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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440792/an-extra-uterine-system-to-physiologically-support-the-extreme-premature-lamb
#1
Emily A Partridge, Marcus G Davey, Matthew A Hornick, Patrick E McGovern, Ali Y Mejaddam, Jesse D Vrecenak, Carmen Mesas-Burgos, Aliza Olive, Robert C Caskey, Theodore R Weiland, Jiancheng Han, Alexander J Schupper, James T Connelly, Kevin C Dysart, Jack Rychik, Holly L Hedrick, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake
In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed 'amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440356/abnormal-ultrasound-appearance-of-the-amniotic-membranes-diagnostic-and-significance-a-pictorial-essay
#2
Liana Pleș, Romina Marina Sima, Cristina Moisei, Marius Alexandru Moga, Laura Dracea
The obstetrical ultrasound may identify the protrusion of the uterine surface or placental area into the amniotic cavity. The differential diagnosis of this pathology with uterine adhesions, septate uterus, circumvallate placenta, amniotic band or amniotic sheet can be sometimes difficult. The purpose of the pictorial essay is to exemplify the presence of the amniotic sheet and circumvallate placenta in routine obstetrics screening of all trimesters of pregnancy.
April 22, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439533/the-anatomical-placode-in-reptile-scale-morphogenesis-indicates-shared-ancestry-among-skin-appendages-in-amniotes
#3
Nicolas Di-Poï, Michel C Milinkovitch
Most mammals, birds, and reptiles are readily recognized by their hairs, feathers, and scales, respectively. However, the lack of fossil intermediate forms between scales and hairs and substantial differences in their morphogenesis and protein composition have fueled the controversy pertaining to their potential common ancestry for decades. Central to this debate is the apparent lack of an "anatomical placode" (that is, a local epidermal thickening characteristic of feathers' and hairs' early morphogenesis) in reptile scale development...
June 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437442/relationship-between-early-onset-severe-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-and-higher-risk-of-meconium-stained-fluid
#4
Maria C Estiú, Maria A Frailuna, Carla Otero, Marcela Dericco, Catherine Williamson, Jose J G Marin, Rocio I R Macias
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the commonest gestational liver disease. The risk of adverse fetal outcome has been associated with the severity of maternal hypercholanemia after diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity and timing of onset of hypercholanemia and the risk of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and adverse neonatal events. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 382 pregnancies complicated by ICP managed at a referral hospital in Buenos Aires (Argentina) between June 2009 and December 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434745/hot-topic-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-reveals-the-microbiome-of-the-virgin-and-pregnant-bovine-uterus
#5
S G Moore, A C Ericsson, S E Poock, P Melendez, M C Lucy
We tested the hypothesis that the uterus of virgin heifers and pregnant cows possessed a resident microbiome by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the virgin and pregnant bovine uterus. The endometrium of 10 virgin heifers in estrus and the amniotic fluid, placentome, intercotyledonary placenta, cervical lumen, and external cervix surface (control) of 5 pregnant cows were sampled using aseptic techniques. The DNA was extracted, the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, and amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology (Illumina Inc...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#6
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428904/salvage-of-necrotic-appearing-limb-after-in-utero-endoscopic-lysis-of-constriction-bands
#7
M Abdel-Sattar, A Chon, B Chen, W Burkhalter, R H Chmait
We report a case of amniotic band syndrome complicated by constriction bands and marked distal swelling of both lower extremities. Color Doppler interrogation of the right lower extremity revealed complete lack of blood flow below the level of the constriction. Upon fetoscopic survey, the right lower extremity beyond the constriction band appeared dusky red and discolored with desquamation, consistent with a necrotic appearance. The constriction bands were cut in utero using endoshears, thereby allowing restoration of blood flow on postoperative day 1...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#8
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426442/amniotic-membrane-use-for-management-of-corneal-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency
#9
Alfonso L Sabater, Victor L Perez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the most recent surgical techniques for management of corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) using amniotic membrane tissue. RECENT FINDINGS: Early successes with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for the treatment of ocular surface disorders have encouraged clinicians to investigate new applications. The use of AMT as a temporary patch in emergency cases in which LSCD may develop has considerably improved the prognosis of these patients...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426129/case-review-and-outcomes-of-prenatally-diagnosed-amniotic-sheets
#10
Assaad Kesrouani, Bernard Nasr, Habib Atallah, Samer Maalouf, Elie Chalhoub
The present study recorded a case series of 11 patients diagnosed with amniotic sheets at an outpatient obstetric clinic affiliated to Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Of these patients, nine were diagnosed during routine obstetric ultrasonography examination and two patients were referred from other centers. All patients included in the case series had singleton pregnancies and the mean length of pregnancy at diagnosis was 17 weeks (range 13-22). This article is protected by copyright...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425474/invasion-of-ancestral-mammals-into-dim-light-environments-inferred-from-adaptive-evolution-of-the-phototransduction-genes
#11
Yonghua Wu, Haifeng Wang, Elizabeth A Hadly
Nocturnality is a key evolutionary innovation of mammals that enables mammals to occupy relatively empty nocturnal niches. Invasion of ancestral mammals into nocturnality has long been inferred from the phylogenetic relationships of crown Mammalia, which is primarily nocturnal, and crown Reptilia, which is primarily diurnal, although molecular evidence for this is lacking. Here we used phylogenetic analyses of the vision genes involved in the phototransduction pathway to predict the diel activity patterns of ancestral mammals and reptiles...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424764/diffusion-tensor-imaging-colour-mapping-threshold-for-identification-of-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-after-intrauterine-inflammation-in-preterm-lambs
#12
Dhafer M Alahmari, Beatrice Skiöld, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Courtney McDonald, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Robert Galinsky, Qizhu Wu, Michael John Farrell, Timothy J Moss, Stuart B Hooper, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can detect early brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation and inappropriate initial respiratory support in preterm lambs. HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathology caused by intrauterine inflammation is exacerbated by mechanical ventilation at birth and is detectable with advanced MRI techniques. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days prior to delivery at ~125 days of gestation (85% of gestation), whereupon lambs were delivered and randomised to receive an injurious (LPS + INJ, n = 6) or protective (LPS + PROT, n = 6) ventilation strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424010/olfactory-development-part-1-function-from-fetal-perception-to-adult-wine-tasting
#13
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei
Discrimination of odorous molecules in amniotic fluid occur after 30 weeks' gestation; fetuses exhibit differential responses to maternal diet. Olfactory reflexes enable reliable neonatal testing. Olfactory bulbs can be demonstrated reliably by MRI after 30 weeks' gestation, and their hypoplasia or aplasia also documented by late prenatal and postnatal MRI. Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Fetal olfactory maturation remains incomplete at term for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and persistence of the transitory fetal ventricular recess...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422948/beyond-the-uterine-environment-nonhuman-primate-model-to-investigate-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-chronic-intrauterine-infection
#14
Meredith A Kelleher, Zheng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Christopher D Kroenke, Lisa A Houser, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren D Martin, Ken B Waites, Cindy McEvoy, Robert L Schelonka, Peta L Grigsby
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is a significant cause of early preterm birth. We have developed a fetal-neonatal model in the rhesus macaque to determine the impact of chronic intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum on early neonatal reflexes and brain development. METHODS: Time-mated, pregnant rhesus macaques were randomized to be inoculated with U. parvum (serovar 1; 10(5)cfu) or control media at ~120 dGA. Neonates were delivered by elective hysterotomy at 135-147 dGA (term=167d) stabilized and cared for in our nonhuman primate neonatal intensive care unit...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421903/expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-and-its-substrate-level-in-patients-with-premature-rupture-of-membranes
#15
Ge Zuo, Jian-Xin Dong, Fang-Fei Zhao, Yan Chen
In this study, 30 case of patients with full-term premature membrane rupture and another 30 cases of full-term delivered subject without premature rupture of membranes (PROM) were selected to explore the relationship between premature membrane rupture with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and its substrate level. Results showed the plasma zinc, MMP-9 in serum and amniotic fluid increased in patients with PROM; their type IV collagen in serum and foetal membrane decreased. Increased Zinc ion concentration results in increased concentration of MMP-9, a zinc-dependent enzyme; the degradation of type IV collagen by MMP-9 might be the potential mechanism of premature rupture of membranes in full-term pregnant women...
May 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420901/discrepancy-between-non-invasive-prenatal-genetic-testing-nipt-and-amniotic-chromosomal-test-due-to-placental-mosaicism-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Kei Hayata, Yuji Hiramatsu, Hisashi Masuyama, Eriko Eto, Takashi Mitsui, Shoko Tamada
We experienced a case of advanced maternal age in which a fetus was found to be positive for trisomy 18 at re-examination following indeterminate non-invasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT), the amniotic fluid chromosomal test revealed a normal karyotype, and confined placental mosaicism (CPM) was observed in an SNP microarray analysis of the placenta. The child was born with no defects or complications. In the present case, the result of the original NIPT at week 15 of pregnancy was indeterminate and the subsequent re-examination result was positive; since the definitive normal diagnosis was not reported until the latter half of week 21, the pregnant patient was subjected to psychological stress for a long period of time...
April 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420513/euchromatic-variants-of-8q21-2-in-twins
#17
Xiao-Hui Song, Hui-Kuo Hsu, Mei-Tsz Su, Tai-Sheng Chang, Piing Yuh Su, Ming Chen, Pao-Lin Kuo
OBJECTIVE: Euchromatic variants (EVs) of 8q21.2 are extremely rare chromosomal abnormalities. So, far there have only been two reports on EVs of 8q21.2. Here, we report an 8q21.2 EV detected in cultured amniotic-fluid cells of twins. It was later found to be inherited from the mother, who did not present with abnormal phenotypes. CASE REPORT: A pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. This pregnancy was monozygotic twins conceived naturally...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419406/routine-oro-nasopharyngeal-suction-versus-no-suction-at-birth
#18
REVIEW
Jann P Foster, Jennifer A Dawson, Peter G Davis, Hannah G Dahlen
BACKGROUND: Oro/nasopharyngeal suction is a method used to clear secretions from the oropharynx and nasopharynx through the application of negative pressure via a suction catheter or bulb syringe. Traditionally, airway oro/nasopharyngeal suction at birth has been used routinely to remove fluid rapidly from the oropharynx and nasopharynx in vigorous and non-vigorous infants at birth. Concerns relating to the reported adverse effects of oro/nasopharyngeal suctioning led to a practice review and routine oro/nasopharyngeal suctioning is no longer recommended for vigorous infants...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419180/impact-of-gestational-nicotine-exposure-on-intrauterine-and-fetal-infection-in-a-rodent-model1
#19
Maria von Chamier, Leticia Reyes, Linda F Hayward, Mary B Brown
We investigated the interaction between prenatal nicotine exposure and intrauterine infection using established rat models. Beginning at gestation day (GD) 6, dams were continuously infused with either saline or 6 mg/kg/day nicotine (Nic). At GD 14, dams received either sterile broth or 105 CFU Mycoplasma pulmonis (MP), resulting in 4 treatment groups: Control (4 dams, 33 fetal units); MP only (5 dams, 55 fetal units); Nic only (5 dams, 61 fetal units) and Nic + MP (7 dams, 82 fetal units). At GD 18, nicotine exposure significantly increased (P ≤ 0...
April 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416938/combined-systemic-and-hysteroscopic-intra-amniotic-injection-of-methotrexate-associated-with-hysteroscopic-resection-for-cervical-pregnancy-a-cutting-edge-approach-for-an-uncommon-condition
#20
Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo, Mariana da Cunha Vieira, Antonio Simone Laganà, Benito Chiofalo, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Mariamaddalena Scala, Marianna De Falco, Carmine Nappi, Ursula Catena, Giuseppe Bifulco
This case report of a 36-year-old woman with a diagnosis of cervical pregnancy describes a novel approach to this rare form of ectopic pregnancy, which was successfully treated with systemic and local methotrexate (MTX) therapy combined with hysteroscopic resection. After local and systemic administration of MTX, the patient underwent hysteroscopic resection of the cervical pregnancy using a 27 bipolar resectoscope with a 4-mm loop. The cervical pregnancy was completely treated, and satisfactory hemostasis was achieved with electrocoagulation...
February 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
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