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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218544/the-molecular-pathway-regulating-bergmann-glia-and-folia-generation-in-the-cerebellum
#1
REVIEW
Alan W Leung, James Y H Li
Evolution of complex behaviors in higher vertebrates and primates require the development of sophisticated neuronal circuitry and the expansion of brain surface area to accommodate the vast number of neuronal and glial populations. To achieve these goals, the neocortex in primates and the cerebellum in amniotes have developed specialized types of basal progenitors to aid the folding of their cortices. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia constitute such a basal progenitor population, having a distinctive morphology and playing a critical role in cerebellar corticogenesis...
December 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218002/xenopus-laevis-as-a-model-organism-for-the-study-of-spinal-cord-formation-development-function-and-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Laura N Borodinsky
The spinal cord is the first central nervous system structure to develop during vertebrate embryogenesis, underscoring its importance to the organism. Because of its early formation, accessibility to the developing spinal cord in amniotes is challenging, often invasive and the experimental approaches amenable to model systems like mammals are limited. In contrast, amphibians, in general and the African-clawed frog Xenopus laevis, in particular, offer model systems in which the formation of the spinal cord, the differentiation of spinal neurons and glia and the establishment of spinal neuron and neuromuscular synapses can be easily investigated with minimal perturbations to the whole organism...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216801/first-report-of-prenatal-ascertainment-of-a-fetus-with-homozygous-loss-of-the-sox10-gene-and-phenotypic-correlation-by-autopsy-examination
#3
David P LeBel, Daynna J Wolff, Nicholas I Batalis, Tara Ellingham, Natalie Matics, Sanjay C Patwardhan, Iya Y Znoyko, Cynthia A Schandl
The SOX10 gene plays a vital role in neural crest cell development and migration. Abnormalities in SOX10 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome Types II and IV, and these patients have recognizable clinical features. This case report highlights the first ever reported homozygous loss of function of the SOX10 gene in a human. This deletion is correlated using family history, prenatal ultrasound, microarray analysis of amniotic fluid, and ultimately, a medical autopsy examination to further elucidate phenotypic effects of this genetic variation...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212808/gestational-age-at-time-of-in-utero-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-influences-the-severity-of-inflammation-induced-diaphragm-weakness-in-lambs
#4
Kanakeswary Karisnan, Tanzila Mahzabin, Anthony J Bakker, Yong Song, Peter B Noble, J Jane Pillow, Gavin Jon Pinniger
The preterm diaphragm is functionally immature compared to its term counterpart. In utero inflammation further exacerbates preterm diaphragm dysfunction. We hypothesized that preterm lambs are more vulnerable to in utero inflammation induced diaphragm dysfunction compared with term lambs. Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic (IA) injections of saline or 10mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2d or 7d prior to delivery at 121d (preterm) or 145d (term) gestation. Diaphragm contractile function was assessed in vitro. Plasma cytokines and diaphragm myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and oxidative stress were evaluated...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210307/amniotic-fluid-oxidant-antioxidant-status-in-foetal-congenital-nervous-system-anomalies
#5
Numan Cim, Harun Egemen Tolunay, Erbil Karaman, Barıs Boza, Mustafa Bilici, Orkun Çetin, Recep Yıldızhan, Hanım Guler Sahin
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the oxidant-antioxidant status of amniotic fluid in pregnant women with foetal congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Methods We studied pregnant women with foetal congenital nervous system anomalies at 16-22 weeks' gestation (n = 36). The control group (n = 30) consisted of pregnant women at the same gestational age who underwent amniocentesis, resulting in a normal karyotype. We analysed glutathione, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels in amniotic fluid...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210080/the-permian-reptile-opisthodontosaurus-carrolli-a%C3%A2-model-for-acrodont-tooth-replacement-and-dental-ontogeny
#6
Yara Haridy, Aaron R H LeBlanc, Robert R Reisz
Continuous tooth replacement is common for tetrapods, but some groups of acrodont lepidosaurs have lost the ability to replace their dentition (monophyodonty). Acrodonty, where the tooth attaches to the apex of the jawbone, is an unusual form of tooth attachment that has been associated with the highly autapomorphic condition of monophyodonty. Beyond Lepidosauria, very little is known about the relationship between acrodonty and monophyodonty in other amniotes. We test for this association with a detailed study of the dentition of Opisthodontosaurus, an unusual Early Permian captorhinid eureptile with acrodont dentition...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208979/induction-of-antimicrobial-peptides-secretion-by-il-1%C3%AE-enhances-human%C3%A2-amniotic-membrane-for-regenerative-medicine
#7
Fatemeh A Tehrani, Khashayar Modaresifar, Sara Azizian, Hassan Niknejad
Due to antibacterial characteristic, amnion has been frequently used in different clinical situations. Developing an in vitro method to augment endogenous antibacterial ingredient of amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells is desirable for a higher efficacy of this promising biomaterial. In this study, epithelial or mesenchymal side dependent effect of amniotic membrane (AM) on antibacterial activity against some laboratory and clinical isolated strains was investigated by modified disk diffusion method and colony count assay...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208770/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-effects-of-maternal-obesity-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-metabolism
#8
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao
Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Specifically, obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disorders in addition to the adverse effects on the mother per se. Large numbers of human and animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the composition and diversity of the intestine microbial community. Recently, the microbiota in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium in healthy gestations has been investigated, and the results supported the "in utero colonization hypothesis" and challenged the traditional "sterile womb" that has been acknowledged worldwide for more than a century...
December 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207783/evaluation-of-maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-of-induction-in-borderline-oligohydramnios-at-term
#9
Setu Rathod, Sunil Kumar Samal
Introduction: Oligohydramnios is described as decreased amniotic fluid volume relative to gestational age. Semiquantitatively it is described using the Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) which is calculated by adding the depth in centimetres of the largest vertical pocket in each of four equal uterine quadrants. AFI less than or equal to 5 cm is defined as oligohydramnios. A Borderline Oligohydramnios (BO) is defined as AFI 5.1-8 cm. Aim: To assess the maternal and perinatal outcome of induction in borderline oligohydramnios cases at term...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207015/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-regulate-osteoblast-differentiation-through-the-secretion-of-tgf%C3%AE-1-and-microrna-34a-5p
#10
Guiling Wang, Feng Zhao, Di Yang, Jing Wang, Lihong Qiu, Xining Pang
Since the beginning of the use of stem cells in tissue regenerative medicine, there has been a search for optimal sources of stem cells. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are derived from human amnions, which are typically discarded as medical waste, but were recently found to include cells with trilineage differentiation potential in vitro. Previous study has focused on the osteogenic differentiation ability of hAECs as seed cells in bone regeneration; however, their paracrine effects on osteoblasts (OBs) are yet to be elucidated...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205089/altered-bioenergetics-profile-in-umbilical-cord-and-amniotic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-newborns-of-obese-women
#11
Laura Iaffaldano, Carmela Nardelli, Francesca D'Alessio, Valeria D'Argenio, Marcella Nunziato, Lucia Mauriello, Claudio Procaccini, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Pasquale Martinelli, Giuseppe Matarese, Lucio Pastore, Luigi Del Vecchio, Giuseppe Labruna, Lucia Sacchetti
Nutritional imbalance and metabolic alterations associated with maternal obesity during pregnancy predispose offspring to obesity and/or to type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are still obscure. In this context, we evaluated whether the two main energy-producing pathways (glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) are impaired in obesity during pregnancy thus contributing to metabolic intrauterine alterations. Specifically, we studied metabolic abnormalities in the intrauterine life of newborns using stem cells isolated from amnion and umbilical cord (hA- and hUC-MSCs)...
December 5, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204944/comparison-of-culture-media-indicates-a-role-for-autologous-serum-in-enhancing-phenotypic-preservation-of-rabbit-limbal-stem-cells-in-explant-culture
#12
Mehmet Gürdal, Özlem Barut Selver, Kemal Baysal, İsmet Durak
In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of six different cell culture media and autologous serum (AS) on the phenotypic characteristics of rabbit limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) cultivated on porous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. Limbal explants from rabbit corneas were grown on PET membrane inserts in five different media: DMEM-F12 with fetal bovine serum (FBS) (DMEM-F12-FBS), with pluripotin (DMEM-F12-pluripotin) and with autologous serum (DMEM-F12-AS), Epilife, Keratinocyte Serum Free Medium (KSFM) and Defined-Keratinocyte Serum Free Medium...
December 4, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204836/fetal-membranes-derived-stem-cells-microenvironment
#13
Phelipe Oliveira Favaron, Maria Angelica Miglino
Recently, the regenerative medicine has been trying to congregate different areas such as tissue engineering and cellular therapy, in order to offer effective treatments to overcome several human and veterinary medical problems. In this regard, fetal membranes have been proposed as a powerful source for obtainment of multipotent stem cells with low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and nontumorigenicity properties for the treatment of several diseases, including replacing cells lost due to tissue injuries or degenerative diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204652/effect-of-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-infants-with-meconium-aspiration-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Aakash Pandita, Srinivas Murki, Tejo Pratap Oleti, Baswaraj Tandur, Sai Kiran, Sachin Narkhede, Amrut Prajapati
Importance: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) as a primary respiratory therapy in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) has not been studied extensively. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure, when applied in newborns with MAS, may resolve atelectasis by sufficiently expanding partially obstructed small airways and stabilizing the collapsing terminal airways to enhance oxygen exchange. Objective: To compare NCPAP vs standard care in neonates with moderate to severe respiratory failure due to MAS in reducing the need for invasive ventilation...
December 4, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203902/amniotic-fluid-stem-cell-derived-vesicles-protect-from-vegf-induced-endothelial-damage
#15
S Sedrakyan, V Villani, S Da Sacco, N Tripuraneni, S Porta, A Achena, M Lavarreda-Pearce, A Petrosyan, H Soloyan, R E De Filippo, B Bussolati, L Perin
Injection of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) delays the course of progression of renal fibrosis in animals with Alport Syndrome, enhancing kidney function and improving survival. The mechanisms responsible for these protective outcomes are still largely unknown. Here, we showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling within the glomeruli of Alport mice is strongly elevated early on in the disease, causing glomerular endothelial cell damage. Intraventricular injected AFSC that homed within the glomeruli showed strong modulation of the VEGF activity, particularly in glomerular endothelial cells...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201357/human-s100a5-binds-ca2-and-cu2-independently
#16
Lucas C Wheeler, Michael J Harms
Background: S100A5 is a calcium binding protein found in a small subset of amniote tissues. Little is known about the biological roles of S100A5, but it may be involved in inflammation and olfactory signaling. Previous work indicated that S100A5 displays antagonism between binding of Ca2+ and Cu2+ ions-one of the most commonly cited features of the protein. We set out to characterize the interplay between Ca2+ and Cu2+ binding by S100A5 using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC)...
2017: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197989/direct-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-from-clinical-samples-from-denmark-not-only-genotypes-ii-and-iii
#17
P Jokelainen, J-B Murat, H V Nielsen
Genetic variation within Toxoplasma gondii can have both clinical and epidemiological significance, while the genotypes circulating in many parts of the world, including the Nordic country Denmark, are still unknown. We genetically characterized T. gondii strains that had been detected in human clinical samples in Denmark in 2011-2016. Samples that had tested positive for T. gondii DNA and had a quantification cycle value <33 were included in this study and subjected to direct genetic characterization of T...
December 3, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197837/bilateral-ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia-with-bilateral-periocular-basal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-case-of-xeroderma-pigmentosum
#18
Rohit Agarwal, Bhavna Chawla, Mohamed Ibrahime Asif, Amar Pujari
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous manifestations.We discuss a unique case of XP having bilateral ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and periocular basal cell carcinoma. In the right eye, a large OSSN mass involving the ocular surface extensively along with intraocular invasion was noted, whereas in the left eye, the tumour mass was involving the limbus, and extending up to three clock hours. Because of extensive disease in the right eye, orbital exenteration was performed, and for the left eye, a wide excision of the mass with triple freeze thaw cryo application to the margins followed by amniotic membrane grafting was done...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195161/prenatal-and-pubertal-testosterone-affect-brain-lateralization
#19
T Beking, R H Geuze, M van Faassen, I P Kema, B P C Kreukels, T G G Groothuis
After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in puberty. We performed a longitudinal study, investigating the relationship between prenatal testosterone concentrations in amniotic fluid, pubertal testosterone concentrations in saliva, and brain lateralization (measured with functional Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD)) of the Mental Rotation, Chimeric Faces and Word Generation tasks...
November 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194396/aquaporins-during-pregnancy-their-function-and-significance
#20
REVIEW
Eszter Ducza, Adrienn Csányi, Róbert Gáspár
Water is the major component of cells and tissues, and the movement of water across the cell membrane is a fundamental property of life. Until the discovery of the first water channel, aquaporin, it was long assumed that the transport of water was due to simple diffusion through the lipid bilayer membrane that encloses cells. Aquaporin (AQP) molecules were first discovered in the human uterus in 1994, and since then several studies have investigated these channels in the female reproductive system. The expressions of AQPs have been proven in the reproductive system...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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