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A Kereszturi, I Gyollai, Zs Kereszty, K Kiss, M Szabó, Z Szalai, M Ringer, M Veres
Correlating the Raman and infrared spectra of shocked minerals in Csátalja ordinary chondrite (H4, S2, W2) with controlling the composition by EPMA measurements, we identified and improved various shock indicators, as infrared spectro-microscopic analysis has been poorly used for shock impact alteration studies of meteorites to date. We also provide reference spectra as SOM for the community with local mineralogical and shock alteration related context to support further standardization of the IR ATR based measurements...
October 18, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Blanca Bernal, J Patrick Megonigal, Thomas J Mozdzer
Understanding the processes that control deep soil carbon (C) dynamics and accumulation is of key importance, given the relevance of soil organic matter (SOM) as a vast C pool and climate change buffer. Methodological constraints to measure SOM decomposition in the field prevent from addressing real-time rhizosphere effects regulating nutrient cycling and SOM decomposition. An invasive lineage of Phragmites australis roots deeper than native vegetation (Schoenoplectus americanus and Spartina patens) in coastal marshes of North America, having the potential to dramatically alter C cycling and accumulation in these ecosystems...
October 25, 2016: Global Change Biology
E Lepiarczyk, A Dudek, J Kaleczyc, M Majewski, W Markiewicz, P Radziszewski, A Bossowska
Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is used as experimental drug therapy for a range of neurogenic urinary bladder disorders. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical RTX instillation. The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labelling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), calbindin (CB), galanin (GAL) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Peng Li, Zhenmin Wang, Qiangyi Zhou, Shiwei Li, Jing Zhang, Ying Wang, Xingchao Wang, Bo Wang, Fu Zhao, Pinan Liu, Zhijun Yang
BACKGROUND: Vision is extremely important for patients with hearing loss due to neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway can potentially impair the vision. To date, only a few case reports and small-series studies have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features of tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway in a large series of NF2 patients. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with potentially vision-impairing tumors were carefully screened from among 467 NF2 patients...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Jinlan Xu, Xinshuo Fan, Fudi Huang, Xiumin Li
Under the action of hydrogen peroxide, soil organic matter (SOM) can transform dissolved iron (Fe(2+)) into the solid phase. Solid iron is bound to SOM (Fe-SOM), and two components are included: iron oxides bound to SOM (Fe-SOM oxides) and organic iron bound to SOM (organic Fe-SOM). In oil-contaminated soil samples with Fe-SOM, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded by 67%; however, in oil-contaminated soil samples without Fe-SOM, the degradation of TPH was only 6%. In oil-contaminated soil samples with Fe-SOM, 73-86% of the primary alkanes (C14-C22 composed 67...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yichao Rui, Daniel V Murphy, Xiaoli Wang, Frances C Hoyle
Rebuilding 'lost' soil carbon (C) is a priority in mitigating climate change and underpinning key soil functions that support ecosystem services. Microorganisms determine if fresh C input is converted into stable soil organic matter (SOM) or lost as CO2. Here we quantified if microbial biomass and respiration responded positively to addition of light fraction organic matter (LFOM, representing recent inputs of plant residue) in an infertile semi-arid agricultural soil. Field trial soil with different historical plant residue inputs [soil C content: control (tilled) = 9...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Preetisri Baskaran, Riitta Hyvönen, S Linnea Berglund, Karina E Clemmensen, Göran I Ågren, Björn D Lindahl, Stefano Manzoni
Tree growth in boreal forests is limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Most boreal forest trees form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, which improve the uptake of inorganic N and also have the capacity to decompose soil organic matter (SOM) and to mobilize organic N ('ECM decomposition'). To study the effects of 'ECM decomposition' on ecosystem carbon (C) and N balances, we performed a sensitivity analysis on a model of C and N flows between plants, SOM, saprotrophs, ECM fungi, and inorganic N stores...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Abhijit Maity, Mithun Pal, Suman Som, Sanchi Maithani, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
The (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT), developed a few decades ago, is widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to detect only the presence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori infection; however, the actual disease state, i.e. whether the person harbouring H. pylori has peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or non-ulcerous dyspepsia (NUD), is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, the present (13)C-UBT has numerous limitations, drawbacks and pitfalls owing to the ingestion of (13)C-labelled external urea...
October 17, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr
Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM) inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Mahesh Kudrimoti, Amarintha Curtis, Samar Azawi, Francis Worden, Sanford Katz, Douglas Adkins, Marcelo Bonomi, Jenna Elder, Stephen T Sonis, Richard Straube, Oreola Donini
Dusquetide, a novel Innate Defense Regulator, modulates the innate immune system at a key convergence point in intracellular signaling pathways and has demonstrated activity in both reducing inflammation and increasing clearance of bacterial infection. Innate immunity has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis (OM), a universal toxicity of chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Testing the hypothesis that dusquetide can mitigate the development and duration of OM, preclinical studies have been completed and correlated with interim results from a Phase 2 clinical study in patients undergoing CRT for head and neck cancer...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Dohoung Kim, Huijeong Jeong, Juhyeong Lee, Jeong-Wook Ghim, Eun Sil Her, Seung-Hee Lee, Min Whan Jung
Inhibitory interneurons are thought to play crucial roles in diverse brain functions. However, roles of different inhibitory interneuron subtypes in working memory remain unclear. We found distinct activity patterns and stimulation effects of two major interneuron subtypes, parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SOM)-expressing interneurons, in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice performing a spatial working memory task. PV interneurons showed weak target-dependent delay-period activity and were strongly inhibited by reward...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Anirban Som, Souvik Maitra, Sulagna Bhattacharjee, Dalim K Baidya
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Optimum perioperative fluid administration may improve postoperative outcome after major surgery. This meta-analysis and systematic review has been aimed to determine the effect of dynamic goal directed fluid therapy (GDFT) on postoperative morbidity and mortality in non-cardiac surgical patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Meta-analysis of published prospective randomized controlled trials where GDFT based on non-invasive flow based hemodynamic measurement has been compared with a standard care...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Shuai-Bing He, Man-Man Li, Bai-Xia Zhang, Xiao-Tong Ye, Ran-Feng Du, Yun Wang, Yan-Jiang Qiao
During the past decades, there have been continuous attempts in the prediction of metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. However, it has indeed remained a huge challenge to accurately predict the metabolism of xenobiotics mediated by these enzymes. To address this issue, microsomal metabolic reaction system (MMRS)-a novel concept, which integrates information about site of metabolism (SOM) and enzyme-was introduced. By incorporating the use of multiple feature selection (FS) techniques (ChiSquared (CHI), InfoGain (IG), GainRatio (GR), Relief) and hybrid classification procedures (Kstar, Bayes (BN), K-nearest neighbours (IBK), C4...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Barbara Jana, Karolina A Meller, Michał Bulc, Jarosław Całka
BACKGROUND: Intraovarian distribution and density of nerve fibres immunoreactive (IR) to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and containing dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL) were determined. METHODS: From day 4 of the first oestrous cycle to day 20 of the second studied cycle, experimental gilts (n = 3) were injected with testosterone (T), while control gilts (n = 3) received corn oil. RESULTS: After T administration the numbers of fibres IR to PGP 9...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
João Amorim, Miguel Fernandes, Vitor Vasconcelos, Luis Oliva Teles
The aim of this work was to develop a novel methodology to stress test the diagnostic capability of a video tracking system with zebrafish (Danio rerio), against two pre-established disturbances. Eight different treatments were tested varying the presence or absence of a toxicant (NaOCl) and two disturbances: the passing of a shadow (mimicking a predator) and entrapment of the fish. The concentration tested corresponded to a sublethal (1 % 24 h-LC50) and short term exposure (2 h). A total of 56 organisms were tested resulting in 112 diagnoses (before and after the contamination)...
October 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Angelos K Hannides, Robert C Aller
Mucous gels are produced by benthic animals rapidly and in copious amounts, and consequently they are a possible priming substrate whose addition in modest amounts may affect sedimentary organic matter (SOM) remineralization. The priming effect of benthic infaunal mucus was tested using mucus of the common gastropod Neverita duplicata as model substrate. Its composition is typical of marine molluscan mucus, consisting primarily of water (>96% by weight). Salt-free dry weight constitutes 0.7% of total mucus...
September 2016: Limnology and Oceanography
Stefan J Schaller, Matthew Anstey, Manfred Blobner, Thomas Edrich, Stephanie D Grabitz, Ilse Gradwohl-Matis, Markus Heim, Timothy Houle, Tobias Kurth, Nicola Latronico, Jarone Lee, Matthew J Meyer, Thomas Peponis, Daniel Talmor, George C Velmahos, Karen Waak, J Matthias Walz, Ross Zafonte, Matthias Eikermann
BACKGROUND: Immobilisation predicts adverse outcomes in patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Attempts to mobilise critically ill patients early after surgery are frequently restricted, but we tested whether early mobilisation leads to improved mobility, decreased SICU length of stay, and increased functional independence of patients at hospital discharge. METHODS: We did a multicentre, international, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial in SICUs of five university hospitals in Austria (n=1), Germany (n=1), and the USA (n=3)...
October 1, 2016: Lancet
Chunzhu Wei, Pablo Cabrera-Barona, Thomas Blaschke
This study aims to explore the effect of the neighborhood scale when estimating public services inequality based on the aggregation of social, environmental, and health-related indicators. Inequality analyses were carried out at three neighborhood scales: the original census blocks and two aggregated neighborhood units generated by the spatial "k"luster analysis by the tree edge removal (SKATER) algorithm and the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm. Then, we combined a set of health-related public services indicators with the geographically weighted principal components analyses (GWPCA) and the principal components analyses (PCA) to measure the public services inequality across all multi-scale neighborhood units...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jörn Lötsch, Alfred Ultsch
OBJECTIVE: The public accessibility of "big data" about the molecular targets of drugs and the biological functions of genes allows novel data science-based approaches to pharmacology that link drugs directly with their effects on pathophysiologic processes. This provides a phenotypic path to drug discovery and repurposing. This paper compares the performance of a functional genomics-based criterion to the traditional drug target-based classification. METHODS: Knowledge discovery in the DrugBank and Gene Ontology databases allowed the construction of a "drug target versus biological process" matrix as a combination of "drug versus genes" and "genes versus biological processes" matrices...
October 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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