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Yu Qian, Xiaohua Cui, Zhigang Zheng
The investigation of self-sustained oscillations in excitable complex networks is very important in understanding various activities in brain systems, among which the exploration of the key determinants of oscillations is a challenging task. In this paper, by investigating the influence of system parameters on self-sustained oscillations in excitable Erdös-Rényi random networks (EERRNs), the minimum Winfree loop (MWL) is revealed to be the key factor in determining the emergence of collective oscillations...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu-Mi Lee, Chae-Myeong Ha, Se-A Kim, Themis Thoudam, Young-Ran Yoon, Dae-Jung Kim, Hyeon-Chang Kim, Hyo-Bang Moon, Sungmi Park, In-Kyu Lee, Duk-Hee Lee
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have emerged as a new risk factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated whether chronic exposure to low-dose POPs affects insulin secretory function of beta-cells in humans and in vitro cells. Serum concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were measured in 200 nondiabetic adults. Mathematical-model-based insulin secretion indices were estimated using a 2-hour 7-sample oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion by INS1E beta-cells was measured after 48-hour treatment with 3 OCPs or a PCB mixture...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes
Marie Bigot, Darryl W Hawker, Roger Cropp, Derek C G Muir, Bjarne Jensen, Rossana Bossi, Susan Bengtson Nash
Complementary sampling of air, snow, sea-ice and seawater for a range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was undertaken through the early stages of respective spring sea-ice melting at coastal sites in northeast Greenland and eastern Antarctica to investigate OCP concentrations and redistribution during this time. Mean concentrations in seawater, sea-ice and snow were generally greater at the Arctic site. For example, α-HCH was found to have the largest concentrations of all analytes in Arctic seawater and sea-ice meltwater samples (224 to 253 and 34...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Marilyne Pflieger, Petra Makorič, Manca Kovač Viršek, Špela Koren
Plastic resin pellets, categorized as microplastics (≤5 mm in diameter), are small granules that can be unintentionally released to the environment during manufacturing and transport. Because of their environmental persistence, they are widely distributed in the oceans and on beaches all over the world. They can act as a vector of potentially toxic organic compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls) and might consequently negatively affect marine organisms. Their possible impacts along the food chain are not yet well understood...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hansjörg Grützmacher, Riccardo Suter, Zoltán Benkö, Mark Bispinghoff
Phosphorus heterocycles find applications in the synthesis of π-conjugated compounds and as precursors for optoelectronic materials such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), electronic switches, and transistors. We report a high yield, one pot synthesis of anionic annulated 1,3,4-azadiphospholides from Na(OCP) and 2-chloro pyridines. The synthesis proceeds without the use of transition metals and tolerates a wide range of substrates. Cyano-substituted compounds are especially deeply colored and have absorption maxima which range from λmax = 525 to 596 nm...
July 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Tomasz M Ciesielski, Ingunn Tjelta Hansen, Jenny Bytingsvik, Martin Hansen, Elisabeth Lie, Jon Aars, Bjørn M Jenssen, Bjarne Styrishave
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Congcong Cao, Xue Xu, Bing Shi, Qian Zheng, Jingtao Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the craniofacial morphology of unoperated adult submucous cleft palate (SMCP) patients and to explore the possible correlation between the intrinsic growth insufficiency of the maxillofacial complex and the severity of the cleft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 unoperated SMCP patients, 20 unoperated overt cleft palate (OCP) patients, and 32 normal controls, ages between 18 and 30, were included for cephalometric analysis...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Tanvi Singh, Dileep K Singh
Rapid increase in industrialization of world economy in the past century has resulted in significantly high emission of anthropogenic chemicals in the ecosystem. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a great risk to the global environment and endanger the human health due to their affinity for dispersion, transportation over long distances, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Phytoremediation is a promising technology that aims to make use of plants and associated bacteria for the treatment of groundwater and soil polluted by these contaminants...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Tomotsumi Fujisawa, Ryan L Leverenz, Momoka Nagamine, Cheryl A Kerfeld, Masashi Unno
The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) plays an important role in photoprotection in cyanobacteria, which is achieved by the photoconversion from the orange dark state (OCPO) to the red active state (OCPR). Using Raman optical activity (ROA), we studied the conformations of the carotenoid chromophore in the active sites of OCPO and OCPR. This ROA measurement directly observed the chromophore conformation of native OCP in solution, and the measurement of OCPR first demonstrated the ROA spectroscopy for the transient species...
July 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Han Bao, Matthew R Melnicki, Emily G Pawlowski, Markus Sutter, Marco Agostoni, Sigal Lechno-Yossef, Fei Cai, Beronda L Montgomery, Cheryl A Kerfeld
The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a structurally and functionally modular photoactive protein involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Using phylogenomic analysis, we have revealed two new paralogous OCP families, each distributed among taxonomically diverse cyanobacterial genomes. Based on bioinformatic properties and phylogenetic relationships, we named the new families OCP2 and OCPx to distinguish them from the canonical OCP that has been well characterized in Synechocystis, denoted hereafter as OCP1...
July 10, 2017: Nature Plants
Giuseppa Di Bella, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Patrizia Licata, Vito Pellizzeri, Hedi Ben Mansour, Giacomo Dugo, Vincenzo Lo Turco
Two species of edible clams Venerupis aurea laeta and Cerastoderma edule glaucum from Ganzirri Lake (Sicily, Italy) were investigated to determine OCP and PCB residues by GC-MS. Thirty-five samples were examined for two years in order to perform: a) their actual contamination; b) the daily dietary exposure of seafood consumers to the pollutants in question. In all the clams analysed in this study, PCB and OCP (4,4'-DDE) residues are always below the limits fixed by law. It seems that there is some seasonality of concentrations observed...
July 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
Felipe Parra do Nascimento, Rúbia Kuno, Vera Regina Rossi Lemes, Tereza Atsuko Kussumi, Viviane Emi Nakano, Sonia Bio Rocha, Maria Celeste Cardeal de Oliveira, Iracema de Albuquerque Kimura, Nelson Gouveia
The use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is a worldwide public health concern given that high levels of these compounds in humans and animals can lead to serious health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the serum of 547 blood donors in the São Paulo metropolitan region (SPMR) in 2009 and to investigate factors associated with higher levels of these compounds. The OCPs were determined by gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were employed to determine the factors associated with higher levels...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Lijun Xie, Shuqin Liu, Zhubing Han, Ruifen Jiang, Fang Zhu, Weiqin Xu, Chengyong Su, Gangfeng Ouyang
The fiber coating is the key part of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique, and it determines the sensitivity, selectivity, and repeatability of the analytical method. In this work, amine (NH2)-functionalized material of Institute Lavoisier (MIL)-53(Al) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied as the SPME fiber coating for efficient sample pretreatment owing to their unique structures and excellent adsorption properties. Under optimized conditions, the NH2-MIL-53(Al)-coated fiber showed good precision, low limits of detection (LODs) [0...
July 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Cheryl A Kerfeld, Matthew R Melnicki, Markus Sutter, Maria Agustina Dominguez-Martin
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a water-soluble, photoactive protein involved in thermal dissipation of excess energy absorbed by the light-harvesting phycobilisomes (PBS) in cyanobacteria. The OCP is structurally and functionally modular, consisting of a sensor domain, an effector domain and a keto-carotenoid. On photoactivation, the OCP converts from a stable orange form, OCP(O) , to a red form, OCP(R) . Activation is accompanied by a translocation of the carotenoid deeper into the effector domain...
July 4, 2017: New Phytologist
Mi Hwa Lee, Eo Rin Cho, Jung-Eun Lim, Sun Ha Jee
BACKGROUND: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, which can influence human health. However, the association between POPs and DNA methylation by sex was not shown in previous studies. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between POPs and DNA methylation in men and women using a larger population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the data of 444 Koreans (253 men and 191 women)...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Research
Memet Varol, Muhammet Raşit Sünbül
This study investigated the residues of 19 organochlorine pesticides, 37 antibiotics and 5 heavy metals in biota samples (one mussel species, one crayfish species, six wild fish species and one farmed fish species) from the Keban Dam Reservoir on the Euphrates River, Turkey. Among monitored OCPs, only p,p'-DDE was detected in biota samples. It was found only in mussel, fish muscle and fish gill samples. The highest concentration of p,p'-DDE (0.032 mg/kg ww) was determined in the gill of common carp, which was found to be below the maximum residue limit (MRL)...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Nancy Weiland-Bräuer, Martin A Fischer, Karl-Werner Schramm, Ruth A Schmitz
Aiming to comprehensively survey the potential pollution of an alpine cryoconite (Jamtalferner glacier, Austria), and its bacterial community structure along with its biodegrading potential, first chemical analyses of persistent organic pollutants, explicitly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), revealed a significant contamination. In total, 18 PCB congeners were detected by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a mean concentration of 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guoxi Yang, Xiaoyong Chen, Zhao Yan, Qingsheng Zhu, Chongfei Yang
Macrophage surface antigen-1 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18) has been implicated in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In the synovial tissues of patients with aseptic loosening after total hip replacement, CD11b was up-regulated, which indicated that CD11b is closely involved in osteolysis around the prosthesis. We found that CD11b, but not CD18, promoted osteoclast (OC) maturation. Here, we show CD11b up-regulated the levels of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), as well as the activity of extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk), and as a result, osteoclast precursors (OCPs) differentiated and became tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Oya S Okay, Burak Karacık, Abbas Güngördü, Atilla Yılmaz, Nazmi C Koyunbaba, Sevil D Yakan, Bernhard Henkelmann, Karl-Werner Schramm, Murat Ozmen
This study involves the monitoring of organic pollutants using transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as bioindicator organisms and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers. Mussels and SPMDs were deployed to marinas, shipyards and shipbreaking yards on the coastal area of Turkey and retrieved after 60 days. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) compounds were analysed with high-resolution GC-MS. Total PAH concentrations in SPMDs and mussels ranged from 200 to 4740 ng g sampler(-1) and from 7...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniel Carrizo, Anna Sobek, Joan A Salvadó, Örjan Gustafsson
There is a scarcity of data on the amount and distribution of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in intermediate and deep ocean water masses. Here, the distribution and inventories of DDTs in water of the Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin are presented. The occurrence of ∑6DDT (0.10-66 pg L(-1)) in the surface water was dominated by 4,4'-DDE. In the Central Arctic Ocean increasing concentrations of DDE with depth were observed in the Makarov and Amundsen basins...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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