixed-point arm reaching tasks...
October 29, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Giulia Piallini, Stefania Brunoro, Chiara Fenocchio, Costanza Marini, Alessandra Simonelli, Marina Biancotto, Stefania Zoia
An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes the mother-child dyad. Within this relationship, the presence of depression, somatization, hostility, paranoid ideation, and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered. Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of the infant's health-status, but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, feelings and intentions, in this study the quality of infants' movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Guoshan Liu, Wen-Tao Li, Xiumei Zhang
The effects of artificial shell reef (ASR) on the benthic macroinvertebrates were studied in Shuangdao Bay, Yellow Sea, China. Results showed that the biomass of macroinvertebrates in the ASR increased with the age of the ASR. Based on self-organizing map (SOM), the macroinvertebrate community of short-term artificial reef (SAR), medium-term artificial reef (MAR) and long-term artificial reef (LAR) emerged as a cluster, which may indicate that the benthic community in the ASR formed after three years. The age of the ASR was the main factor affecting the benthic community...
November 8, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Vikash Kumar, Manish Tiwari, Siddhesh Nagoji, Shubham Tripathi
Accurate estimation of relative carbon deposition (marine vs. terrestrial) is required for understanding the global carbon budget, particularly in the Arctic region, which holds disproportionate importance with respect to global carbon cycling. Although the sedimentary organic matter (SOM) concentration and its isotopic composition are important tools for such calculations, uncertainties loom over estimates provided by organic-geochemical bulk parameters. We report carbon and nitrogen concentrations and isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of SOM at an Arctic fjord namely Kongsfjorden...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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