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Caroline Charette, Krista L Best, Emma M Smith, William C Miller, François Routhier
Background: Mobility limitations represent the third most prevalent cause of disability, affecting more than 1.9 million community-dwelling Canadians. Walking aids are often prescribed to reduce the impacts of mobility impairments. There are limited data on walking aids since 2004. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of walking aid use in Canada and to explore demographic characteristics among users of walking aids. Design: The design used was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey...
March 14, 2018: Physical Therapy
Kevin D Martin, Jeffrey Wake, Laura Dawson, J Preston Van Buren
Background: The prevalence of Achilles tendon (AT) pathology is common and can result in disability. Understanding normal AT properties can improve our ability to prevent AT injuries. We examined the cross-sectional area of the AT at multiple levels in an asymptomatic population of Army Rangers. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study composed of 41 voluntarily recruited United States Army Rangers deployed in a combat theater. All subjects were members of the Ranger Regiment participating in more than 20 h of intense bipedal non-sport weekly training with no history of AT pathology...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Oren Schwartz, Itzik Malka, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz, Tarif Bader
Introduction: Integration of females in combat units poses a unique challenge for army commanders around the world. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed up-to-date situation report regarding overuse injuries among combat female warriors in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to enable evidence-based decision-making, prevention policy, and further research of this highly significant military public health issue. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted including 2,519 females recruited to combat duties during the year of 2013...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Devin Ancona, Dan York, Robert J Higgins, Danika Bannasch, Peter J Dickinson
Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) occur spontaneously in humans and dogs providing an opportunity for comparative cross species analysis of common tumor mechanisms. Large scale chromosomal copy number alterations are the hallmark of human CPTs and identification of driver genes within these regions is problematic. Copy number alterations in 12 spontaneous dog CPTs were defined using an Illumina 170 K single nucleotide polymorphism array and were characterized by highly recurrent whole chromosomal losses in up to 100% of cases with few chromosome wide gains...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Paul Monsarrat, Jean-Noel Vergnes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, Paul T Bartone, Gregory G Homish
Background: Much research has focused on stress related to deployments; however, a substantial proportion of soldiers never deploy. In a study of 1.3 million veterans, suicide risk was higher among veterans who had never deployed. Thus, not being deployed may have an impact on soldiers' well-being; however, no measures exist to assess emotions regarding non-deployment. We aimed to develop and test an original measure of non-deployment emotions. Methods: We examined the Non-Deployment Emotions (NDE) questionnaire, a novel four-item measure of guilt, unit value, unit camaraderie, and unit connectedness in a sample of never-deployed male and female US Army Reserve/National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers (N = 174)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Oren Schwartz, Boris Kanevsky, M A J Sergey Kutikov, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz
Introduction: Attrition from training is associated with substantial financial and personnel loss. There is a plethora of medical literature and research of attrition rates related to initial/phase 1 training (basic combat training); however, the analysis of second phase training (commanders training, consisting of schools that qualify junior commanders and officers for infantry and non-infantry combat units) is limited. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive survey regarding to medical attrition from commanders training in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to present the commanders of the IDF a detailed situation report that will serve as an evidence-based platform for future policy planning and implementation...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Konstadinos Plestis, Oleg Orlov, Vishal N Shah, Joshua Wong, Matthew Thomas, Alon Aharon, Cinthia Orlov, Georgia Panagopoulos, Scott Goldman
OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) can be technically demanding and may lead to prolonged operative time. We evaluated the intraoperative and postoperative patient outcomes following implementation of 2 facilitating technologies (FT) in MIAVR: the Cor-Knot titanium fastener and Custodiol-histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution. METHODS: A total of 299 patients underwent MIAVR from 2008 to 2016; 172 (57.5%) patients were included in the FT group and 127 (42...
March 14, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Kristel Ehala-Aleksejev, Margus Punab
This study aimed to determine the effect of metabolic syndrome (MS) on the reproductive function in fertile (FM) and male partners of infertile couples (MPIC). We performed a cross-sectional study formatting two study groups: partners of pregnant women (n = 238; mean age 32.0) as FM and male partners of infertile couples (n = 2642; mean age 32.6) as MPIC. A standard semen analysis was performed and clinical, laboratory and lifestyle data were analysed. The adapted NCEP-ATPIII criteria were used to define MS...
2018: PloS One
Ana M Molina, Thomas E Hutson, Dmitry Nosov, Piotr Tomczak, Oleg Lipatov, Cora N Sternberg, Robert Motzer, Tim Eisen
BACKGROUND: Tivozanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3 tyrosine kinases. This open-label, crossover clinical study (AV-951-09-902) provided access to tivozanib for patients who progressed on sorafenib in TIVO-1, comparing tivozanib with sorafenib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Patients enrolled in this single-arm, phase 2 crossover study were previously randomised to sorafenib on TIVO-1, progressed and then crossed over to tivozanib...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Jana Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Albena Momchilova, Rumyana Tzoneva
PURPOSE: Activation of CB1 receptors, produces anticonvulsant effect accompanied by memory disturbance both in animal seizure tests and in patients with epilepsy. Few reports considered the role of CB2 receptor on seizure susceptibility and cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of a selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) in models of seizures and cognition in mice. METHODS: Dose-dependent effects of BCP was studied in maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and Morris water maze test...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Karyn Doba, Guillaume Berna, Emilie Constant, Jean-Louis Nandrino
This study examines the impact of self-differentiation, alexithymia and psychological distress on eating disorder symptoms in young and middle adolescence. Four hundred fifty-one adolescents completed self-report measures. Early and middle adolescents were categorized into two groups (12-14 years and 15-17 years) to represent distinct developmental stages. Significant differences were found between younger and older adolescents. The association between low self-differentiation and both eating disorders symptoms and psychological dimensions related to eating attitudes was stronger in early adolescence than in middle adolescence...
March 7, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Erika Obikane, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Daisuke Takagi, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with adult suicidal behaviors, partially mediated by mental disorders. However, the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders is uncertain because the same risk factors serve as mediators and confounders of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders on suicidal behaviors using marginal structural models. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of Japanese adults in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures (The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Melanie Birks, John Smithson, Janene Antney, Lin Zhao, Camilla Burkot
BACKGROUND: Universities' responsibility to ensure academic integrity is frustrated by software and communication tools that facilitate content reuse coupled with a growing international essay writing economy. A wide range of behaviours constitute academic dishonesty and while a complex phenomenon to examine, existing evidence suggests that there is sufficient proliferation (both in volume and variety) of these behaviours among Australian university students to warrant concern. This proliferation presents faculty and staff with new challenges in ensuring academic integrity...
March 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Tahereh Shojaeimehr, Farshad Rahimpour, Michael Schwarze, Jens-Uwe Repke, Hamid Reza Godini, Günter Wozny
The present study evaluates the capability of ion exclusion chromatography (IEC) of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids using a cation exchange column (8% sulfonated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer) in different experimental conditions. Since one of the prerequisites to the development of an efficient carboxylic acid separation process is to obtain the optimum operational conditions, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to develop an approach to evaluate carboxylic acids separation process in IEC columns...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Chen Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Qiran Zhao, Qihui Chen
In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis)...
February 19, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Patrick C Kennedy, Helen Purtill, Kieran O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Many patients reporting musculoskeletal pain present to Primary Care Physiotherapy with costly comorbid overlapping complaints that remain medically unexplained. These subjective health complaints (SHC) incorporate coexisting multi-site musculoskeletal pain and varied non-musculoskeletal complaints (e.g. anxiety, tiredness). The role of these non-musculoskeletal complaints is acknowledged in spinal musculoskeletal disorders, but less so for peripheral musculoskeletal disorders...
March 8, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Latifah Alazmi, Grace E Gadsby, Nicola R Heneghan, T David Punt
BACKGROUND: Left/right judgment tasks (LRJTs) are used in the management of chronic pain. This use is predicated on their ability to elicit the simulation of movements (i.e. motor imagery), including those where the execution of the same movements induces pain. While established for limb-based LRJTs, the ability of trunk-based LRJTs to elicit motor imagery of trunk movements has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether data from a trunk-based LRJT are indicative of motor imagery being elicited for the specific lateralised trunk postures presented...
March 7, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Yi Yan, Vitor Sencadas, Tiantian Jin, Xufeng Huang, Wilford Lie, Dongbin Wei, Zhengyi Jiang
Processing conditions deeply affect the mechanical, chemical and biological properties of elastomeric based nanocomposites. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed in poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) prepolymer, followed by curing under vacuum at 120 °C. It was observed an increase of the water contact angle with the amount of MWCNTs added, as well as the tensile strength and Young modulus, without compromising the elastomeric behaviour of the pristine PGS matrix. The cross-linking degree was determined by the Flory-Rehner swelling method and through the mechanical rubber elasticity model, and an increase of more than six-fold was observed, which demonstrates the chemical conjugation between the MWCNTs and the PGS polymer chains, resulting in stiff and elastomeric nanocomposites...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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