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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335330/carbon-nanotube-cnt-honeycomb-cell-area-dependent-optical-reflectance
#1
Junthorn Udorn, Akimitsu Hatta, Hiroshi Furuta
The relationship between the physical structure of carbon nanotube (CNT) honeycomb structures and their total, diffuse, and specular reflectance is investigated for the first time. It is found that CNT honeycomb structures with average cell areas of smaller than 30 μm² show a higher total reflectance. Particularly, a thinner, highly packed CNT (buckypaper) film, along with a larger wall height and higher ratio of wall height to cell area, markedly increase the total reflectance for cell areas smaller than 30 μm², which means that a higher total area of buckypapers in CNT walls and bottom areas increases the total reflectance, including the diffuse reflectance...
November 7, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325898/experimental-evidence-suggests-that-specular-reflectance-and-glossy-appearance-help-amplify-warning-signals
#2
Samuel J Waldron, John A Endler, Janne K Valkonen, Atsushi Honma, Susanne Dobler, Johanna Mappes
Specular reflection appears as a bright spot or highlight on any smooth glossy convex surface and is caused by a near mirror-like reflectance off the surface. Convex shapes always provide the ideal geometry for highlights, areas of very strong reflectance, regardless of the orientation of the surface or position of the receiver. Despite highlights and glossy appearance being common in chemically defended insects, their potential signalling function is unknown. We tested the role of highlights in warning colouration of a chemically defended, alpine leaf beetle, Oreina cacaliae...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306601/assessing-the-impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-donor-corneal-endothelial-cell-density
#3
Chase A Liaboe, Benjamin T Aldrich, Pamela C Carter, Jessica M Skeie, Kimberlee A Burckart, Gregory A Schmidt, Cynthia R Reed, M Bridget Zimmerman, Mark A Greiner
PURPOSE: To quantify changes in endothelial cell density (ECD) of donor corneal tissue in relation to the presence or absence of a medical history of diabetes mellitus diagnosis, treatment, and complications. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for all corneas collected at Iowa Lions Eye Bank between January 2012 and December 2015. For purposes of analysis, donor corneas were divided into 4 groups: nondiabetic, non-insulin-dependent diabetic, insulin-dependent diabetic without medical complications due to diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetic with medical complications due to diabetes...
March 16, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292776/comparison-of-corneal-endothelial-cell-density-and-morphology-after-posterior-chamber-phakic-intraocular-lens-implantation-with-and-without-a-central-hole
#4
Hiroyasu Goukon, Kazutaka Kamiya, Kimiya Shimizu, Akihito Igarashi
AIM: To compare the corneal endothelial cells after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens with and without a central hole (hole implantable collamer lens (ICL) and conventional ICL) implantation for the correction of moderate to high myopia. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 34 eyes of 34 patients who underwent hole ICL implantation and 25 eyes of 25 patients who underwent conventional ICL implantation. Preoperatively and 3 months, and 1 and 2 years postoperatively, we compared the central corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), coefficient of variation in cell size (CV) and the percentage of hexagonal cells (HEX) between the two groups using a non-contact specular microscope (EM-3000, Tomey)...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289998/slim-slit-lamp-image-mosaicing-handling-reflection-artifacts
#5
Kristina Prokopetc, Adrien Bartoli
PURPOSE: The slit lamp is an essential instrument for eye care. It is used in navigated laser treatment with retina mosaicing to assist diagnosis. Specifics of the imaging setup introduce bothersome illumination artifacts. They not only degrade the quality of the mosaic but may also affect the diagnosis. Existing solutions in SLIM manage to deal with strong glares which corrupt the retinal content entirely while leaving aside the correction of semitransparent specular highlights and lens flare...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287975/rendering-rough-opaque-materials-with-interfaced-lambertian-microfacets
#6
Daniel Meneveaux, Benjamin Bringier, Emmanuelle Tauzia, Mickael Ribardiere, Lionel Simonot
Specular microfacet distributions have been successfully employed by many authors for representing glossiness of materials. They are generally combined with a Lambertian term to account for the colored aspect. These representations make use of the Fresnel reflectance factor at the interface, but the transmission factor at the interface should also be managed. One solution is to employ a multi-layered model with a single layer for the rough interface, which requires a numerical simulation for handling the multiple reflections of light between the substrate and the interface...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280298/corneal-endothelium-and-central-corneal-thickness-changes-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Amira El-Agamy, Shams Alsubaie
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare the corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), morphological features, and central corneal thickness (CCT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with age-matched, nondiabetic control subjects using EM-3000 Specular Microscope. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, hospital-based, nonrandomized, case-control, observational, and quantitative study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 57 patients (57 eyes) with type 2 DM and 45 control (nondiabetic) subjects (45 eyes)...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278471/a-geometric-model-for-specularity-prediction-on-planar-surfaces-with-multiple-light-sources
#8
Alexandre Morgand, Mohamed Tamaazousti, Adrien Bartoli
Specularities are often problematic in computer vision since they impact the dynamic range of the image intensity. A natural approach would be to predict and discard them using computer graphics models. However, these models depend on parameters which are difficult to estimate (light sources, objects' material properties and camera). We present a geometric model called JOLIMAS: JOint LIght-MAterial Specularity, which predicts the shape of specularities. JOLIMAS is reconstructed from images of specularities observed on a planar surface...
March 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268563/automated-morphometric-description-of-human-corneal-endothelium-from-in-vivo-specular-and-confocal-microscopy
#9
F Scarpa, A Ruggeri
Corneal images acquired by in-vivo specular and confocal microscopy provide clinical information on the cornea endothelium health state. Indeed, the normal hexagonal shape of endothelial cells is usually affected by age and pathologies. At present, the analysis is based on manual or semi-automatic methods and the segmentation of a large number of endothelial cells is required for a meaningful estimation of the clinical parameters. We propose an automated method that detects the centers of endothelial cells by convolving the original image with customized two-dimensional kernels, derives a structure made by connected vertices from the recognized centers using the Euclidean distance, and fine-tunes the derived structure through a genetic algorithm, which combines information about the typical regularity of endothelial cells shape with the pixels intensity of the actual image...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268539/adaptive-segmentation-and-mask-specific-sobolev-inpainting-of-specular-highlights-for-endoscopic-images
#10
Samar M Alsaleh, Angelica I Aviles, Pilar Sobrevilla, Alicia Casals, James K Hahn
Minimally invasive surgical and diagnostic systems rely on endoscopic images of internal organs to assist medical tasks. Specular highlights are common on those images due to the strong reflectivity of the mucus layer on the organs and the relatively high intensity of the light source. This is a significant source of error that can affect the systems' performance. In this paper, we propose a segmentation method of the specular regions based on an automatic color-adaptive threshold and a gradient-based edge detector...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266854/relationship-between-structure-and-fluctuations-of-lipid-non-lamellar-phases-deposited-at-the-solid-liquid-interface
#11
Tommy Nylander, Olaf Soltwedel, Marina Ganeva, Christopher Hirst, James A Holdaway, Marianna Yanez Arteta, Maria Wadsäter, Justas Barauskas, Henrich Frielinghaus, Olaf Holderer
The structure and dynamics in nano-structures films formed by mixtures of soy phosphatidylcholine (s-PC) and glycerol dioleate (GDO) at the silicon-aqueous interface were studied by grazing incidence neutron spin echo spectroscopy (GINSES), specular and off-specular neutron reflectometry and small angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD). Reverse hexagonal (HII) and micellar cubic phase (Fd3m) layers at the solid/liquid interface have been identified with neutron reflectometry measurements. Only for the anisotropic HII phase orientation of the liquid crystalline domains was observed...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257386/rapid-warming-of-donor-corneas-is-safe-and-improves-specular-image-quality
#12
Khoa D Tran, Jameson Clover, Amy Ansin, Christopher G Stoeger, Mark A Terry
PURPOSE: To determine whether warming donor corneas to near-physiological temperatures can safely shorten warming times while providing high-quality specular images during tissue evaluation. METHODS: Mated corneas were warmed at room temperature (RT) or at 35°C for 4 hours upon removal from cold storage. Specular images and endothelial cell densities were acquired and rated every hour. Additional mated corneas were subjected to 2 rounds of 4-hour incubation at either RT or 35°C...
March 1, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254359/accuracy-of-cirrus-hd-oct-and-topcon-sp-3000p-for-measuring-central-corneal-thickness
#13
Jorge A Calvo-Sanz, Javier Ruiz-Alcocer, Miguel A Sánchez-Tena
PURPOSE: To compare and analyze the interchangeability of three measuring systems, each based on a different technique, for central corneal thickness (CCT) analysis. METHODS: CCT measurements were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT), non-contact specular microscopy (NCSM), and ultrasonic pachymetry (USP) in 60 eyes of 60 healthy patients with a mean age of 66.5±15.0 years and a mean spherical equivalent of 0.43±1.14 D. Analysis of variations in measurement concordance and correlation among the three different methods were performed...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252399/specular-reflection-separation-with-color-lines-constraint
#14
Weihong Ren, Jiandong Tian, Yandong Tang
According to dichromatic reflection model, the previous methods of specular reflection separation in image processing often separate specular reflection from a single image using patch-based priors. Due to lack of global information, these methods often can't completely separate the specular component of an image and are incline to degrade image textures. In this paper, we derive a global color-lines constraint from dichromatic reflection model to effectively recover specular and diffuse reflection. Our key observation is from that each image pixel lies along a color line in normalized RGB space and the different color lines representing distinct diffuse chromaticities intersect at one point, namely the illumination chromaticity...
February 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251080/clinical-results-of-non-descemet-stripping-endothelial-keratoplasty
#15
Tao Zhang, Shao-Wei Li, Tie-Hong Chen, Jing-Liang He, Yan-Wei Kang, Fang-Qi Lyu, Jian-Hua Ning, Chang Liu
AIM: To investigate the impact of non-Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (non-DSEK) on graft rejection rate, and its overall procedural effectiveness in patients. METHODS: Non-DSEK was performed on 65 eyes of 64 patients, and the procedural outcomes, including rejection episodes, failure and dislocation of the grafts, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), and other complications, were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the 65 eyes, 63 recovered from bullous keratopathy with a clear cornea...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245503/contextual-effects-on-real-bicolored-glossy-surfaces
#16
Sabrina Hansmann-Roth, Sylvia C Pont, Pascal Mamassian
The material property of glossiness, which is attributed to many objects in our daily life, is physically independent of the objects' color. However, perceived glossiness can change with the contrast between the highlight and the area around the specular highlight. Hitherto, experiments mainly investigated gloss on unicolored surfaces. It is well known that the context in which a surface is embedded can influence its perceived lightness. Here we investigated whether similar contextual effects exist also for gloss perception by presenting single surfaces containing two different colors...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244295/safety-of-using-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-in-experimental-glaucoma-filtration-surgery
#17
Wool Suh, Kyung Eun Han, Jae Ryong Han
We evaluated the safety of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor in experimental glaucoma filtration surgery in an animal model. Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits underwent an experimental trabeculectomy and were randomly allocated into 3 groups according to the adjuvant agent: no treatment group (n = 5), 0.02% mitomycin C (MMC) soaking group (n = 5), and MMP inhibitor (ilomastat) subconjunctival injection group (n = 5). Slit lamp examination with Seidel testing, pachymetry, and specular microscopy was performed preoperatively and postoperatively...
April 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239829/comparison-of-anterior-segment-parameter-values-obtained-with-scheimpflug-placido-topographer-optical-low-coherence-reflectometry-and-noncontact-specular-microscopy-in-morbid-obesity
#18
B Dogan, U Dogan, M K Erol, M Habibi, M T Oruc
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the measurement of anterior segment parameters using Sirius Scheimpflug-Placido topographer, Lenstar optical low coherence reflectometry (OLCR), and noncontact specular microscopy (SM) in morbidly obese and nonobese subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight morbidly obese subjects (BMI ≥ 40; Group 1) and 28 age- sex-matched healthy nonobese subjects (BMI 18.50-24.99; Group 2) were included in this study. Anterior segment parameters were measured by Scheimpflug-Placido topographer and OLCR...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237147/corneal-endothelial-cell-loss-after-pars-plana-vitrectomy-and-combined-phacoemulsification-vitrectomy-surgeries
#19
Keyvan Koushan, Mikel Mikhail, Anne Beattie, Nina Ahuja, Allan Liszauer, Lawrence Kobetz, Forough Farrokhyar, James A Martin
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) loss in eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), or combination of cataract extraction (using phacoemulsification) and intraocular lens implantation with vitrectomy (CE/IOL-PPV) surgeries. METHODS: Institutional setting. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and ECD by specular microscopy were measured preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively in both groups. Relative postoperative ECD loss was the primary outcome measure...
February 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226740/automated-morphometric-description-of-human-corneal-endothelium-from-in-vivo-specular-and-confocal-microscopy
#20
F Scarpa, A Ruggeri, F Scarpa, A Ruggeri, A Ruggeri, F Scarpa
Corneal images acquired by in-vivo specular and confocal microscopy provide clinical information on the cornea endothelium health state. Indeed, the normal hexagonal shape of endothelial cells is usually affected by age and pathologies. At present, the analysis is based on manual or semi-automatic methods and the segmentation of a large number of endothelial cells is required for a meaningful estimation of the clinical parameters. We propose an automated method that detects the centers of endothelial cells by convolving the original image with customized two-dimensional kernels, derives a structure made by connected vertices from the recognized centers using the Euclidean distance, and fine-tunes the derived structure through a genetic algorithm, which combines information about the typical regularity of endothelial cells shape with the pixels intensity of the actual image...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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