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Xiaolin Zhu, Kexin Zhang, Nan Lu, Yangyang Yu, Xing Yuan, Jiunian Guan
o-Chlorophenol (OCP) is a priority pollutant that poses serious health threats to the public. The following study designs a simple electrochemical system to monitor the concentration and toxicity of OCP. This system was primarily characterized by the integration of both physicochemical and biological monitoring procedures that had a synergistic effect between the functionalized carbon nanotubes and rhodamine B. This resulted in excellent electrocatalytic activities toward OCP and cellular purine bases. The peak current of OCP was linear with concentrations ranging from 0...
January 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Hyun Myung Jang, Hyeon Han, Jung-Hoon Lee
Multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) that exhibits a gigantic off-centering polarization (OCP) is the most extensively studied material among all multiferroics. In addition to this gigantic OCP, the BFO having R3c structural symmetry is expected to exhibit a couple of parasitic improper polarizations owing to coexisting spin-polarization coupling mechanisms. However, these improper polarizations are not yet theoretically quantified. Herein, we show that there exist two distinct spin-coupling-induced improper polarizations in the R3c BFO on the basis of the Landau-Lifshitz-Ginzburg theory: ΔP LF arising from the Lifshitz gradient coupling in a cycloidal spin-density wave, and ΔP ms originating from the biquadratic magnetostrictive interaction...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianshuang Li, Di Lu, Hong Dou, Huadie Liu, Kevin Weaver, Wenjun Wang, Jiada Li, Edward T H Yeh, Bart O Williams, Tao Yang, Ling Zheng
The development, growth, and renewal of skeletal tissues rely on the function of osteochondroprogenitors (OCPs). Protein sumoylation/desumoylation has emerged as a pivotal mechanism for stem cell/progenitor homeostasis, and excessive sumoylation has been associated with cell senescence and tissue aging, but its role in regulating OCP function is unclear. Here we show that postnatal loss of the desumoylase SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 6 (SENP6) causes premature aging. OCP-specific SENP6 knockout mice exhibit smaller skeletons, with elevated apoptosis and cell senescence in OCPs and chondrocytes...
January 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Amin Morteza Najarian, Akhtar Bayat, Richard L McCreery
Photocurrent generated by illumination of carbon-based molecular junctions were investigated as diagnostics of how molecular structure and orbital energies control electronic behavior. Oligomers of eight aromatic molecules covalently bonded to an electron-beam deposited carbon surface were formed by electrochemical reduction of diazonium reagents, with layer thicknesses in the range of 5-12 nm. Illumination through either the top or bottom partially transparent electrodes produced both an open circuit potential (OCP) and a photocurrent (PC), and the polarity and spectrum of the photocurrent depended directly on the relative positions of the frontier orbitals and the electrode Fermi level (EF)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Davor Želježić, Snježana Herceg Romanić, Darija Klinčić, Marijana Matek Sarić, Judita Grzunov Letinić
This study investigated the levels and distribution of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (HCB, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT) in placenta samples from women living in the coastal area of Croatia. During November 2012 to February 2013, 51 placenta samples were collected from healthy mothers. This study presents the first report about Croatian placenta samples. Each of the analysed compounds were found in all of the samples; all of the maximum values were < 1 ng g-1 w...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ryosuke Iwama, Takahisa Anada, Yukari Shiwaku, Kaori Tsuchiya, Tetsu Takahashi, Osamu Suzuki
The activity and the distribution of osteogenic cells around octacalcium phosphate (OCP) granules combined with gelatin matrix (OCP/Gel) onlaid on rat calvaria were analyzed histomorphometrically and immunohistochemically during vertical bone augmentation under mechanical or non-mechanical environment until 8 weeks. OCP/Gel disk was placed in subperiosteal pocket on the calvaria with or without polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) support. The latter is a non-mechanical stress model to alleviate the mechanical stress from the subcutaneous tissues...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Daniel Wilson, Alexander Hinz, Jose Manuel Goicoechea
The synthesis and characterization of a stable phosphaethynolato-borane, [B]OCP (1, [B] = N,N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,3,2-diazaboryl), is described. The increased triple bond character of the P-C bond in 1 relative to the free ion (PCO-) is probed in a series of reactivity studies. Compound 1 readily dimerises in donor solvents to afford a cyclic five-membered 6π-aromatic compound, cyclo-P2{C[B]}O{CO[B]} (2), which decarbonylates on UV irradiation. By contrast the nickel-mediated dimerisation of 1 affords the isomeric diphosphacyclobutene [P(CO[B])]2...
January 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Megha A Deshmukh, Mahendra D Shirsat, Almira Ramanaviciene, Arunas Ramanavicius
Current review signifies, recent trends and challenges in the development of electrochemical sensors based on organic conducting polymers (OCPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their composites for the determination of trace heavy metal ions in water are reviewed. OCPs and CNTs have some suitable properties, such as good electrical, mechanical, chemical and structural properties as well as environmental stability etc. However, some of these materials still have significant limitations towards selective and sensitive detection of trace heavy metal ions...
January 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Michael J Adkesson, Jeffrey M Levengood, John W Scott, David J Schaeffer, Jennifer N Langan, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Santiago de la Puente, Patricia Majluf, Sandra Yi
Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in the austral winter of 2009. Plasma samples from 29 penguins were evaluated for 31 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer and for 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detection rate for PCBs in the samples was 69%, with congeners 105, 118, 180, and 153 most commonly detected...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Amal Akour, Sanaa Bardaweel, Oriana Awwad, Suha Al-Muhaissen, Rand Hussein
OBJECTIVES: Jordan has high rate of unintended pregnancy, which is largely attributed to limited knowledge and misconceptions about contraceptive methods, namely oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a pharmacist-provided information booklet on increasing the knowledge of Jordanian women about safe and effective OCP use. METHODS: This was a randomised interventional study. One hundred and sixty women who had used OCPs at least once in their lifetime were randomised to receive conventional counselling (control group) or a pharmacist-provided booklet (intervention group)...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Tina Nham, Sophie M Poznanski, Isabella Y Fan, Mira M Shenouda, Marianne V Chew, Amanda J Lee, Fatemeh Vahedi, Yalda Karimi, Martin Butcher, Dean A Lee, Hal Hirte, Ali A Ashkar
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of gynecological cancer-related death in North America. Most ovarian cancer patients (OCPs) experience disease recurrence after first-line surgery and chemotherapy; thus, there is a need for novel second-line treatments to improve the prognosis of OC. Although peripheral blood-derived NK cells are known for their ability to spontaneously lyse tumour cells without prior sensitization, ascites-derived NK cells (ascites-NK cells) isolated from OCPs exhibit inhibitory phenotypes, impaired cytotoxicity and may play a pro-tumourigenic role in cancer progression...
January 3, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Xiana González-Gómez, Noelia Cambeiro-Pérez, Elena Martínez-Carballo, Jesús Simal-Gándara
Organic pollutants (OPs) represent a wide range of chemicals that are potentially harmful for human and wildlife health. Many of these pollutants have been identified as endocrine disruptors that can alter hormonal balance producing adverse biological effects such as neurotoxicity, reproductive disorders, carcinogenicity and hepatotoxicity. For years, hair has been selected as a non-invasive source to assess levels of animal contamination. In the present study, a multiclass screening method for determining about 60 organic pollutants in pet hair was designed and validated for qualitative and quantitative purposes...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Geng-Ruei Chang
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous contaminants with high bioaccumulation and persistence in the environment; they can have adverse effects in humans and animals. This study examined residual concentrations in water, sediments, and fishes as well as the association between the health risks of OCPs and fish consumption in the Taiwanese population. Various water and sediment samples from Taiwanese aquaculture and fish samples from different sources were collected and analyzed through gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 20 OCPs, namely, aldrin; cis-chlordane; trans-chlordane; dieldrin; endrin; alpha-endosulfan; beta-endosulfan; heptachlor; hexachlorobenzene; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane; beta-hexachlorocyclohexane; lindane; mirex; pentachlorobenzene; o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); p,p'-DDT; and DDT metabolites (o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]; p,p'-DDD; o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE]; and p,p'-DDE)...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jing Duan, Zheng Cheng, Jiawei Bi, Yangguang Xu
The presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in dairy products can lead to human exposure. This study investigated the behavior of OCP residues in milk during yogurt and cheese production. Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) was used to detect α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), γ-HCH, g-chlordane, and α-chlordane in fresh milk, yogurt, and cheese. The results showed that fermentation reduced the residual concentration of OCPs in yogurt, with processing factors (PFs) ranging from 0...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Tatiana R De O Stremel, Cinthia E Domingues, Rosimara Zittel, Cleber P Silva, Patricia L Weinert, Franciele C Monteiro, Sandro X Campos
This study aims to develop and validate a method to determine OCPs in fish tissues, minimizing the consumption of sample and reagents, by using a modified QuEChERS along with ultrasound, d-SPE and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD), refraining the pooling. Different factorial designs were employed to optimize the sample preparation phase. The validation method presented a recovery of around 77.3% and 110.8%, with RSD lower than 13% and the detection limits were between 0.24 and 2...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Archibold Buah-Kwofie, Marc S Humphries, Xander Combrink, Jan G Myburgh
Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) are important apex predators in many tropical and subtropical aquatic habitats throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. In South Africa, large crocodile populations inhabit lakes and wetlands that are impacted by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Despite the continued use of these compounds and their potential adverse effects on key wildlife populations in southern Africa, limited ecotoxicoloigcal data exist. In this study, we examined the accumulation of OCPs in fat tissues of live, wild Nile crocodiles from iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a region of significant biological importance...
December 14, 2017: Chemosphere
Ji Yun Lee, Kyung Min Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Dong Sun Kim
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), despite their considerably low levels in humans, are an increasing concern for the general populations given their various adverse health problems, including metabolic and carcinogenic effects. DNA methylation deregulation is thought to be a key mechanism in the development of human chronic diseases including cancer. METHODS: In an attempt to identify biomarkers monitoring low-dose exposure and hazard, we explored whether organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may influence the methylation of tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin (CDH1) using peripheral blood cells from 364 healthy Korean subjects...
December 18, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Jianyun Zhang, Rui Liu, Lili Niu, Siyu Zhu, Quan Zhang, Meirong Zhao, Weiping Liu, Jing Liu
Pollution of agricultural soils by pesticides, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), can be a significant issue since high detection rates of these compounds were reported in our previous studies. However, more uncertain kinds, quantities and density of pollutants remained in soil samples were unidentified. In this study, the total hormonal activities of complex mixtures of both known and unknown contaminants in agricultural soils in mainland China were measured by applying highly sensitive reporter gene assays for detecting agonists/antagonists for estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Rakhmanbek Mamatkadyrovich Toichuev, Liudmila Victorovna Zhilova, Timur Rashidinovich Paizildaev, Madina Shavkatovna Khametova, Abdygapar Rakhmatillaev, Kyialbek Sherikbaevich Sakibaev, Zhanyl Akhmedovna Madykova, Asel Uezbekovna Toichueva, Margret Schlumpf, Roland Weber, Walter Lichtensteiger
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined by gas chromatography in 241 placentas from cotton-growing regions, 121 placentas from an urban area (city of Osh), and 146 placentas from unpolluted mountain regions of Kyrgyzstan. Manifestations of disease were recorded in the mothers during pregnancy and parturition and in their newborns during the first 6 days of life. OCPs were detected in 240 out of 508 placentas (47.2%), with increased incidence in the two polluted regions (65%), particularly in placentas from women living near former pesticide storehouses and agro air-strips (99%), but only in 2...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chris Slootweg, Tania Krachko, Andreas W Ehlers, Martin Nieger, Martin Lutz
The phosphorus analogues of cyclopentadienone, tricyclopentanone and housene were accessed from bis(cyclopropenyl)diphosphetanedione 3, that was prepared by mixing 1,2,3-tris-tert-butylcyclopropenium tetrafluoroborate (1) and sodium phosphaethynolate [Na(OCP)(dioxane)n]. While photolysis of 3 results in decarbonylation yielding bis(cyclopropenyl)diphosphene 4 and after rearrangement diphosphahousene 5, thermolysis of 3 leads to phosphatricyclo[]pentanone 7. Metal-mediated valence isomerization of 7 and subsequent demetallation provides access to phosphacyclopentadienone 12...
December 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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