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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138488/structural-basis-of-adaptor-mediated-protein-degradation-by-the-tail-specific-pdz-protease-prc
#1
Ming-Yuan Su, Nilanjan Som, Chia-Yun Wu, Shih-Chieh Su, Yi-Ting Kuo, Lu-Chu Ke, Meng-Ru Ho, Shiou-Ru Tzeng, Ching-Hao Teng, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Manjula Reddy, Chung-I Chang
Peptidoglycan (PG) is a highly cross-linked, protective mesh-like sacculus that surrounds the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Expansion of PG is tightly coupled to growth of a bacterial cell and requires hydrolases to cleave the cross-links for insertion of nascent PG material. In Escherichia coli, a proteolytic system comprising the periplasmic PDZ-protease Prc and the lipoprotein adaptor NlpI contributes to PG enlargement by regulating cellular levels of MepS, a cross-link-specific hydrolase. Here, we demonstrate how NlpI binds Prc to facilitate the degradation of its substrate MepS by structural and mutational analyses...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136918/simultaneous-grouping-and-ranking-with-combination-of-som-and-topsis-for-selection-of-preferable-analytical-procedure-for-furan-determination-in-food
#2
Renata Jędrkiewicz, Stefan Tsakovski, Aurore Lavenu, Jacek Namieśnik, Marek Tobiszewski
Novel methodology for grouping and ranking with application of self-organizing maps and multicriteria decision analysis is presented. The dataset consists of 22 objects that are analytical procedures applied to furan determination in food samples. They are described by 10 variables, referred to their analytical performance, environmental and economic aspects. Multivariate statistics analysis allows to limit the amount of input data for ranking analysis. Assessment results show that the most beneficial procedures are based on microextraction techniques with GC-MS final determination...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132085/how-clear-cutting-affects-fire-severity-and-soil-properties-in-a-mediterranean-ecosystem
#3
Marcos Francos, Paulo Pereira, Jorge Mataix-Solera, Victoria Arcenegui, Meritxell Alcañiz, Xavier Úbeda
Forest management practices in Mediterranean ecosystems are frequently employed to reduce both the risk and severity of wildfires. However, these pre-fire treatments may influence the effects of wildfire events on soil properties. The aim of this study is to examine the short-term effects of a wildfire that broke out in 2015 on the soil properties of three sites: two exposed to management practices in different years - 2005 (site M05B) and 2015 (site M15B) - and one that did not undergo any management (NMB) and to compare their properties with those recorded in a plot (Control) unaffected by the 2015 wildfire...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127801/the-potential-of-chironomid-larvae-based-metrics-in-the-bioassessment-of-non-wadeable-rivers
#4
Djuradj Milošević, Dejan Mančev, Dubravka Čerba, Milica Stojković Piperac, Nataša Popović, Ana Atanacković, Jelena Đuknić, Vladica Simić, Momir Paunović
The chironomid community in non-wadeable lotic systems was tested as a source of information in the construction of biological metrics which could be used into the bioassessment protocols of large rivers. In order to achieve this, we simultaneously patterned the chironomid community structure and environmental factors along the catchment of the Danube and Sava River. The Self organizing map (SOM) recognized and visualized three different structural types of chironomid community for different environmental properties, described by means of 7 significant abiotic factors (a multi-stressor gradient)...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124857/mineral-surface-reactive-metabolites-secreted-during-fungal-decomposition-contribute-to-the-formation-of-soil-organic-matter
#5
Tao Wang, Zhaomo Tian, Per Bengtson, Anders Tunlid, Per Persson
Soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes the largest terrestrial C pool. An emerging, untested, view is that oxidation and depolymerization of SOM by microorganisms promote the formation of SOM-mineral associations that is critical for SOM stabilization. To test this hypothesis we performed laboratory-scale experiments involving one ectomycorrhizal and one saprotrophic fungus that represent the two major functional groups of microbial decomposers in the boreal forest soils. Fungal decomposition enhanced the retention of SOM on goethite, partly because of oxidative modifications of organic matter (OM) by the fungi...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117245/an-incremental-anomaly-detection-model-for-virtual-machines
#6
Hancui Zhang, Shuyu Chen, Jun Liu, Zhen Zhou, Tianshu Wu
Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm as an unsupervised learning method has been applied in anomaly detection due to its capabilities of self-organizing and automatic anomaly prediction. However, because of the algorithm is initialized in random, it takes a long time to train a detection model. Besides, the Cloud platforms with large scale virtual machines are prone to performance anomalies due to their high dynamic and resource sharing characters, which makes the algorithm present a low accuracy and a low scalability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110176/avascular-necrosis-after-long-term-glucocorticoid-treatment-in-melas-a-cautionary-note
#7
Han Som Choi, Jae Hyun Lee, Sun Ho Lee, Young-Mock Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107904/environmental-concentration-and-atmospheric-deposition-of-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-soil-from-nepal-source-apportionment-and-soil-air-partitioning
#8
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
While various investigations have been driven on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants (FRs) in different framework around the world, information about contamination and fate of PBDEs and other FRs in developing countries especially in the Indian subcontinent is uncommon. Nepal being located in the Indian subcontinent, very little is known about contamination level of semi-volatile organic pollutants discharged into the environment. This motivated us to investigate the environmental fate of halogenated flame retardant (HFRs) in Nepalese condition...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098163/changes-in-somatostatin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-sympathetic-neurons-projecting-to-the-prepyloric-area-of-the-porcine-stomach-induced-by-selected-pathological-conditions
#9
Katarzyna Palus, Michał Bulc, Jarosław Całka
The aim of the present study was to define changes in the expression of somatostatin (SOM) in the sympathetic perikarya innervating the porcine stomach prepyloric area during acetylsalicylic-acid-induced gastritis (ASA) and experimentally induced hyperacidity (HCL) and following partial stomach resection (RES). On day 1, the stomachs were injected with neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB). Animals in the ASA group were given acetylsalicylic acid orally for 21 days. On the 22nd day after FB injection, partial stomach resection was performed in RES animals...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092588/using-self-organizing-maps-to-classify-humpback-whale-song-units-and-quantify-their-similarity
#10
Jenny A Allen, Anita Murray, Michael J Noad, Rebecca A Dunlop, Ellen C Garland
Classification of vocal signals can be undertaken using a wide variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques. Using east Australian humpback whale song from 2002 to 2014, a subset of vocal signals was acoustically measured and then classified using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The SOM created (1) an acoustic dictionary of units representing the song's repertoire, and (2) Cartesian distance measurements among all unit types (SOM nodes). Utilizing the SOM dictionary as a guide, additional song recordings from east Australia were rapidly (manually) transcribed...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077263/cell-shape-characterization-and-classification-with-discrete-fourier-transforms-and-self-organizing-maps
#11
Fabian L Kriegel, Ralf Köhler, Jannike Bayat-Sarmadi, Simon Bayerl, Anja E Hauser, Raluca Niesner, Andreas Luch, Zoltan Cseresnyes
Cells in their natural environment often exhibit complex kinetic behavior and radical adjustments of their shapes. This enables them to accommodate to short- and long-term changes in their surroundings under physiological and pathological conditions. Intravital multi-photon microscopy is a powerful tool to record this complex behavior. Traditionally, cell behavior is characterized by tracking the cells' movements, which yields numerous parameters describing the spatiotemporal characteristics of cells. Cells can be classified according to their tracking behavior using all or a subset of these kinetic parameters...
October 27, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076790/functional-amyloids-interrelationship-with-other-amyloids-and-therapeutic-assessment-to-treat-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Sutapa Som Chaudhury, Chitrangada Das Mukhopadhyay
Misfolded β-sheet structures of proteins leading to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) are in the spotlight since long. However, not much was known about the functional amyloids till the last decade. Researchers have become increasingly more concerned with the degree of involvement of these functional amyloids in human physiology. Interestingly, it has been found that the human body is exposed to a tremendous systemic amyloid burden, especially, during aging. Though many findings regarding these functional amyloids come up every day, some questions still remain unanswered like do these functional amyloids directly involve in the fibrillization of Amyloid beta (Aβ) 42 peptide or enhance the Aβ42 aggregation rate; whether functional bacterial amyloids (FuBA) co-localize with the senile plaques of AD or not...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074961/microbial-mineralization-of-cellulose-in-frozen-soils
#13
Javier H Segura, Mats B Nilsson, Mahsa Haei, Tobias Sparrman, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, John Gräsvik, Jürgen Schleucher, Mats G Öquist
High-latitude soils store ~40% of the global soil carbon and experience winters of up to 6 months or more. The winter soil CO2 efflux importantly contributes to the annual CO2 budget. Microorganisms can metabolize short chain carbon compounds in frozen soils. However, soil organic matter (SOM) is dominated by biopolymers, requiring exoenzymatic hydrolysis prior to mineralization. For winter SOM decomposition to have a substantial influence on soil carbon balances it is crucial whether or not biopolymers can be metabolized in frozen soils...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069595/cortical-interneurons-differentially-shape-frequency-tuning-following-adaptation
#14
Ryan G Natan, Winnie Rao, Maria N Geffen
Neuronal stimulus selectivity is shaped by feedforward and recurrent excitatory-inhibitory interactions. In the auditory cortex (AC), parvalbumin- (PV) and somatostatin-positive (SOM) inhibitory interneurons differentially modulate frequency-dependent responses of excitatory neurons. Responsiveness of neurons in the AC to sound is also dependent on stimulus history. We found that the inhibitory effects of SOMs and PVs diverged as a function of adaptation to temporal repetition of tones. Prior to adaptation, suppressing either SOM or PV inhibition drove both increases and decreases in excitatory spiking activity...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062128/spatial-heterogeneity-of-som-concentrations-associated-with-white-rot-versus-brown-rot-wood-decay
#15
Zhen Bai, Qiang Ma, Yucheng Dai, Haisheng Yuan, Ji Ye, Wantai Yu
White- and brown-rot fungal decay via distinct pathways imparts characteristic molecular imprints on decomposing wood. However, the effect that a specific wood-rotting type of fungus has on proximal soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation remains unexplored. We investigated the potential influence of white- and brown-rot fungi-decayed Abies nephrolepis logs on forest SOM stocks (i.e., soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)) and the concentrations of amino sugars (microbial necromass) at different depths and horizontal distances from decaying woody debris...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057890/effect-of-nitrate-leaching-caused-by-swine-manure-application-in-fields-of-the-yellow-river-irrigation-zone-of-ningxia-china
#16
Shiqi Yang, Yongsheng Wang, Ruliang Liu, Aiping Zhang, Zhengli Yang
A five-year swine manure application trial and a study of nitrate leaching losses have been conducted. There were three treatments: traditional without manure (CK), traditional matched manure 4500 kg ha(-2) (T1) and traditional matched manure 9000 kg ha(-2) (T2). Nitrate nitrogen leaching losses at the 30-, 60-, and 90-cm soil layers were measured using the resin core method. The results indicate that the swine manure application did not noticeably increase soil nitrate leaching losses in the 30-cm layer...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056504/superior-oblique-myokymia
#17
REVIEW
Mia Zhang, Aubrey Gilbert, David Hunter
Superior oblique myokymia (SOM) is a rare condition of unclear etiology. We discuss the history, etiology, clinical features, differential diagnoses, management and prognosis of SOM. We conducted a meta-analysis of all 116 cases published since SOM was first described in 1906. The age at examination was 17-72 years (mean 42 years.) There was a right-sided preponderance in 61% of cases (P < 0.02) that was statistically significant in females (63%, P < 0.04) but not in males (59%, P = 0.18). The pathophysiology of SOM may be neurovascular compression and/or ephaptic transmission...
October 19, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056381/multivariate-geostatistical-analysis-and-source-identification-of-heavy-metals-in-the-sediment-of-poyang-lake-in-china
#18
Lijun Dai, Lingqing Wang, Lianfang Li, Tao Liang, Yongyong Zhang, Chuanxin Ma, Baoshan Xing
Heavy metals in lake sediment have become a great concern because their remobilization has frequently occurred under hydrodynamic disturbance in shallow lakes. In this study, heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the surface and core sediments of the largest freshwater lake in China, Poyang Lake, were investigated. Geostatistical prediction maps of heavy metals distribution in the surface sediment were completed as well as further data mining. Based on the prediction maps, the ranges of Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the surface sediments of the entire lake were 96...
October 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054618/relationships-between-soil-organic-matter-pools-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-of-agroecosystems-in-the-brazilian-cerrado
#19
Cícero Célio de Figueiredo, Alexsandra Duarte de Oliveira, Isis Lima Dos Santos, Eloisa Aparecida Belleza Ferreira, Juaci Vitoria Malaquias, Marcos Aurélio Carolino de Sá, Arminda Moreira de Carvalho, João de Deus Gomes Dos Santos
In the Brazilian Cerrado, despite the increasing adoption of no-till systems, there are still extended areas under conventional soil management systems that reduce soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and increase the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Conservation agroecosystems, such as no-till, have been proposed as a strategy to mitigate agriculture-induced climatic changes through reductions in N2O emissions. However, the relationship between organic matter and N2O emissions from soils under different agroecosystems is not yet clear...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053452/streamexplorer-a-multi-stage-system-for-visually-exploring-events-in-social-streams
#20
Yingcai Wu, Zhutian Chen, Guodao Sun, Xiao Xie, Nan Cao, Shixia Liu, Weiwei Cui
Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently...
October 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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