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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078726/dissecting-the-cytochrome-p450-1a2-and-3a4-mediated-metabolism-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-ligand-and-protein-contributions
#1
Lars Olsen, Flemming S Jørgensen, Silvia Bonomo
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a chemically intriguing compound because it has several potential sites of metabolism (SOMs) while only some of them are observed experimentally. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 1A2 are the major isoforms involved in its metabolism. Here, we systematically investigate reactivity and accessibility of all possible SOMs in these two CYPs to elucidate AFB1 metabolism. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to determine activation energies for each possible reaction. Aliphatic hydroxylation on position 9A and 3α are energetically favored, whereas position 9 is the preferred site for epoxidation...
January 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073345/reasons-for-faculty-departures-from-an-academic-medical-center-a-survey-and-comparison-across-faculty-lines
#2
Sabine C Girod, Magali Fassiotto, Roseanne Menorca, Henry Etzkowitz, Sherry M Wren
BACKGROUND: Faculty departure can present significant intellectual costs to an institution. The authors sought to identify the reasons for clinical and non-clinical faculty departures at one academic medical center (AMC). METHOD: In May and June 2010, the authors surveyed 137 faculty members who left a west coast School of Medicine (SOM) between 1999 and 2009. In May and June 2015, the same survey was sent to 40 faculty members who left the SOM between 2010-2014, for a total sample size of 177 former faculty members...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072829/predicting-the-metabolic-sites-by-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-on-drug-molecules-using-svm-classification-on-computed-quantum-mechanics-and-circular-fingerprints-molecular-descriptors
#3
Chien-Wei Fu, Thy-Hou Lin
As an important enzyme in Phase I drug metabolism, the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) also metabolizes some xenobiotics with soft nucleophiles. The site of metabolism (SOM) on a molecule is the site where the metabolic reaction is exerted by an enzyme. Accurate prediction of SOMs on drug molecules will assist the search for drug leads during the optimization process. Here, some quantum mechanics features such as the condensed Fukui function and attributes from circular fingerprints (called Molprint2D) are computed and classified using the support vector machine (SVM) for predicting some potential SOMs on a series of drugs that can be metabolized by FMO enzymes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058488/inhibition-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-vitro-by-bacteriocinogenic-lactococcus-lactis-kth0-1s-isolated-from-thai-fermented-shrimp-kung-som-and-safety-evaluation
#4
Sutanate Saelao, Suppasil Maneerat, Sireewan Kaewsuwan, Hanitra Rabesona, Yvan Choiset, Thomas Haertlé, Jean-Marc Chobert
Lactococcus lactis KTH0-1S isolated from Thai traditional fermented shrimp (Kung-som) is able to produce heat-stable bacteriocin and inhibits food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens. The inhibitory effect of bacteriocin remained intact after treatment with different pHs and after heating, but was sensitive to some proteolytic enzymes. Addition of bacteriocin KTH0-1S to Staphylococcus aureus cultures decreased viable cell counts by 2.8 log CFU/ml, demonstrating a bactericidal mode of action. Furthermore, the growth of S...
January 5, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058448/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-bacteriocin-producing-weissella-cibaria-110
#5
Shiao-Wen Li, Yi-Sheng Chen, Yun-Shien Lee, Chih-Hsien Yang, Sirinat Srionnual, Hui-Chung Wu, Chuan-Hsiung Chang
Weissella cibaria 110 was isolated from plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product, and known to produce the weissellicin 110 bacteriocin. We carried out comprehensive comparative genomic analysis of W. cibaria 110 with four other non-bacteriocin-producing W. cibaria strains and identified potential antibiotic-resistant genes. We further identified a type III restriction-modification system, a TA system, and a bacteriocin gene cluster that are unique in W. cibaria 110. Genes related to bacteriocin biosynthesis are organized in clusters and are encoded with minimum genetic machinery consisting of structural cognate immunity genes, including ABC transporter and immunity protein...
January 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057341/the-impact-of-agricultural-management-on-selected-soil-properties-in-citrus-orchards-in-eastern-spain-a-comparison-between-conventional-and-organic-citrus-orchards-with-drip-and-flood-irrigation
#6
M A Hondebrink, L H Cammeraat, A Cerdà
The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055123/regional-variation-in-the-temperature-sensitivity-of-soil-organic-matter-decomposition-in-china-s-forests-and-grasslands
#7
Yuan Liu, Nianpeng He, Jianxing Zhu, Li Xu, Guirui Yu, Shuli Niu, Xiaomin Sun, Xuefa Wen
How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10 ) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042178/little-effects-on-soil-organic-matter-chemistry-of-density-fractions-after-seven-years-of-forest-soil-warming
#8
Jörg Schnecker, Werner Borken, Andreas Schindlbacher, Wolfgang Wanek
Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby increase the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated decomposition rates might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. To investigate the effect of soil warming on functionally different soil organic matter pools, we here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three density fractions (free particulate organic matter, fPOM; occluded particulate organic matter, oPOM; and mineral associated organic matter, MaOM) of a C-rich soil from a long-term warming experiment in a spruce forest in the Austrian Alps...
December 2016: Soil Biology & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041880/dynamic-cell-type-specific-roles-for-gabaergic-interneurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-optogenetically-inducible-seizures
#9
Sattar Khoshkhoo, Daniel Vogt, Vikaas S Sohal
GABAergic interneurons play critical roles in seizures, but it remains unknown whether these vary across interneuron subtypes or evolve during a seizure. This uncertainty stems from the unpredictable timing of seizures in most models, which limits neuronal imaging or manipulations around the seizure onset. Here, we describe a mouse model for optogenetic seizure induction. Combining this with calcium imaging, we find that seizure onset rapidly recruits parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptitde (VIP)-expressing interneurons, whereas excitatory neurons are recruited several seconds later...
December 29, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034990/phase-i-study-of-the-aurora-a-kinase-inhibitor-alisertib-with-induction-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
Amir T Fathi, Seth A Wander, Traci M Blonquist, Andrew M Brunner, Philip C Amrein, Jeffrey Supko, Nicole M Hermance, Amity L Manning, Hossein Sadrzadeh, Karen K Ballen, Eyal C Attar, Timothy A Graubert, Gabriela Hobbs, Christelle Joseph, Ashley M Perry, Meghan Burke, Regina Silver, Julia Foster, Meghan Bergeron, Aura Y Ramos, Tina T Som, Kaitlyn M Fishman, Kristin L McGregor, Christine Connolly, Donna S Neuberg, Yi-Bin Chen
Aberrant expression of aurora kinase A is implicated in the genesis of various neoplasms, including acute myeloid leukemia. Alisertib, an aurora A kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy as monotherapy in trials of myeloid malignancy, and this efficacy appears enhanced in combination with conventional chemotherapies. In this phase I, dose-escalation study, newly diagnosed patients received conventional induction with cytarabine and idarubicin, after which alisertib was administered for 7 days. Dose escalation occurred via cohorts...
December 29, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030937/predictors-of-the-quality-of-life-of-women-in-peri-menopausal-period
#11
Katarzyna Kanadys, Anna Wiktor-Stoma, Magdalena Lewicka, Magdalena Sulima, Henryk Wiktor
INTRODUCTION: The peri-menopausal period is the time of many biological, psychological and social changes. The quality of life of women in this period may be conditioned by many factors, and analysis of these factors may indicate the optimum directions of prophylactic and educational actions. OBJECTIVE: Analysis of selected predictive factors of the quality of life of women in the peri-menopausal period. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study covered 268 peri-menopausal women...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025491/metabolic-adaptation-in-obesity-and-type-ii-diabetes-myokines-adipokines-and-hepatokines
#12
REVIEW
Kyoung-Jin Oh, Da Som Lee, Won Kon Kim, Baek Soo Han, Sang Chul Lee, Kwang-Hee Bae
Obesity and type II diabetes are characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. A high caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is the leading cause of these conditions. Whole-body insulin resistance and its improvement are the result of the combined actions of each insulin-sensitive organ. Among the fundamental molecular mechanisms by which each organ is able to communicate and engage in cross-talk are cytokines or peptides which stem from secretory organs. Recently, it was reported that several cytokines or peptides are secreted from muscle (myokines), adipose tissue (adipokines) and liver (hepatokines) in response to certain nutrition and/or physical activity conditions...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018225/role-of-somatostatin-in-preventing-post-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-ercp-pancreatitis-an-update-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Jing Hu, Pei-Lin Li, Tao Zhang, Jin-Ping Chen, Yao-Jun Hu, Zheng Yu, Jin-Peng Wang, Dan Zhu, Xiao-Fei Tong
Background: Acute pancreatitis is the most common serious complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Although, somatostatin (SOM) has been used in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), the efficacy of SOM remains inconsistent. Methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), and the Science Citation Index were searched to retrieve relevant studies. Details of the study population, including patients' characteristics, sample size, regimen of drug administration and incidence of PEP, hyperamylasemia and abdominal pain were extracted by two investigators...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017748/spheno-orbital-meningiomas-a-16-year-surgical-experience
#14
Jacob L Freeman, Monica S Davern, Soliman Oushy, Stefan Sillau, D Ryan Ormond, A Samy Youssef, Kevin O Lillehei
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of spheno-orbital meningioma (SOM) resection aimed at symptomatic improvement, rather than gross total resection, followed by radiation therapy for recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients having undergone resection by the senior author (KOL) between 2000 and 2016 was performed. Demographics, operative details, post-operative outcomes, recurrence rates and radiation treatment plans were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed to assess for factors affecting recurrence (Fisher's exact and student's t-test), changes in exophthalmos index (student's t-test) and progression free survival (Kaplan-Meier and log rank)...
December 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997999/behavior-dependent-activity-patterns-of-gabaergic-long-range-projecting-neurons-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#15
Linda Katona, Ben Micklem, Zsolt Borhegyi, Daniel A Swiejkowski, Ornella Valenti, Tim J Viney, Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Long-range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O-LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin-labeling in freely moving rats...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997811/macromolecular-target-prediction-by-self-organizing-feature-maps
#16
Gisbert Schneider, Petra Schneider
Rational drug discovery would greatly benefit from a more nuanced appreciation of the activity of pharmacologically active compounds against a diverse panel of macromolecular targets. Already, computational target-prediction models assist medicinal chemists in library screening, de novo molecular design, optimization of active chemical agents, drug re-purposing, in the spotting of potential undesired off-target activities, and in the 'de-orphaning' of phenotypic screening hits. The self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm has been employed successfully for these and other purposes...
December 27, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997737/distribution-of-type-i-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf1-receptors-on-gabaergic-neurons-within-the-basolateral-amygdala
#17
Katina C Calakos, Dakota Blackman, Alexandra M Schulz, Elizabeth P Bauer
The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a critical role in mediating anxiety-like responses to stressors, and dysfunction of the CRF system has been linked to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Extra-hypothalamic CRF can also modulate learning and memory formation, including amygdala-dependent learning. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) contains dense concentrations of CRF receptors, yet the distribution of these receptors on specific neuronal subtypes within the BLA has not been characterized...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996978/experimental-warming-reveals-positive-feedbacks-to-climate-change-in-the-eurasian-steppe
#18
Ximei Zhang, Eric R Johnston, Linghao Li, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Xingguo Han
Identifying soil microbial feedbacks to increasing temperatures and moisture alterations is critical for predicting how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to climate change. We performed a 5-year field experiment manipulating warming, watering and their combination in a semiarid temperate steppe in northern China. Warming stimulated the abundance of genes responsible for degrading recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) and reduced SOM content by 13%. Watering, and warming plus watering also increased the abundance of recalcitrant SOM catabolism pathways, but concurrently promoted plant growth and increased labile SOM content, which somewhat offset SOM loss...
December 20, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958371/atmospheric-deposition-carried-zn-and-cd-from-a-zinc-smelter-and-their-effects-on-soil-microflora-as-revealed-by-16s-rdna
#19
Feng Shen, Yanxia Li, Min Zhang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Amjad Ali, Ronghua Li, Quan Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, we investigated the influence of heavy metals (HM) on total soil bacterial population and its diversity pattern from 10 km distance of a Zinc smelter in Feng County, Qinling Mountain, China. We characterized and identified the bacterial community in a HM polluted soil using 16S rDNA technology. Out results indicated that the maximum soil HM concentration and the minimum bacterial population were observed in S2 soil, whereas bacterial diversity raised with the sampling distance increased. The bacterial communities were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria in cornfield soils, except Fimicutes phylum which dominated in hilly area soil...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939195/characterization-of-transformations-of-maize-residues-into-soil-organic-matter
#20
Guixue Song, Etelvino H Novotny, Jing-Dong Mao, Michael H B Hayes
An awareness of the transformation of plant residues returned to cultivated soils is vital for a better understanding of carbon cycles, the maintenance of soil fertility and the practice of a sustainable agriculture. The transformation of maize (Zea mays L) straw residues into soil organic matter (SOM) in a one year incubation experiment was studied in a soil that had been under long term cultivation with wheat (Triticum aestivum L) for >30years. A novel sequential exhaustive extraction and fractionation procedure isolated a series of fractions of SOM...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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