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Kumiko Kato, Mineo Kondo, Ryunosuke Nagashima, Asako Sugawara, Masahiko Sugimoto, Hisashi Matsubara, Daphne L McCulloch, Kengo Ikesugi
Purpose: A small, full-field flicker electroretinogram (ERG) recording system was recently developed to record flicker ERGs without mydriasis (RETeval). The device delivers a stimulus with constant retinal illuminance by adjusting the retinal luminance to compensate for changes in the pupillary area. The purpose of this study was to determine what factors affect the fundamental components of the flicker ERGs recorded by RETeval in young healthy subjects. Methods: Flicker ERGs were recorded with the RETeval system from 150 eyes of 150 young healthy subjects (age, 20-29 years)...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Magda Mahmoud Samy, Yasmine Maher Shaaban, Tamer Abdel Fattah Badran
Is to measure the corneal epithelial thickness (CET) in a group of healthy Egyptian population and to investigate its variation with age and sex using spectral domain-anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SD-AS-OCT).This cross-sectional observational study includes 240 eyes of 120 healthy individuals (60 men, 60 women). Each gender was divided into 4 equal groups according to age as follows (18-29 years), (30-44 years), (45-59 years), and (60-80 years). The CET in 17 points over a corneal diameter of 6...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shuqing Zhang, Luyang Zhou, Changxi Xue, Lei Wang
Compound eyes offer a promising field of miniaturized imaging systems. In one application of a compound eye, superposition of compound eye systems forms a composite image by superposing the images produced by different channels. The geometric configuration of superposition compound eye systems is achieved by three micro-lens arrays with different pitches and focal lengths. High resolution is indispensable for the practicability of superposition compound eye systems. In this paper, hybrid diffractive-refractive lenses are introduced into the design of a compound eye system for this purpose...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Christoph Gerhard, Daniel Tasche, Olivier Uteza, Jörg Hermann
We report on investigations of the spatial variations of contamination, roughness, and index of refraction of classically manufactured polished fused silica surfaces. Therefore, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to probe surface and subsurface impurities via the detection of aluminum. Measurements at different positions on the surface of the cylindrical fused silica windows evidenced an almost contamination-free center region, whereas a relatively large contamination area was found close to the edge...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Jinying Li, Ke Chen, Qi Peng, Zhongke Wang, Yang Jiang, Chengyu Fu, Ge Ren
Risley prisms appear to be a promising solution to high-accuracy pointing and tracking. To improve the pointing accuracy of achromatic Risley prisms, an appropriate mathematical model is established, and the forward and inverse solutions are proposed. Focusing on the sources of systematic errors, an optimization method based on a genetic algorithm is proposed to identify the parameters of the physical model, including wedge angles, refractive indexes, and installations. Finally, the experimental platform is established...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Saeed Abdolhosseini, Reza Kohandani, Hassan Kaatuzian
This paper represents the influences of temperature and hydrostatic pressure variations on GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well slow light systems based on coherence population oscillations. An analytical model in non-integer dimension space is used to study the considerable effects of these parameters on optical properties of the slow light apparatus. Exciton oscillator strength and fractional dimension constants have special roles on the analytical model in fractional dimension. Hence, the impacts of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on exciton oscillator strength and fractional dimension quantity are investigated theoretically in this paper...
September 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Guowen An, Xiaopeng Hao, Shuguang Li, Xin Yan, Xuenan Zhang
A type of D-shaped photonic crystal fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed for refractive index sensing and analyzed by the finite element method. The SPR effect between surface plasmon polariton modes and fiber core modes of the designed D-shaped photonic crystal fiber is used to measure the refractive index of the analyte. Numerical results show that the sensor can detect a range of refractive index ranging from 1.33 to 1.38. When the thickness of metal film is t=20  nm, the maximum sensitivity of 10,493  nm/RIU is obtained with a very high resolution of 9...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Satoshi Tomioka, Shusuke Nishiyama, Naoki Miyamoto, Daichi Kando, Samia Heshmat
Interferometric tomography can reconstruct 3D refractive-index distributions through phase-shift measurements for different beam angles. To reconstruct a complex refractive-index distribution, many projections along different directions are required. For the purpose of increasing the number of the projections, we earlier proposed a beam-angle-controllable interferometer with mechanical stages; however, the quality of reconstructed distribution by conventional algorithms was poor because the background fringes cannot be precisely controlled...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Rui Lü, Xingna Yu, Hailing Jia, Sihan Xiao
Ground-based characteristics (optical, type, size, and radiative properties) of aerosols measured between 2005 and 2012 were investigated over the Taihu rim region, which encompasses the cities of Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a distinct seasonal variation with the highest value in summer and the lowest AOD in winter. There was broadest frequency distribution with a multimodal structure in summer. The Ångström exponent (AE) showed high values during spring; the relative frequency of AE in the range of 0-0...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Niklas Kröger, Jochen Schlobohm, Andreas Pösch, Eduard Reithmeier
In Michelson interferometer setups the standard way to generate different optical path lengths between a measurement arm and a reference arm relies on expensive high precision linear stages such as piezo actuators. We present an alternative approach based on the refraction of light at optical interfaces using a cheap stepper motor with high gearing ratio to control the rotation of a glass plate. The beam path is examined and a relation between angle of rotation and change in optical path length is devised. As verification, an experimental setup is presented, and reconstruction results from a measurement standard are shown...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Tadayuki Imai, Masahiro Ueno, Yuzo Sasaki, Tadashi Sakamoto
The potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) optical beam deflector is an electro-optic deflector without any moving parts that works at frequencies higher than 200 kHz. In this paper, we discuss the performance parameters of this deflector. Optical beams are bent by the spatial distribution of the refractive index in the KTN crystal block used in this deflector. In addition to the deflection function, the index distribution operates as a cylindrical convex lens. Therefore, the deflector is often used with glass cylindrical lenses to cancel out the lens function...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Huijie Zhao, Zheng Ji, Guorui Jia, Ying Zhang, Yansong Li, Daming Wang
Mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) thermal imaging spectrometers are widely used in remote sensing, industrial detection, and military applications. The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based spectrometer has the advantages of fast tuning, light weight, and no moving parts, which make it ideally suited for MWIR applications. However, when designing an AOTF imaging spectrometer, the traditional method uses a refractive grating or parallel glass model in optical design software to simulate the AOTF, lowering the imaging performance of the optical system...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yoshimasa Suzuki, Mayumi Odaira, Hisashi Ohde, Yoshimasa Kawata
We have presented a simple approach for quantitative phase imaging by optimizing asymmetric illumination of a conventional microscope. With this illumination, the light intensity modulation accompanying refraction at the surface profile of phase objects occurs, and "phase-gradient information" can be derived by detecting it. Two images with phase-gradient information on different axes are converted into the two-dimensional phase distribution of the specimen by introducing the phase-gradient transfer function, which is the intensity change due to refraction by the phase-gradient of a specimen...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Antonín Mikš, Pavel Novák
The paper is focused on the problem of determination of the point of incidence of a light ray for the case of reflection or refraction at the spherical optical surface, assuming that two fixed points in space that the sought light ray should go through are given. The requirement is that one of these points lies on the incident ray and the other point on the reflected/refracted ray. Although at first glance it seems to be a simple problem, it will be shown that it has no simple analytical solution. The basic idea of the solution is given, and it is shown that the problem leads to a nonlinear equation in one variable...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Omar Vázquez-Estrada, Augusto García-Valenzuela
The main objective of this paper is to endorse a recently derived theoretical model for the coherent reflectance and transmittance from a surface supporting a disordered monolayer of large and tenuous particles by comparison with experimental measurements. The model is based on the so-called anomalous-diffraction approximation and is assumed to be valid for small and moderate angles of incidence. We prepared disordered monolayers of spherical polystyrene particles of 1.8 μm diameter and of human red blood cells on glass microscope slides...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Xiaoli Qiao, Xinming Zhang, Jiaojiao Ren, Dandan Zhang, Guohua Cao, Lijuan Li
The wavelet-domain de-noising technique has many applications in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). However, it requires a complex procedure for the selection of the optimal wavelet basis and threshold, which varies for different materials. Inappropriate selections can lead to de-noising failure. Here, we propose the Mean Estimation Empirical Mode Decomposition (ME-EMD) de-noising method for THz-TDS. First, the THz-TDS signal and the collected reference noise are decomposed into the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs); second, the maximum and mean absolute values of the noise IMF amplitudes are calculated and defined as the adaptive threshold and adaptive estimated noise value, respectively; finally, these thresholds and estimated noise values are utilized to filter the noise from the signal IMFs and reconstruct the THz-TDS signal...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Ai Hosoki, Michiko Nishiyama, Kazuhiro Watanabe
This paper reports the effect of applying an Au island film to the hetero-core structured optical fiber, which is fabricated by annealing thin Au films with thicknesses of 3 and 5 nm and its sensing performance for the refractive index changes. We experimentally observe that novel localized surface plasmon resonance spectra for 1.333 RIU appear in the visible-to-near-infrared region, depending on the shape of Au islands. The absorbance and spectral sensitivity for a given refractive index region of the tested solvents were obtained to be 4...
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
N Pauly, F Yubero, J P Espinós, S Tougaard
Optical properties and electronic transitions of four oxides, namely zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide, are determined in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy using primary electron energies in the range 0.3-2.0 keV. This technique allows the evaluation of the optical response in these ultraviolet spectral regions of a thin layer of material, and the analysis is straightforward. It is performed within the dielectric response theory by means of the QUEELS-ε(k, ω)-REELS software developed by Tougaard and Yubero [Surf...
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
R M A Azzam
A quarter-wave layer (QWL) of high refractive index, which is deposited on a transparent prism of low refractive index, can be designed to split an incident p-polarized light beam at the Brewster angle (BA) of the air-substrate interface into p-polarized reflected and transmitted beams of equal intensity (50% each) that travel in orthogonal directions. For reflection of p-polarized light at the BA, the supported QWL functions as a free-standing (unsupported) pellicle. An exemplary design is presented that uses SixGe1-x QWL deposited on an IRTRAN1 prism for applications (such as Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometry) with a variable compositional fraction x in the 2-6 μm mid-IR spectral range...
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Haiyu Meng, Lingling Wang, Guidong Liu, Xiongxiong Xue, Qi Lin, Xiang Zhai
We numerically investigate the optical performance of a periodically patterned H-shaped graphene array by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) in the mid-infrared region. The simulated results reveal that absorption spectra of the proposed structure consist of two dramatic narrowband perfect absorption peaks located at 6.3 μm (Mode 1) and 8.6 μm (Mode 2) with high absorption coefficients of 99.65% and 99.80%, respectively. Two impressive absorption bandwidths that are the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the resonant frequency of 90 nm and 188 nm are obtained...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
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