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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526872/seasonal-soil-microbial-responses-are-limited-to-changes-in-functionality-at-two-alpine-forest-sites-differing-in-altitude-and-vegetation
#1
José A Siles, Rosa Margesin
The study of soil microbial responses to environmental changes is useful to improve simulation models and mitigation strategies for climate change. We here investigated two Alpine forest sites (deciduous forest vs. coniferous forest) situated at different altitudes (altitudinal effect) in spring and autumn (seasonal effect) regarding: (i) bacterial and fungal abundances (qPCR); (ii) diversity and structure of bacterial and fungal communities (amplicon sequencing); and (iii) diversity and composition of microbial functional gene community (Geochip 5...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520411/alignment-based-prediction-of-sites-of-metabolism
#2
Christina de Bruyn Kops, Nils-Ole Friedrich, Johannes Kirchmair
Prediction of metabolically labile atom positions in a molecule (sites of metabolism) is a key component of the simulation of xenobiotic metabolism as a whole, providing crucial information for the development of safe and effective drugs. In 2008, an exploratory study was published in which sites of metabolism were derived based on molecular shape- and chemical feature-based alignment to a molecule whose site of metabolism (SoM) had been determined by experiments. We present a detailed analysis of the breadth of applicability of alignment-based SoM prediction, including transfer of the approach from a structure- to ligand-based method and extension of the applicability of the models from cytochrome P450 2C9 to all cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in drug metabolism...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506954/epxmedtracking-feasibility-evaluation-of-an-sms-based-medication-adherence-tracking-system-in-community-practice
#3
Christopher Tricarico, Robert Peters, Avik Som, Kavon Javaherian, Will Ross
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence remains a difficult problem to both assess and improve in patients. It is a multifactorial problem that goes beyond the commonly cited reason of forgetfulness. To date, eHealth (also known as mHealth and telehealth) interventions to improve medication adherence have largely been successful in improving adherence. However, interventions to date have used time- and cost-intensive strategies or focused solely on medication reminding, leaving much room for improvement in using a modality as flexible as eHealth...
May 15, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501513/qsar-studies-of-the-bioactivity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-ns3-4a-protease-inhibitors-by-multiple-linear-regression-mlr-and-support-vector-machine-svm
#4
Zijian Qin, Maolin Wang, Aixia Yan
In this study, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using various descriptor sets and training/test set selection methods were explored to predict the bioactivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors by using a multiple linear regression (MLR) and a support vector machine (SVM) method. 512 HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors and their IC50 values which were determined by the same FRET assay were collected from the reported literature to build a dataset. All the inhibitors were represented with selected nine global and 12 2D property-weighted autocorrelation descriptors calculated from the program CORINA Symphony...
May 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495096/sequential-extraction-protocol-for-organic-matter-from-soils-and-sediments-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#5
Malak M Tfaily, Rosalie K Chu, Jason Toyoda, Nikola Tolić, Errol W Robinson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Nancy J Hess
A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO2. The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition...
June 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482642/extracellular-tau-oligomers-induce-invasion-of-endogenous-tau-into-the-somatodendritic-compartment-and-axonal-transport-dysfunction
#6
Eric Swanson, Leigham Breckenridge, Lloyd McMahon, Sreemoyee Som, Ian McConnell, George S Bloom
Aggregates composed of the microtubule associated protein, tau, are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's tauopathies. Extracellular tau can induce the accumulation and aggregation of intracellular tau, and tau pathology can be transmitted along neural networks over time. There are six splice variants of central nervous system tau, and various oligomeric and fibrillar forms are associated with neurodegeneration in vivo. The particular extracellular forms of tau capable of transferring tau pathology from neuron to neuron remain ill defined, however, as do the consequences of intracellular tau aggregation on neuronal physiology...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481348/cortical-gamma-band-synchronization-through-somatostatin-interneurons
#7
Julia Veit, Richard Hakim, Monika P Jadi, Terrence J Sejnowski, Hillel Adesnik
Gamma band rhythms may synchronize distributed cell assemblies to facilitate information transfer within and across brain areas, yet their underlying mechanisms remain hotly debated. Most circuit models postulate that soma-targeting parvalbumin-positive GABAergic neurons are the essential inhibitory neuron subtype necessary for gamma rhythms. Using cell-type-specific optogenetic manipulations in behaving animals, we show that dendrite-targeting somatostatin (SOM) interneurons are critical for a visually induced, context-dependent gamma rhythm in visual cortex...
May 8, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480539/plant-litter-chemistry-alters-the-content-and-composition-of-organic-carbon-associated-with-soil-mineral-and-aggregate-fractions-in-invaded-ecosystems
#8
Mioko Tamura, Vidya Suseela, Myrna Simpson, Brian Powell, Nishanth Tharayil
Through the input of disproportionate quantities of chemically distinct litter, invasive plants may potentially influence the fate of organic matter associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in some of the ecosystems they invade. Though context dependent, these native ecosystems subjected to prolonged invasion by exotic plants may be instrumental in distinguishing the role of plant-microbe-mineral interactions from the broader edaphic and climatic influences on the formation of soil organic matter (SOM)...
May 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474186/sphenoorbital-meningioma-surgical-series-and-design-of-an-intraoperative-management-algorithm
#9
Lior Gonen, Eytan Nov, Nir Shimony, Ben Shofty, Nevo Margalit
Current surgical removal of sphenoorbital meningiomas (SOM) mainly aims at reduction of proptosis and restoration of visual function; some stages of the surgical technique are controversial. In this study, we aim to present a surgical decision-making algorithm for SOM. A retrospective study of 27 patients who underwent resection of SOM in our center (2005-2014) was conducted. The primary outcomes evaluated were postoperative visual function and radiological exophthalmos. In our study, clinical proptosis was the most common presenting sign (92%), followed by visual loss (37%)...
May 4, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467898/distinct-corticostriatal-gabaergic-neurons-modulate-striatal-output-neurons-and-motor-activity
#10
Sarah Melzer, Mariana Gil, David E Koser, Magdalena Michael, Kee Wui Huang, Hannah Monyer
The motor cortico-basal ganglion loop is critical for motor planning, execution, and learning. Balanced excitation and inhibition in this loop is crucial for proper motor output. Excitatory neurons have been thought to be the only source of motor cortical input to the striatum. Here, we identify long-range projecting GABAergic neurons in the primary (M1) and secondary (M2) motor cortex that target the dorsal striatum. This population of projecting GABAergic neurons comprises both somatostatin-positive (SOM(+)) and parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons that target direct and indirect pathway striatal output neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons differentially...
May 2, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463700/the-surface-pore-integrated-effect-of-soil-organic-matter-on-retention-and-transport-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-in-soils
#11
Qin Qin, Xijuan Chen, Jie Zhuang
This study examines a surface-pore integrated mechanism that allows soil organic matter (SOM) to influence the retention and transport of three representative pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)-ibuprofen, carbamazepine, and bisphenol A-in agricultural soil. A series of sorption-desorption batch tests and breakthrough column experiments were conducted using manured and non-manured soils. Results show that SOM could substantially influence the environmental behaviors of PPCPs via two mechanisms: surface-coating and pore-filling...
April 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458200/conservation-of-groundwater-from-over-exploitation-scientific-analyses-for-groundwater-resources-management
#12
Fi-John Chang, Chien-Wei Huang, Su-Ting Cheng, Li-Chiu Chang
Groundwater over-exploitation has produced many critical problems in the southern Taiwan. The accumulated stresses and demands make groundwater management a complex issue that needs innovative scientific analyses for deriving better water management strategies. In this study, we aimed to provide scientific analyses of the groundwater systems in the Pingtung Plain through soft-computing techniques to explore its spatial-temporal and hydro-geological characteristics for the elaboration of future groundwater management plans and in decision-making process...
April 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454025/review-and-analysis-of-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-agro-ecosystem-models-for-simulating-c-and-n-fluxes
#13
REVIEW
Lorenzo Brilli, Luca Bechini, Marco Bindi, Marco Carozzi, Daniele Cavalli, Richard Conant, Cristopher D Dorich, Luca Doro, Fiona Ehrhardt, Roberta Farina, Roberto Ferrise, Nuala Fitton, Rosa Francaviglia, Peter Grace, Ileana Iocola, Katja Klumpp, Joël Léonard, Raphaël Martin, Raia Silvia Massad, Sylvie Recous, Giovanna Seddaiu, Joanna Sharp, Pete Smith, Ward N Smith, Jean-Francois Soussana, Gianni Bellocchi
Biogeochemical simulation models are important tools for describing and quantifying the contribution of agricultural systems to C sequestration and GHG source/sink status. The abundance of simulation tools developed over recent decades, however, creates a difficulty because predictions from different models show large variability. Discrepancies between the conclusions of different modelling studies are often ascribed to differences in the physical and biogeochemical processes incorporated in equations of C and N cycles and their interactions...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454021/reactive-mineral-removal-relative-to-soil-organic-matter-heterogeneity-and-implications-for-organic-contaminant-sorption
#14
Fangfang Li, Bo Pan, Ni Liang, Zhaofeng Chang, Yuwei Zhou, Lin Wang, Hao Li, Baoshan Xing
Soil organic matter (SOM) is generally treated as a static compartment of soil in pollutant fate studies. However, SOM might be altered or fractionated in soil systems, and the details of SOM property/composition changes when coupled with contaminant behavior are unknown. In this study, a mild acid treatment was adopted to remove reactive minerals and partially remove SOM components. After acid treatment, biomarker signatures showed that lignin-derived phenols were released and black carbon (as suggested by benzene-polycarboxylic acids) and lipids were enriched...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448174/a-school-based-peer-led-social-marketing-intervention-to-engage-spanish-adolescents-in-a-healthy-lifestyle-we-are-cool-som-la-pera-study-a-parallel-cluster-randomized-controlled-study
#15
Magaly Aceves-Martins, Elisabet Llauradó, Lucia Tarro, David Moriña, Ignasi Papell-Garcia, Jordi Prades-Tena, Helle Kettner-Høeberg, Francesc Puiggròs, Lluís Arola, Amy Davies, Montse Giralt, Rosa Solà
BACKGROUND: Encouraging adolescents to adopt healthy lifestyles can be challenging. The aim of the "Som la Pera" study was to engage adolescents by applying new strategies to increase both their fruit and vegetable consumption and their physical activity (PA) while reducing their sedentary behavior. METHODS: In disadvantaged neighborhoods of Reus (Spain), two high schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 170 adolescents 13- to 16-year-olds) and two were assigned to the control group (n = 223 adolescents 13- to 16-year-olds)...
April 27, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447378/soil-aggregation-and-associated-microbial-communities-modify-the-impact-of-agricultural-management-on-carbon-content
#16
Pankaj Trivedi, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Thomas C Jeffries, Chanda Trivedi, Ian C Anderson, Matthew McNee, Kenneth Flower, Bhupinder Pal Singh, David Minkey, Brajesh K Singh
Soil carbon (C) stabilization is known to depend in part on its distribution in structural aggregates, and upon soil microbial activity within the aggregates. However, the mechanisms and relative contributions of different microbial groups to C turnover in different aggregates under various management practices remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of soil aggregation and their associated microbial communities in driving the responses of soil organic matter (SOM) to multiple management practices...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447237/effects-of-metformin-versus-placebo-on-vitamin-b12-metabolism-in-non-diabetic-breast-cancer-patients-in-cctg-ma-32
#17
Ana Elisa Lohmann, Mira F Liebman, William Brien, Wendy R Parulekar, Karen A Gelmon, Lois E Shepherd, Jennifer A Ligibel, Dawn L Hershman, Priya Rastogi, Ingrid A Mayer, Timothy J Hobday, Julie Lemieux, Alastair Mark Thompson, Kathleen I Pritchard, Timothy Joseph Whelan, Som D Mukherjee, Haji I Chalchal, Vanessa Bernstein, Vuk Stambolic, Bingshu E Chen, Pamela Jean Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Metformin is associated with low levels of vitamin B12 (VitB12) in patients with diabetes. The CCTG/MA.32 trial investigates the effects of metformin vs placebo on breast cancer (BC) outcomes in non-diabetic high-risk BC patients. We analyzed VitB12 at baseline and after 6 months of metformin (versus placebo) in the first 492 patients with paired blood samples. METHODS: VitB12 was analyzed centrally in baseline and 6-month fasting plasma. Levels <181 pmol/L were considered deficient, 181-221 pmol/L borderline, and ≥222 pmol/L sufficient...
April 26, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431357/soil-organic-carbon-and-nitrogen-pools-drive-soil-c-co2-emissions-from-selected-soils-in-maritime-antarctica
#18
C V Pires, C E R G Schaefer, A K Hashigushi, A Thomazini, E I F Filho, E S Mendonça
The ongoing trend of increasing air temperatures will potentially affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and soil C-CO2 emissions in terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica. The effects of SOM quality on this process remain little explored. We evaluated (i) the quantity and quality of soil organic matter and (ii) the potential of C release through CO2 emissions in lab conditions in different soil types from Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10 and 10-20cm) were collected in Keller Peninsula and the vicinity of Arctowski station, to determine the quantity and quality of organic matter and the potential to emit CO2 under different temperature scenarios (2, 5, 8 and 11°C) in lab...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430189/warming-enhances-old-organic-carbon-decomposition-through-altering-functional-microbial-communities
#19
Lei Cheng, Naifang Zhang, Mengting Yuan, Jing Xiao, Yujia Qin, Ye Deng, Qichao Tu, Kai Xue, Joy D Van Nostrand, Liyou Wu, Zhili He, Xuhui Zhou, Mary Beth Leigh, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Edward Ag Schuur, Yiqi Luo, James M Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou
Soil organic matter (SOM) stocks contain nearly three times as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere and changes in soil C stocks may have a major impact on future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Over the past two decades, much research has been devoted to examining the influence of warming on SOM decomposition in topsoil. Most SOM, however, is old and stored in subsoil. The fate of subsoil SOM under future warming remains highly uncertain. Here, by combining a long-term field warming experiment and a meta-analysis study, we showed that warming significantly increased SOM decomposition in subsoil...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419163/response-of-microbial-community-of-organic-matter-impoverished-arable-soil-to-long-term-application-of-soil-conditioner-derived-from-dynamic-rapid-fermentation-of-food-waste
#20
Jiaqi Hou, Mingxiao Li, Xuhui Mao, Yan Hao, Jie Ding, Dongming Liu, Beidou Xi, Hongliang Liu
Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated...
2017: PloS One
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