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James T Todd, J Farley Norman
The present research was designed to examine how the presence or absence of ambient light influences the appearance of metal. The stimuli depicted three possible objects that were illuminated by three possible patterns of illumination. These were generated by a single point light source, two rectangular area lights, or projecting light onto a translucent white box that contained the object (and the camera) so that the object would be illuminated by ambient light in all directions. The materials were simulated using measured parameters of chrome with four different levels of roughness...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Vasiliki Zygoura, Itay Lavy, Robert M Verdijk, Diana Santander-García, Lamis Baydoun, Isabel Dapena, Gerrit R J Melles
PURPOSE: To report an unusual presentation of iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome associated with band keratopathy and its management with ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: A 57-year-old female patient presented with unilateral progressive painless visual impairment, corneal band keratopathy, and morphological corneal endothelial changes without corneal edema or any previous ophthalmic, medical, or family history...
April 17, 2018: Cornea
Yussif Saaka, Daniel T Allen, Yuvared Luangwitchajaroen, Yanan Shao, Richard A Campbell, Christian D Lorenz, M Jayne Lawrence
Surface tension and specular neutron reflectivity measurements have been used, for the first time to systematically study both the interfacial structure and composition of monolayers of the soluble surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate containing a low-dose, poorly water soluble drug, testosterone enanthate. Modelling of the specular neutron reflectivity data suggests that the hydrophobic testosterone enanthate was adsorbed in the C12 hydrophobic tail region of the surfactant monolayer, regardless of the concentration of surfactant at the interface and whether or not additional drug was added to the interface...
April 9, 2018: Soft Matter
Liang Li, Jian Liu, Yan Liu, Chenguang Liu, He Zhang, Xiaoyu You, Kang Gu, Yuhang Wang, Jiubin Tan
Reflected light escape and mesoscopic penetration are two serious problems for optical characterization using microscopes. For specular samples with steep slopes, the detector does not receive enough light and the detection algorithm is not be able to detect the peak position, and would generate non-measured points. Moreover, the mesoscopic penetration phenomenon has been ignored when measuring and observing the shapes of samples with multi-layer structures. But this phenomenon, due to the transparency of materials to certain wavelengths of light, may result in serious errors in the measurements of the heights of samples, as well as errors in the descriptions of their shapes...
April 6, 2018: Nanoscale
Jameson Clover, Amy Ansin, Christopher G Stoeger, Mark A Terry, Khoa D Tran
PURPOSE: To compare tissue evaluation times and specular image quality before and after the implementation of rapid tissue warming at a single eye bank. METHODS: This retrospective study compares the evaluation of 494 donor corneas. All corneas were stored in Optisol-GS. Group 1 contained 247 corneas evaluated immediately before implementation of a tissue incubator and tissue warming protocol. Group 2 contained 247 corneas evaluated immediately after implementation...
April 4, 2018: Cornea
Muhammad Shaheer, Arooj Amjad, Nasir Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To compare mean endothelial cell loss in patients of primary open angle glaucoma undergoing trabeculectomy with and without mitomycin C. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Institute of Ophthalmology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from May 2016 to April 2017. METHODOLOGY: Patients with primary open angle glaucoma, not controlled with medication, were selected from the outpatient department...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Timo Aho, Mircea Guina, Farid Elsehrawy, Federica Cappelluti, Marianna Raappana, Antti Tukiainen, A B M Khairul Alam, Ismo Vartiainen, Markku Kuittinen, Tapio Niemi
We report on the fabrication of diffraction gratings for application as back contact reflectors. The gratings are designed for thin-film solar cells incorporating absorbers with bandgap slightly lower than GaAs, i.e. InAs quantum dot or GaInNAs solar cells. Light trapping in the solar cells enables the increase of the absorption leading to higher short circuit current densities and higher efficiencies. We study metal/polymer back reflectors with half-sphere, blazed, and pyramid gratings, which were fabricated either by photolithography or by nanoimprint lithography...
March 19, 2018: Optics Express
Artur Glavic, Jochen Stahn
Structure and magnetism at surfaces and buried interfaces on the nanoscale can only be accessed by few techniques, one of which is grazing incidence neutron scattering. While the technique has its strongest limitation in a low signal and large background, due to the low scattering probability and need for high resolution, it can be expected that the high intensity of the European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden, will make many more such studies possible, warranting a dedicated beamline for this technique...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Mélodie Derome, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Deborah Badoud, Larisa Morosan, Dimitri Van De Ville, François Lazeyras, Stephan Eliez, Raymond Chan, David Rudrauf, Sophie Schwartz, Martin Debbane
The mirror-gazing task (MGT) experimentally induces illusions, ranging from simple color changes in the specular image of oneself, to depersonalization-like anomalous self-experiences (ASE) as in experiencing one's specular image as someone else. The objective was to characterize how connectivity in resting-state networks (RSNs) differed in adolescents reporting such depersonalization-like ASEs during the MGT, in a cross-sectional (Y1) and in a longitudinal manner (a year after). 75 adolescents were recruited; for the cross-sectional analysis, participants were split into 2 groups: those who reported depersonalization-like ASEs on the MGT (ASE), and those who did not (NoASE)...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Stelian Pintea, Wester de Poel, Aryan E F de Jong, Roberto Felici, Elias Vlieg
The structure of the solid-liquid interface formed by muscovite mica in contact with two divalent ionic solutions (SrCl2 and BaCl2) is determined using in situ surface X-ray diffraction using both specular and non-specular crystal truncation rods. The 0.5 monolayer of monovalent potassium present at the surface after cleavage is replaced by approximately 0.25 monolayer of divalent ions, closely corresponding to ideal charge compensation within the Stern layer in both cases. The adsorption site of the divalent ions is determined to be in the surface ditrigonal cavities with minor out-of-plane relaxations that are consistent with their ionic radii...
March 22, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sara Moccia, Gabriele O Vanone, Elena De Momi, Andrea Laborai, Luca Guastini, Giorgio Peretti, Leonardo S Mattos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early-stage diagnosis of laryngeal cancer is of primary importance to reduce patient morbidity. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is commonly used for screening purposes, reducing the risks linked to a biopsy but at the cost of some drawbacks, such as large amount of data to review to make the diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to present a strategy to perform automatic selection of informative endoscopic video frames, which can reduce the amount of data to process and potentially increase diagnosis performance...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Takumi Hamasaki, Yuta Itoh, Yuichi Hiroi, Daisuke Iwai, Maki Sugimoto
Spatial augmented reality (SAR) pursues realism in rendering materials and objects. To advance this goal, we propose a hybrid SAR (HySAR) that combines a projector with optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMD). In an ordinary SAR scenario with co-located viewers, the viewers perceive the same virtual material on physical surfaces. In general, the material consists of two components: a view-independent (VI) component such as diffuse reflection, and a view-dependent (VD) component such as specular reflection...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Dan-Mircea Stănilă, Andreea-Maria Florea, Adriana Stănilă, Alina Adriana Panga
Introduction: The phacoemulsification cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgery and it generally improves vision in over 90% of the patients. Hyperopic patients are a challenge during phacoemulsification especially because of their short eyeball and shallow anterior chamber. A shallow anterior chamber is associated with overall reduction of the safe zone, which may lead to difficulty in creating the corneal incisions, harder capsulorhexis performing, or endothelial complications...
October 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Sevil Karaman Erdur, Goktug Demirci, Funda Dikkaya, Mehmet Selim Kocabora, Mustafa Ozsutcu
BACKGROUND: To determine the agreement of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements taken with ultrasonic pachymetry (USP), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and noncontact specular microscopy (NSM). METHODS: A prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was performed in the outpatient ophthalmology clinic. CCT was measured in a total of 147 eyes of 147 consecutive healthy patients with USP, NSM, and SD-OCT. Same examiner performed all examinations...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Chao Zhang, Peter Huthwaite, Michael Lowe
A common location for cracks to appear is at the surface of a component; at the near surface, many nondestructive evaluation techniques are available to inspect for these, but at the far surface this is much more challenging. Ultrasonic imaging is proposed to enable far surface defect detection, location, and characterization. One specific challenge here is the presence of a strong reflection from the backwall, which can often mask the relatively small response from a defect. In this paper, the factorization method (FM) is explored for the application of subsurface imaging of the surface-breaking cracks...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Sanna Kaasalainen, Markku Åkerblom, Olli Nevalainen, Teemu Hakala, Mikko Kaasalainen
Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an emerging technology. Several manufacturers already offer commercial dual or three wavelength airborne laser scanners, while multispectral TLS is still carried out mainly with research instruments. Many of these research efforts have focused on the study of vegetation. The aim of this paper is to study the uncertainty of the measurement of spectral indices of vegetation with multispectral lidar. Using two spectral indices as examples, we find that the uncertainty is due to systematic errors caused by the wavelength dependency of laser incidence angle effects...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
L Pradipkanti, Dillip K Satapathy
We study desorption of water from a confined biopolymer (chitosan thin films) by employing temperature dependent specular X-ray reflectivity and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The water desorption is found to occur via three distinct stages with significantly different desorption rates. The distinct rates of water desorption are attributed to the presence of different kinds of water with disparate mobilities inside the biopolymer film. We identify two characteristic temperatures (Tc1 and Tc2 ) at which the water desorption rate changes abruptly...
March 1, 2018: Soft Matter
Qamar Ul Islam, Mohammad Asim Mehboob, Zulfiqar Ali Amin
Objective: To compare corneal morphological parameters between diabetics and age matched non-diabetic control subjects and to evaluate the correlation of these parameters in relation to duration of diabetes mellitus (DM), glycemic status and severity of diabetic retinopathy.(DR). Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, PNS Shifa Karachi from February 2016 to January 2017. Patients with ages between 10 to 80 years of either gender who were diagnosed to have DM were recruited in the study...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Weng Hon Lee, Adrian Tey, Kevin Gales, Hardeep Singh Mudhar, Francisco C Figueiredo
AIM: To describe a cohort of patients with irreversible unilateral bullous keratopathy (BK) of undetermined aetiology. METHOD: Retrospective, single-centre case series in a tertiary corneal referral centre. RESULTS: Eleven consecutive patients (nine females; mean age 71.7 years) presented from 1999 to 2009 with acute onset unilateral visual loss. At presentation, the best-corrected visual acuity of the affected eyes was 6/9 or worse with mean central corneal thickness (CCT) of 684 (SD 66) μm...
February 26, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Anju Rastogi, Samreen Khanam, Yashpal Goel, Prolima Thacker, Prateek Kumar
Purpose: To evaluate the rotational stability of toric intraocular lens (IOL) when co-implanted with a capsular tension ring (CTR) as compared to that of a toric IOL without a CTR. Methods: This was a prospective randomized clinical trial performed in a tertiary care centre in India. Fifty adult human eyes with visually significant cataract and regular corneal astigmatism ≥1.5D divided into two groups of 25 eyes each, A and B by simple randomization. Eyes with corneal pathology, lens subluxation, and a specular endothelial cell count <2000/mm2 were excluded from the study...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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