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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915246/neutrophil-dependent-pentraxin-3-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production-modulate-endothelial-dysfunction-in-haemodialysis-patients
#1
Maria Pia dell'Oglio, Simona Simone, Marco Ciccone, Roberto Corciulo, Michele Gesualdo, Annapaola Zito, Francesca Cortese, Giuseppe Castellano, Margherita Gigante, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Grandaliano, Giovanni Battista Pertosa
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate neutrophil activation and its role in long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release and oxidative stress generation during haemodialysis (HD) and to correlate neutrophil PTX3 and oxidant expression with endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Forty-seven uraemic patients on stable HD, 12 healthy subjects and 15 patients with congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association classes III and IV) were enrolled. Neutrophil PTX3 protein expression was evaluated by confocal microscopy...
December 3, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915185/anti-inflammatory-analgesic-and-anti-tumor-properties-of-gold-nanoparticles
#2
Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de Araújo, Jonas Bispo Pessoa, Franscisco Paulo Freire Neto, Gisele Ribeiro da Silva, Ana Luiza C S Leitão Oliveira, Thaís Gomes de Carvalho, Heloiza F O Silva, Mateus Eugênio, Celso Sant'Anna, Luiz H S Gasparotto
BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are regarded as potential platforms for drug delivery. However, their interaction with live organisms must be understood prior to their utilization as drug carriers. The present study reports the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-tumor effects of GNPs. The biodistribution of GNPs and their effect on various tissues have also been studied. METHODS: GNPs were synthesized through an environmentally friendly route and characterized with TEM and UV-vis...
September 21, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915161/intestinal-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-2-is-down-regulated-in-fructose-fed-rats
#3
Ana Sofía Londero, Maite Rocío Arana, Virginia Gabriela Perdomo, Guillermo Nicolás Tocchetti, Felipe Zecchinati, Carolina Inés Ghanem, María Laura Ruiz, Juan Pablo Rigalli, Aldo Domingo Mottino, Fabiana García, Silvina Stella Maris Villanueva
Expression and activity of jejunal multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were examined in fructose fed Wistar rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Animals were fed on (a) control diet or (b) control diet plus 10% w/vol fructose in the drinking water. Mrp2 and the α class of GST proteins as well as their corresponding mRNAs were decreased, suggesting a transcriptional regulation by fructose. Confocal microscopy studies reaffirmed down-regulation of Mrp2...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#4
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913845/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-are-involved-in-hepatocanalicular-dysfunction-and-cholestasis-induced-by-oxidative-stress
#5
Flavia D Toledo, Cecilia L Basiglio, Ismael R Barosso, Andrea C Boaglio, Andrés E Zucchetti, Enrique J Sánchez Pozzi, Marcelo G Roma
In previous studies, we showed that the pro-oxidant model agent tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH) induces alterations in hepatocanalicular secretory function by activating Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C isoforms (cPKC), via F-actin disorganization followed by endocytic internalization of canalicular transporters relevant to bile formation (Mrp2, Bsep). Since mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) may be downstream effectors of cPKC, we investigated here the involvement of the MAPKs of the ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38(MAPK) types in these deleterious effects...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913186/protein-kinase-a-activation-by-retinoic-acid-in-the-nuclei-of-hl60-cells
#6
Asako Sakai, Masahiko Imai, Katsuhiko Takahashi, Shinya Hasegawa, Masahiro Yamasaki, Toshihiro Ohba, Noriko Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) occurs during retinoic acid (RA)-induced granulocytic differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. It is known that the RIIα regulatory subunit of PKA, is modified by RA (retinoylated) in the early stages of differentiation. We have investigated the effects of RA on PKA during cell differentiation in order to understand the potential significance of this process in the retinoylation of RIIα subunits. METHODS: Immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy, PCR, and PKA activity assays were employed for characterizing the effects of RA on PKA...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913102/membrane-permeabilization-induced-by-triton-x-100-the-role-of-membrane-phase-state-and-edge-tension
#7
Bruno Mattei, Rafael B Lira, Katia R Perez, Karin A Riske
Detergents are widely used to solubilize and separate biomembrane components. It is therefore relevant to study and understand the mechanistic details underlying detergent-lipid interactions using biomimetic systems. Here, we have investigated in detail the process of membrane permeabilization and the nature of pores induced by sub-solubilizing concentrations of the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) in bilayers composed of palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and binary mixtures of these phospholipids with 30 mol% cholesterol (chol)...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912140/characterization-of-the-cleaved-edge-cross-section-of-the-heterostructures-with-gamnas-layer-by-the-confocal-micro-raman-spectroscopy
#8
A V Kudrin, S M Plankina, O V Vikhrova, A V Nezhdanov, A I Mashin, Yu N Drozdov, A V Shvetsov
Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to measure cross-section linescans of the cleaved edge of heterostructures involving a GaMnAs layer. The investigations revealed a shift of the TO mode in the compressed GaMnAs layer to high frequencies relative to the TO GaAs mode in the substrate and to low frequencies in the tensile GaMnAs layers. These results are in agreement with the different manifestations of the anomalous Hall effect in the GaMnAs layers, with either compressive or tensile strains. It is shown that Raman spectroscopy is an appropriate method for the investigation of cross-sectional semiconductor heterostructures whose total thickness is comparable to the size of the analyzing laser spot...
November 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911475/carboplatin-complexed-and-crgd-conjugated-unimolecular-nanoparticles-for-targeted-ovarian-cancer-therapy
#9
Yuyuan Wang, Liwei Wang, Guojun Chen, Shaoqin Gong
Platinum-based chemotherapy has been widely used to treat cancers including ovarian cancer; however, it suffers from dose-limiting toxicity. Judiciously designed drug nanocarriers can enhance the anticancer efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy while reducing its systemic toxicity. Herein the authors report a stable and water-soluble unimolecular nanoparticle constructed from a hydrophilic multi-arm star block copolymer poly(amidoamine)-b-poly(aspartic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAMAM-PAsp-PEG) conjugated with both cRGD (cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Cys) peptide and cyanine5 (Cy5) fluorescent dye as a platinum-based drug nanocarrier for targeted ovarian cancer therapy...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911407/preparation-of-cd4-t-cells-for-analysis-of-gd3-and-gd2-ganglioside-membrane-expression-by-microscopy
#10
Tania M Villanueva-Cabello, Iván Martinez-Duncker
The methods described herein for activation of naïve CD4(+) T cells in suspension and their adherence in coverslips for confocal microscopy analysis allow the spatial localization and visualization of gangliosides involved in CD4(+) T cell activation, that complement expression profiling experiments such as flow cytometry, western blotting or real-time PCR. The quantification of ganglioside expression through flow cytometry and their cellular localization through microscopy can be obtained by the use of anti-ganglioside antibodies with high affinity and specificity...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911384/analysis-of-scap-n-glycosylation-and-trafficking-in-human-cells
#11
Chunming Cheng, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Feng Geng, Xiaoning Wu, Xiang Cheng, Qiyue Li, Deliang Guo
Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911109/confocal-microscopy-and-imaging-profilometry-a-new-tool-aimed-to-evaluate-aesthetic-procedures
#12
Gabriella Fabbrocini, Caterina Mazzella, Fabio Montagnaro, Maria Pia De Padova, Sandra Lorenzi, Aurora Tedeschi, Patrizia Forgione, Claudia Capasso, Luigi Sivero, Carla Velotti, Daniela Russo, Rosa Vitiello, Gennaro Ilardi
According to the American Academy of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons, more than 11 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed by board-certified plastic surgeons, dermatologists and otolaryngologists in the United States, totaling more than 12 billion dollars. We performed a retrospective observational multi-centric study on patients treated with a non-animal origin cross-linked hyaluronic acid with different molecular weights for nasolabial folds, evaluating through a new imaging system, profilometric techniques with the confocal microscopy, the durability, the efficacy and the safety of this product...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911101/in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-evaluation-of-inflammation-and-apoptosis-induced-after-smile-procedures-for-different-refractive-error-range
#13
Leonardo Mastropasqua, Roberta Calienno, Claudia Curcio, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Mario Nubile, Niccolò Salgari, Manuela Lanzini
PURPOSE: To detect corneal inflammation and apoptosis induced after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) at different refractive corrections for moderate to high values of myopia. METHODS: Fifty patients (50 eyes) suffering from medium to high myopia (spherical equivalent refraction from -3.75 to -10.00 diopters (D) with refractive astigmatism under -0.75 D) underwent SMILE in order to correct myopic error. In vivo evaluation was done by corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) and ex vivo by immunohistochemistry...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910904/melanosome-transfer-to-keratinocyte-in-the-chicken-embryonic-skin-is-mediated-by-vesicle-release-associated-with-rho-regulated-membrane-blebbing
#14
Ryosuke Tadokoro, Hidetaka Murai, Ken-Ichiro Sakai, Takahiro Okui, Yasuhiro Yokota, Yoshiko Takahashi
During skin pigmentation in amniotes, melanin synthesized in the melanocyte is transferred to keratinocytes by a particle called the melanosome. Previous studies, mostly using dissociated cultured cells, have proposed several different models that explain how the melanosome transfer is achieved. Here, using a technique that labels the plasma membrane of melanocytes within a three-dimensional system that mimics natural tissues, we have visualized the plasma membrane of melanocytes with EGFP in chicken embryonic skin...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910828/biofilm-prevention-of-gram-negative-bacterial-pathogens-involved-in-periprosthetic-infection-by-antibiotic-loaded-calcium-sulfate-beads-in-vitro
#15
Robert P Howlin, Christopher Winnard, Connor J Frapwell, Jeremy S Webb, John J Cooper, Sean S Aiken, Paul Stoodley
Biofilm formation represents a key stage in the pathogenesis of prosthetic infections (PIs). More tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, biofilm bacteria are difficult to eradicate using conventional therapeutic regimes. A common approach in PI management is the adjunctive use of localised antibiotics in addition to systemic administration in an attempt to protect the implant from colonisation by infiltrating bacteria. This study evaluates the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of antibiotic-loaded dissolvable calcium sulphate, previously shown to be effective against key gram-positive pathogens, against gram-negative species important in the establishment of chronic infection in PIs...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909871/nap-interferes-with-hypoxia-inducible-factors-and-vegf-expression-in-retina-of-diabetic-rats
#16
Agata Grazia D'Amico, Grazia Maugeri, Claudio Bucolo, Salvatore Saccone, Concetta Federico, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
The retinal microvascular damage is a complication of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia and hypoxia are responsible of aberrant vessel's proliferation. The cellular response to hypoxia is mediated through activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Among these, HIF-1α modulates expression of its target gene, VEGF, whose upregulation controls the angiogenic event during DR development. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a small peptide, NAP, is able to protect retina from hyperglycemic insult...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909858/distribution-and-morphology-of-cholinergic-cells-in-the-branchial-epithelium-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Peter C Zachar, Wen Pan, Michael G Jonz
Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter important for oxygen sensing in mammals. A cholinergic mechanism in the fish gill has been implicated in the hyperventilatory response to acute hypoxia; however, the identity and distribution of acetylcholine-containing cells in the gills is poorly defined. We test the hypothesis that cholinergic cells are present in the gill filament epithelium in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model vertebrate for which oxygen chemoreceptors are well characterized, and that these cells would receive nervous innervation...
December 2, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909096/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#18
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We previously demonstrated that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we use neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections co-express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907267/mitogenic-action-of-hypoxia-upon-cutaneous-neuroepithelial-cells-in-developing-zebrafish
#19
Benjamin W Dean, Thalia J Rashid, Michael G Jonz
In zebrafish, cutaneous neuroepithelial cells (NECs) contain serotonin (5-HT) and are believed to initiate physiological and behavioral responses to hypoxia during embryonic and early larval development, when mature gills and O2 chemoreceptors are not yet present. The number of skin NECs rapidly declines as embryos develop into larvae, but acclimation to hypoxia leads to retention of a greater number of these cells. We hypothesized that reduction of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) in water would stimulate mitosis in cutaneous NECs in zebrafish...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907115/brucella-melitensis-16m-regulates-the-effect-of-air-domain-on-inflammatory-factors-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-mouse-macrophage-through-the-ros-signaling-pathway
#20
Tiansen Li, Yafang Xu, Laizhen Liu, Meiling Huang, Zhen Wang, Zhixia Tong, Hui Zhang, Fei Guo, Chuangfu Chen
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by Brucella. Brucella can invade and persist inside host cells, which results in chronic infection. We constructed AIR interference and overexpression lentiviruses to acquire AIR interference, overexpression, and rescue stable expression cell lines. We also established a Brucella melitensis 16M-infected macrophage model, which was treated with either the vehicle control or NAC (ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Confocal laser microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, ELISA, and Western blot were used to detect inflammation, cell autophagy and apoptosis-related protein expression levels, ROS levels, and the distribution of mitochondria...
2016: PloS One
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