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persistent epithelial defect

Yunes Panahi, Danial Roshandel, Mohammad Mehdi Sadoughi, Mostafa Ghanei, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM; mustard gas) is a classic chemical warfare agent that has been used in several wars and is still a potential threat especially in the Middle-East region. Victims experience acute symptoms in air-exposed organs including skin, respiratory tract and the eyes. Survivors of the acute stage might develop chronic or delayed-onset complications in the exposed organs. The exact mechanism(s) of SM-induced tissue damage is still unknown, however DNA alkylation and oxidative damage are the most relevant mechanisms...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Gloria B Chiu, Christos Theophanous, John A Irvine
PURPOSE: To report a case of persistent epithelial defects in a patient with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease that required coordinated modulation of systemic immunosuppressive treatment and overnight wear of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (BostonSight PROSE, Needham, MA) devices to achieve ocular surface healing. CASE REPORT: The case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with a 2-year history of ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease, ocular burning, pain, light sensitivity, and a 3-week history of bilateral corneal epithelial defects is presented...
October 12, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Takashi Kojima, Asato Hasegawa, Tomoaki Nakamura, Naoki Isogai, Takahiro Kataoka, Kazuo Ichikawa
PURPOSE: Aniridic keratopathy is vision-threatening condition in patients with aniridia. The keratopathy occurs due to limbal stem cell deficiency. When conventional treatments fail, surgical treatments such as corneal limbal transplantation or cultivated oral mucosal epithelium transplantation are the alternatives. Here, we report our experience with the management and monitoring of the progress of a case with aniridic keratopathy treated with a scleral lens. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 30-year-old woman with aniridic keratopathy in both eyes...
October 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Alicia M McConnell, Bindu Konda, David G Kirsch, Barry R Stripp
Exposure to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation occurs in a variety of situations, including charged particle radiotherapy, radiological accidents, and space travel. However, the extent of normal tissue injury in the lungs following high-LET radiation exposure is unknown. Here we show that exposure to high-LET radiation led to a prolonged loss of in vitro colony forming ability by airway epithelial progenitor cells. Furthermore, exposure to high-LET radiation induced clonal expansion of a subset of progenitor cells in the distal airway epithelium...
2016: Scientific Reports
Takako Tabata, Matthew Petitt, June Fang-Hoover, Martin Zydek, Lenore Pereira
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects, including microcephaly, neurological deficits, hearing impairment, and vision loss. We previously reported that epithelial cells in amniotic membranes of placentas from newborns with intrauterine growth restriction and underlying congenital HCMV infection contain viral proteins in cytoplasmic vesicles. Herein, we immunostained amniotic membranes from 51 placentas from symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital infection with HCMV DNA in amniotic fluid and/or newborn saliva, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm deliveries, and controls...
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Tiziana Vitagliano, Lucia Stella Curto, Antonio Greto Ciriaco, Pietro Gareri, Diego Ribuffo, Manfredi Greco
BACKGROUND: The lips are a common site prone to squamous cell carcinomas, which arise in the facial region. There are different techniques to reconstruct the excised lip region, according to dimensions, area, and position of the tumor. The authors describe a new technique of lip reconstruction born from a combination between a nasolabial flap and adipose tissue transplant. METHODS: The study was lead in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the University of Catanzaro...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Tamara L Lenis, Stephan Y Chiu, Simon K Law, Fei Yu, Anthony J Aldave
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of concurrent Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) and glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study of a consecutive cohort of patients. SUBJECTS: Patients who underwent KPro implantation by a single surgeon (A.J.A.) with or without 1 concurrent Ahmed GDD (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation between January 1, 2005, and January 31, 2015, were included...
September 7, 2016: Ophthalmology
Sead Chadi, Jacqueline Polyte, Lucas Lefevre, Johan Castille, Aude Ehanno, Johann Laubier, Florence Jaffrézic, Fabienne Le Provost
R-spondin1 (Rspo1) is a member of a secreted protein family which has pleiotropic functions in development and stem cell growth. Rspo1 knock-out mice are sex-reversed, but some remain sub-fertile, so they fail to nurse their pups. A lack of Rspo1 expression in the mammary gland results in an absence of duct side-branching development and defective alveolar formation. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and molecular alterations of mammary gland due to Rspo1 knock-out. Using the transcriptional profiling of mammary tissues, we identified misregulated genes in the mammary gland of Rspo1 knock-out mice during pregnancy...
2016: PloS One
Bennie H Jeng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Neil Ari Wijetunga, Miriam Ben-Dayan, Jessica Tozour, Robert D Burk, Nicolas F Schlecht, Mark H Einstein, John M Greally
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical carcinoma is preceded by stages of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) that can variably progress to malignancy. Understanding the different molecular processes involved in the progression of pre-malignant CIN is critical to the development of improved predictive and interventional capabilities. We tested the role of regulators of transcription in both the development and the progression of HPV-associated CIN, performing the most comprehensive genomic survey to date of DNA methylation in HPV-associated cervical neoplasia, testing ~2 million loci throughout the human genome in biopsies from 78 HPV+ women, identifying changes starting in early CIN and maintained through carcinogenesis...
August 19, 2016: Oncotarget
A Gheorghe, M Pop, M Burcea, M Serban
UNLABELLED: The new defined anatomical and functional complex conjunctiva-limbus-cornea is a new concept, which helps clinicians better understand and treat ocular surface pathologies. The management of the ocular surface disease has changed dramatically over the years, with spectacular improvements of techniques, and of course, results. The amniotic membrane, used as a graft or as a substrate for the cultivation of limbal corneal cells has showed encouraging results. AIM: To investigate the usefulness of amniotic membrane transplantation in ocular surface pathologies...
April 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
Carolina Aravena, Tahir Kansu Bozkurt, Fei Yu, Anthony J Aldave
PURPOSE: To report the long-term outcomes of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) in the management of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). METHODS: Retrospective review of KPro procedures performed by a single surgeon from May 1, 2004, to January 1, 2015. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-three KPro procedures were performed in 149 eyes, including 68 in 54 eyes with LSCD. Glaucoma (48% vs. 82%, P < 0.0001) and a history of ≥2 keratoplasties (39% vs...
September 2016: Cornea
Andrea Schnúr, Péter Hegyi, Simon Rousseau, Gergely L Lukacs, Guido Veit
The pivotal role of epithelial cells is to secrete and absorb ions and water in order to allow the formation of a luminal fluid compartment that is fundamental for the epithelial function as a barrier against environmental factors. Importantly, epithelial cells also take part in the innate immune system. As a first line of defense they detect pathogens and react by secreting and responding to chemokines and cytokines, thus aggravating immune responses or resolving inflammatory states. Loss of epithelial anion transport is well documented in a variety of diseases including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pancreatitis, and cholestatic liver disease...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
E Y Chu, B Tamasas, H Fong, B L Foster, M R LaCourse, A B Tran, J F Martin, B C Schutte, M J Somerman, T C Cox
Clefting of the lip, with or without palatal involvement (CLP), is associated with a higher incidence of developmental tooth abnormalities, including hypodontia and supernumerary teeth, aberrant crown and root morphologies, and enamel defects, although the underlying mechanistic link is poorly understood. As most CLP genes are expressed throughout the oral epithelium, the authors hypothesized that the expression of CLP genes may persist in the dental epithelium and thus, in addition to their earlier role in labiopalatine development, may play an important functional role in subsequent tooth patterning and amelogenesis...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Yu-Kuei Lee, Yen-Chun Lin, Shih-Hao Tsai, Wei-Li Chen, Yan-Ming Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of topical 20% autologous serum eye drops (ASEs) and silicone-hydrogel soft contact lenses (SCLs) for the treatment of corneal persistent epithelial defects (PEDs), and to compare the recurrence of epithelial breakdown with or without continuous use of ASEs after silicone-hydrogel SCLs removal. METHODS: We conducted a prospective interventional study of 21 eyes of 21 patients with PEDs treated with combined ASEs and silicone-hydrogel SCLs from September 2014 to August 2015...
June 24, 2016: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Anna Negroni, Eleonora Colantoni, Roberta Vitali, Francesca Palone, Maria Pierdomenico, Manuela Costanzo, Vincenzo Cesi, Salvatore Cucchiara, Laura Stronati
OBJECTIVE: The importance of autophagy in mechanisms underlying inflammation has been highlighted. Downstream effects of the bacterial sensor NOD2 include autophagy induction. Recently, a relationship between defects in autophagy and adherent/invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) persistence has emerged. The present study aims at investigating the interplay between autophagy, NOD2 and AIEC bacteria and assessing the expression level of autophagic proteins in intestinal biopsies of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
October 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Miguel M Leiva-Juárez, Hayden H Ware, Vikram V Kulkarni, Patrick A Zweidler-McKay, Michael J Tuvim, Scott E Evans
Despite widespread infection prevention efforts, pneumonia remains the leading cause of death among patients with acute leukemia, due to complex disease- and treatment-dependent immune defects. We have reported that a single inhaled treatment with a synergistic combination of Toll-like receptor 2/6 (TLR 2/6) and TLR9 agonists (Pam2-ODN) induces protective mucosal defenses in mice against a broad range of pathogens. As Pam2-ODN-induced protection persists despite depletion of several leukocyte populations, we tested whether it could prevent pneumonia in a mouse model of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remission induction therapy...
August 18, 2016: Blood
Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroshi Toshida, Yusuke Matsuzaki, Asaki Matsui, Toshihiko Ohta
OBJECTIVE: Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Denis Lee, Kathryn Norby, Mitchell Hayes, Ya-Fang Chiu, Bill Sugden, Paul F Lambert
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are associated with greater than 95% of cervical cancers and 20% of head and neck cancers. These cancers arise from persistent infections in which there is continued expression of the HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, often as a consequence of integration of HPV DNA into the host genome. Such cancers represent "dead ends" for the virus as integration disrupts the viral genome and because the cancers are defective in normal epithelial differentiation, which is required for production of progeny papillomavirus...
2016: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Marwan Raymond Atallah, Sotiria Palioura, Victor L Perez, Guillermo Amescua
Regeneration of the corneal surface after an epithelial insult involves division, migration, and maturation of a specialized group of stem cells located in the limbus. Several insults, both intrinsic and extrinsic, can precipitate destruction of the delicate microenvironment of these cells, resulting in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). In such cases, reepithelialization fails and conjunctival epithelium extends across the limbus, leading to vascularization, persistent epithelial defects, and chronic inflammation...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
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