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Shahaf Shilo, Sara Abu-Ghanem, Moshe Yehuda, Anat Weinger, Dan M Fliss, Avraham Abergel
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between isolated serous otitis media (SOM) and/or conductive hearing loss (CHL) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in a low-to-intermediate endemic area. METHODS: Medical records of all adult patients (≥17 years) with SOM/CHL who underwent endoscopic-guided nasopharyngeal biopsy to exclude NPC during a 10-year period were reviewed. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify significant predictors for NPC...
March 14, 2018: Head & Neck
Steven R Dolly, Yang Lou, Mark A Anastasio, Hua Li
It is widely known that the optimization of imaging systems based on objective, task-based measures of image quality via computer-simulation requires the use of a stochastic object model (SOM). However, the development of computationally tractable SOMs that can accurately model the statistical variations in human anatomy within a specified ensemble of patients remains a challenging task. Previously reported numerical anatomic models lack the ability to accurately model inter-patient and inter-organ variations in human anatomy among a broad patient population, mainly because they are established on image data corresponding to a few of patients and individual anatomic organs...
March 14, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
István Z Bátai, Ádám Horváth, Erika Pintér, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Gábor Pozsgai
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) non-selective ligand-gated cation channels are mostly expressed in primary sensory neurons. Polysulfides (POLYs) are Janus-faced substances interacting with numerous target proteins and associated with both protective and detrimental processes. Activation of TRPA1 in sensory neurons, consequent somatostatin (SOM) liberation and action on sst4 receptors have recently emerged as mediators of the antinociceptive effect of organic trisulfide dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Shixiang Dai, Ling Zhao, Ying Teng, Xiaomi Wang, Wenjie Ren
The fate and transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of persistent organic compounds, in soils was markedly affected by their sorption/desorption on soil organic matters (SOM) due to high hydrophobicity of PCBs. Humic acid (HA), an important fraction of SOM, has no steady composition and microstructure from different origins, resulting in their diverse sorption capacity. Therefore, the effect of composition and microstructure of HA on sorption of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) was investigated in this study...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pengfei Liu, Yong Jie Li, Yan Wang, Adam P Bateman, Yue Zhang, Zhaoheng Gong, Allan K Bertram, Scot T Martin
Initially transparent organic particulate matter (PM) can become shades of light-absorbing brown via atmospheric particle-phase chemical reactions. The production of nitrogen-containing compounds is one important pathway for browning. Semisolid or solid physical states of organic PM might, however, have sufficiently slow diffusion of reactant molecules to inhibit browning reactions. Herein, organic PM of secondary organic material (SOM) derived from toluene, a common SOM precursor in anthropogenically affected environments, was exposed to ammonia at different values of relative humidity (RH)...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Maria Michelle Papamichael, Som Kumar Shrestha, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Bircan Erbas
BACKGROUND: The evidence is mixed on the use of long chain omega 3 fatty acids in the prevention and management of childhood asthma. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search and meta-analysis investigating the role of fish intake, the main dietary source of long chain omega-3 fatty acids, on asthma in children. RESULTS: A total of 1,119 publications were identified. Twenty-three studies on fish intake in association with childhood asthma were included in the final review...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Robin Holtedahl
BAKGRUNN: Knesmerter er blant de vanligste årsaker til konsultasjoner for muskel- og skjelettplager. Siktemålet med denne artikkelen er dels å gi en oversikt over de siste par tiårs forskning på atraumatiske og degenerativt betingede kneplager, dels å vurdere hvorvidt den sedvanlige praksis for utredning og behandling er i samsvar med denne forskningen. KUNNSKAPSGRUNNLAG: Artikkelen er basert på et utvalg av engelskspråklige studier av atraumatiske og degenerative knelidelser funnet ved søk i Medline, manuelle søk i artiklenes litteraturlister og litteraturforslag fra Mendeley...
March 6, 2018: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Nagesh Shukla, Markus Hagenbuchner, Khin Than Win, Jack Yang
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting females worldwide. Breast cancer survivability prediction is challenging and a complex research task. Existing approaches engage statistical methods or supervised machine learning to assess/predict the survival prospects of patients. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this paper is to develop a robust data analytical model which can assist in (i) a better understanding of breast cancer survivability in presence of missing data, (ii) providing better insights into factors associated with patient survivability, and (iii) establishing cohorts of patients that share similar properties...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Lucia Škulcová, Kerstin E Scherr, Lukáš Chrást, Jakub Hofman, Lucie Bielská
The fate of organic chemicals and their metabolites in soils is often investigated in model matrices having undergone various pre-treatment steps that may qualitatively or quantitatively interfere with the results. Presently, effects associated with soil sterilization by γ-irradiation and soil spiking using an organic solvent were studied in one freshly spiked soil (sterilization prior to contamination) and its field-contaminated (sterilization after contamination) counterpart for the model organic compound 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE)...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Weiguo Yang, Qian-Quan Sun
We used ChR2-assisted circuit mapping (CRACM) to examine neuronal/compartmental excitatory and inhibitory synaptic balance (E-I balance) in pyramidal cells (PCs) located in several brain regions (including both neocortices and paleocortices). Within the vS1, different inputs on the same neurons, or the same inputs formed on different targets, induced different E/I ratios. E/I ratios in PCs from different regions were largely different. Chemogenetic silencing of somatostatin (SOM)- or parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons (INs) while optogenetically activating long-range M1 inputs demonstrated differential contribution of PV and SOM INs to the E/I ratios in a layer-specific manner in S1...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Krystyna Ciarkowska
Effect of tourism, especially skiing activities, and urbanization on chemical and biochemical properties of soils in touristy town-Zakopane-was investigated. The concentration of heavy metals, nutrients, soil organic matter (SOM), dehydrogenase (DHA), invertase (IA) and urease (Ure) activities in soils from the town centre and out of the town centre was compared with the respective values of adjacent soils in protected areas (TNP). In order to evaluate a degree of contamination and risks of degradation enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), Nemerov Pollution Index (PINemerov ) as well as enzyme activity index (EAI) were calculated...
March 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yaxin Zhang, Ye Tian, Maocai Shen, Guangming Zeng
Heavy metal contamination in soils/sediments and its impact on human health and ecological environment have aroused wide concerns. Our study investigated 30 samples of soils and sediments around Dongting Lake to analyze the concentration of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the samples and to distinguish the natural and anthropogenic sources. Also, the relationship between heavy metals and the physicochemical properties of samples was studied by multivariate statistical analysis. Concentration of Cd at most sampling sites were more than five times that of national environmental quality standard for soil in China (GB 15618-1995), and Pb and Zn levels exceeded one to two times...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cen Meng, Huanyao Liu, Yi Wang, Yuyuan Li, Jiaogen Zhou, Ping Zhou, Xinliang Liu, Yong Li, Jinshui Wu
Exploring the relationship between net anthropogenic phosphorus input (NAPI) and soil available P (SAP) content could inform applied issues related to environmental quality and agronomic productivity and increase our knowledge of element biogeochemical cycles. Here, the NAPI was estimated and the SAP content determined in eight counties in subtropical China from 1980 to 2010. It is suggested that the NAPI ranging 318-924 km-2  yr-1 in 1980 had increased substantially to 865-3601 km-2  yr-1 in 2010 across the eight counties, in which the P fertilizer application was estimated to represent the largest individual source of NAPI, accounting for an average of 36...
February 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Yusuf Saibu, Ankur Jamwal, Renfei Feng, Derek Peak, Som Niyogi
We utilized micro X-ray fluorescence imaging (μ-XFI) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES), which are both synchrotron-based techniques to investigate Zn distribution profile, its co-localization patterns with Ca, S, and Fe and speciation in the gills of rainbow trout (RBT). Fish (~100 g) were exposed to acutely toxic levels of waterborne Zn alone and in combination with waterborne Cd or Cu for 24 h (each at 1 × 96 h LC50 ). Gill sections were prepared and analyzed at the VESPERS beamline of the Canadian Light Source...
March 1, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Som N Khanal, John A Lucey
We investigated the effect of fermenting milk with 2 strains (DGCC7785 and St-143) of Streptococcus thermophilus, which are known to produce different types of exopolysaccharide (EPS) structures. The yields and physical properties of these ropy EPS were monitored during the fermentation of milk at different temperatures. We wanted to understand how these types of EPS properties affected yogurt gelation. Reconstituted skim milk was fermented at 33, 39, or 45°C until pH values reached 5.2, 4.9, 4.7, and 4.5...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Oyebanji Anthony Olajuyin, Oladele Simeon Olatunya, Atilade Waheed Adegbiji, Atoyebi Solomon Oyenibi, Opeyemi Ayodeji Faboya
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with episodic illnesses, multi-systemic affectations and end-organs damages. Otolaryngological related complications are not unexpected. Studies on the overall Otolaryngological pathologies in children with SCD relative to their non-SCD counterparts are scanty in Nigeria. We hypothesized that children with SCD are likely to have more otological burdens than their non-SCD counterparts. Thus, we embarked on this study to describe and compare the overall ear diseases burdens seen in children with sickle cell disease relative to their non-SCD counterparts...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Belgacem Agoubi
Assessing groundwater flow path in a thermal aquifer, such as El Hamma aquifer, southeastern Tunisia, and its lateral communication with the adjacent Jeffara-Gabes aquifers, is a very complex operation which requires the integration of several approaches to understand and explain the reality of phenomenon. In this study, geochemical and isotopic data, Kohonen self-organizing map, temperature cooling trend, and kriging techniques were used to assess groundwater flow path in hydrothermal aquifer of El Hamma-Gabes, Tunisia...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rudolf A Werner, Ryohei Kobayashi, Mehrbod Som Javadi, Zoe Koeck, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Stefan Unterecker, Kenichi Nakajima, Constantin Lapa, Andreas Menke, Takahiro Higuchi
Background: 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) provides independent prognostic value for risk stratification among heart failure patients, but the use of concomitant medication should not impact its quantitative information. We aimed to evaluate the four most-prescribed antidepressants currently used as a first‑line treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their potential on altering mIBG imaging results. Methods: The inhibition effect of four different types of antidepressants (desipramine, escitalopram, venlafaxine and bupropion) for MDD treatment on131 I-mIBG uptake was assessed by in-vitro cell uptake assays using human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
William Su, Brett A Miles, Marshall Posner, Peter Som, Lale Kostakoglu, Vishal Gupta, Richard L Bakst
BACKGROUND/AIM: Current guidelines derived from a pre-human papilloma virus (HPV) era in oropharyngeal cancer do not recommend routine surveillance imaging. We aimed to analyze the method of recurrence detection in HPV+ disease to determine a role for follow-up imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal cancer patients treated at our institution from 2005-2016 with biopsy-proven recurrence were identified and their method of recurrence detection was analyzed...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Beop-Rae Roh, Eun Hee Jung, Hyun Ju Hong
Objective: This study had two main objectives: to compare current suicide rates in OECD countries among 10-19-year-olds and to identify patterns of suicide rates based on age, gender and time. Furthermore we investigated the main dimensions that contributed to the variation in child and adolescent suicide rates across countries. Methods: We combined the WHO mortality data and the population data released by OECD to calculate the suicide rates in 29 OECD countries...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
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