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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748755/biotin-and-glutathione-targeting-of-solid-nanoparticles-to-cross-human-brain-endothelial-cells
#1
Szilvia Veszelka, Mária Mészáros, Lóránd Kiss, Zoltán Kóta, Tibor Páli, Zsófia Hoyk, Zsolt Bozsó, Lívia Fülöp, András Tóth, Gábor Rákhely, Mária A Deli
Background The blood-brain barrier restricts drug penetration to the central nervous system. Targeted nanocarriers are new potential tools to increase the brain entry of drugs. Ligands of endogenous transporters of the blood-brain barrier can be used as targeting vectors for brain delivery of nanoparticles. Objective We tested biotin-labeled solid nanoparticles for the first time and compared to biotinylated glutathione-labeled nanoparticles in brain endothelial cells. Method Neutravidin coated fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles were derivatized with biotin and biotinylated glutathione...
July 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748627/genetic-ablation-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-disrupts-gastric-barrier-function-via-claudin-18-downregulation-and-acid-backflux
#2
Taolang Li, Xuemei Liu, Brigitte Riederer, Katerina Nikolovska, Anurag Kumar Singh, Kari A Mäkelä, Anna Seidler, Yongjian Liu, Gerolf Gros, Helmut Bartels, Karl Heinz Herzig, Ursula Seidler
AIM: The study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms for the parietal cell loss and fundic hyperplasia observed in gastric mucosa of mice lacking the carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX). METHODS: We assessed the ability of CAIX knockout and WT gastric surface epithelial cells to withstand luminal acid load by measuring the pHi of exteriorized gastric mucosa in vivousing two photon confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cytokines and claudin-18A2 expression was analyzed by RT-PCR...
July 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748573/a-novel-humanized-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand-r2-monoclonal-antibody-induces-apoptotic-and-autophagic-cell-death
#3
Longfei Chen, Yuhe Qiu, Zhenliang Hao, Jiong Cai, Shuyong Zhang, Yanxin Liu, Dexian Zheng
It is well known that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/TNFSF10) is specifically expressed in various tumor cells, but less or no expression in most normal tissues and cells. While TRAIL engages with its native death receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) or 2 (TRAIL-R2), usually elicits the tumor cell death by apoptosis. In this study, we report that a novel humanized monoclonal antibody against TRAIL-R2 (named as zaptuzumab) well remain the biological activity of the parental mouse antibody AD5-10 inducing cell death in various cancer cells, but little effect on normal cells...
July 27, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748044/visualizing-the-dental-biofilm-matrix-by-means-of-fluorescence-lectin-binding-analysis
#4
Pune N Tawakoli, Thomas R Neu, Mette M Busck, Ute Kuhlicke, Andreas Schramm, Thomas Attin, Daniel B Wiedemeier, Sebastian Schlafer
The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled lectins to visualize and quantify extracellular glycoconjugates in dental biofilms. Lectin binding was screened on pooled supragingival biofilm samples collected from 76 subjects using confocal microscopy. FLBA was then performed with 10 selected lectins on biofilms grown in situ for 48 h in the absence of sucrose...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747825/biological-differences-between-hanwoo-longissimus-dorsi-and-semimembranosus-muscles-in-collagen-synthesis-of-fibroblasts
#5
Sivakumar Allur Subramaniyan, Inho Hwang
Variations in physical toughness between muscles and animals are a function of growth rate and extend of collagen type I and III. The current study was designed to investigate the ability of growth rate, collagen concentration, collagen synthesizing and degrading genes on two different fibroblast cells derived from Hanwoo m. longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Fibroblast cell survival time was determined for understanding about the characteristics of proliferation rate between the two fibroblasts...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747797/molecular-characterization-of-viral-responsive-protein-15-and-its-possible-role-in-nuclear-export-of-virus-in-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#6
Krisadaporn Jaturontakul, Thapanan Jatuyosporn, Pasunee Laohawutthichai, Sun-Yong Kim, Tomoyuki Mori, Premruethai Supungul, Toshio Hakoshima, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Kuakarun Krusong
A viral responsive protein 15 from Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15) has been reported to be important for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in vivo. This work aims to characterize PmVRP15 and investigate its possible role in nuclear import/export of the virus. Circular dichroism spectra showed that PmVRP15 contains high helical contents (82%). Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that PmVRP15 could possibly form oligomers in solution. A subcellular fractionation study showed that PmVRP15 was found in heavy and light membrane fractions, indicating that PmVRP15 may be associated with endoplasmic reticulum...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747737/open-source-software-for-automatic-detection-of-cone-photoreceptors-in-adaptive-optics-ophthalmoscopy-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#7
David Cunefare, Leyuan Fang, Robert F Cooper, Alfredo Dubra, Joseph Carroll, Sina Farsiu
Imaging with an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) enables direct visualization of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in the living human retina. Quantitative analysis of AOSLO images typically requires manual grading, which is time consuming, and subjective; thus, automated algorithms are highly desirable. Previously developed automated methods are often reliant on ad hoc rules that may not be transferable between different imaging modalities or retinal locations. In this work, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) based method for cone detection that learns features of interest directly from training data...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747710/a-high-content-image-analysis-approach-for-quantitative-measurements-of-chemosensitivity-in-patient-derived-tumor-microtissues
#8
Ilmari Ahonen, Malin Åkerfelt, Mervi Toriseva, Eva Oswald, Julia Schüler, Matthias Nees
Organotypic, three-dimensional (3D) cancer models have enabled investigations of complex microtissues in increasingly realistic conditions. However, a drawback of these advanced models remains the poor biological relevance of cancer cell lines, while higher clinical significance would be obtainable with patient-derived cell cultures. Here, we describe the generation and data analysis of 3D microtissue models from patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Standard of care anti-cancer drugs were applied and the altered multicellular morphologies were captured by confocal microscopy, followed by automated image analyses to quantitatively measure phenotypic features for high-content chemosensitivity tests...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747691/the-absence-that-makes-the-difference-choroidal-abnormalities-in-legius-syndrome
#9
Arianna Tucci, Veronica Saletti, Francesca Menni, Claudia Cesaretti, Giulietta Scuvera, Silvia Esposito, Giulia Melloni, Susanna Esposito, Donatella Milani, Cristina Cereda, Mario Cigada, Laura Tresoldi, Francesco Viola, Federica Natacci
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an hereditary disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation of multiple tissues of neural crest origin, and presents mainly with multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling and neurofibromas. Choroidal involvement in NF1 patients has been studied, thanks to the development of non-invasive tools such as infrared monochromatic light during fundus examination, which showed bright patchy lesions consistent with choroidal nodules. Choroidal abnormalities identified with near-infrared reflectance have reported with a frequency of up to 100% in NF1, and have been recently been proposed as a novel diagnostic criterion for NF1...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747503/identification-of-vaccinia-virus-replisome-and-transcriptome-proteins-by-ipond-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry
#10
Tatiana G Senkevich, George Katsafanas, Andrea Weisberg, Lisa R Olano, Bernard Moss
Poxviruses replicate within the cytoplasm and encode proteins for DNA and mRNA synthesis. To investigate poxvirus replication and transcription from a new perspective, we incorporated 5-ethynyl-2' -deoxyuridine (EdU) into nascent DNA in cells infected with vaccinia virus (VACV). The EdU-labeled DNA was conjugated to fluor- or biotin-azide and visualized by confocal, super resolution and transmission electron microscopy. Nuclear labeling decreased dramatically after infection, accompanied by intense labeling of cytoplasmic foci...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747449/loss-of-cutaneous-large-and-small-fibers-in-naive-and-l-dopa-treated-pd-patients
#11
Maria Nolano, Vincenzo Provitera, Fiore Manganelli, Rosa Iodice, Annamaria Stancanelli, Giuseppe Caporaso, Annamaria Saltalamacchia, Francesca Califano, Bernardo Lanzillo, Marina Picillo, Paolo Barone, Lucio Santoro
OBJECTIVE: To study small and large fiber pathology in drug-naive and l-dopa-treated patients affected by Parkinson disease (PD) in early phases, before the occurrence of neuropathic electrophysiologic abnormalities. METHODS: We enrolled 85 patients with idiopathic PD (male/female 49/36, age 61.3 ± 9.7 years) without electrophysiologic signs of neuropathy, including 48 participants naive to l-dopa treatment. All patients underwent clinical, functional, and morphologic assessment of sensory and autonomic nerves through dedicated questionnaires, quantitative sensory testing, sympathetic skin response, dynamic sweat test, and punch biopsies from glabrous and hairy skin...
July 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747040/glycative-and-oxidative-stress-are-associated-with-altered-thrombus-composition-in-diabetic-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#12
Antonia Sambola, Marisol Ruiz-Meana, Ignasi Barba, Bruno García Del Blanco, José A Barrabés, G Y Lip, Úrsula Vilardosa, Sara Sansaloni, Pau Rello, David García-Dorado
BACKGROUND: The role of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on composition of thrombus has not been fully characterized in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). AIMS: To elucidate the differences between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with STEMI in relation to the composition of coronary thrombus, and the potential association of these differences with glycated haemoglobin levels and markers of oxidative stress. METHODS: Intracoronary thrombi from consecutive thrombus aspiration procedures in STEMI patients, 25 diabetic and 28 non-diabetic, were analyzed by immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746801/an-automated-quantitative-image-analysis-tool-for-the-identification-of-microtubule-patterns-in-plants
#13
Christine Faulkner, Ji Zhou, Alexandre Evrard, Gildas Bourdais, Dan MacLean, Heidrun Häweker, Peter Eckes, Silke Robatzek
High throughput confocal imaging poses challenges in the computational image analysis of complex subcellular structures such as the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, we developed CellArchitect, an automated image analysis tool that quantifies changes to subcellular patterns illustrated by microtubule markers in plants. We screened microtubule-targeted herbicides and demonstrate that high throughput confocal imaging with integrated image analysis by CellArchitect can distinguish effects induced by the known herbicides indaziflam and trifluralin...
July 26, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746797/a-novel-quantitative-volumetric-spreading-index-definition-and-assessment-of-astrocyte-spreading-in-vitro
#14
Volkan Müjdat Tiryaki, Virginia M Ayres, Ijaz Ahmed, David I Shreiber
A novel quantitative volumetric spreading index (VSI) is defined that depends on the total distance between object voxels and the contact surface plane in three-dimensional (3D) space. The VSI, which ranges from 0 to 1, is rotationally invariant around the z-axis. VSI can be used to quantify the degree of individual cell spreading, which is important for analysis of cell interactions with their environment. The VSIs of astrocytes cultured on a nanofibrillar surface and three different comparative planar surfaces have been calculated from confocal laser scanning microscope z-series images, and the effects of both culture surface and immunoreactivity on the degree of cell spreading were investigated...
July 26, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746382/gelatin-nanoparticles-enhance-delivery-of-hepatitis-c-virus-recombinant-ns2-gene
#15
Salwa Sabet, Marina A George, Haidan M El-Shorbagy, Heba Bassiony, Khaled Y Farroh, Tareq Youssef, Taher A Salaheldin
BACKGROUND: Development of an effective non-viral vaccine against hepatitis C virus infection is of a great importance. Gelatin nanoparticles (Gel.NPs) have an attention and promising approach as a viable carrier for delivery of vaccine, gene, drug and other biomolecules in the body. AIM OF WORK: The present study aimed to develop stable Gel.NPs conjugated with nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) gene of Hepatitis C Virus genotype 4a (HCV4a) as a safe and an efficient vaccine delivery system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745869/high-resolution-imaging-and-multiparametric-characterization-of-native-membranes-by-combining-confocal-microscopy-and-atomic-force-microscopy-based-multifunctional-toolbox
#16
Pawel R Laskowski, Moritz Pfreundschuh, Mirko Stauffer, Zöhre Ucurum, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Daniel J Müller
To understand how membrane proteins function requires characterizing their structure, assembly and inter- and intramolecular interactions in physiologically relevant conditions. Conventionally, such multiparametric insight is revealed by applying different biophysical methods. Here we introduce the combination of confocal microscopy, force-distance curve-based (FD-based) atomic force microscopy (AFM) and single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) for the identification of native membranes and the subsequent multiparametric analysis of their membrane proteins...
July 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745493/sortase-mediated-surface-functionalization-of-stimuli-responsive-microgels
#17
Elisabeth Gau, Diana M Mate, Zhi Zou, Alex Oppermann, Alexander Töpel, Felix Jakob, Dominik Wöll, Ulrich Schwaneberg, Andrij Pich
In this work we explored an enzyme-mediated method for selective and efficient decoration of aqueous microgels with biomolecules. Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (VCL) microgels with varied amounts of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as comonomer incorporated in the microgel shell were synthesized and characterized regarding to their size, swelling degree and temperature-responsiveness in aqueous solutions. The surface of the PVCL/GMA microgel containing 5 mol% glycidyl methyacrylate was modified by grafting of a specific recognition peptide sequence (LPETG) for Sortase A from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa-SrtA∆59)...
July 26, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745311/outer-membrane-vesicle-associated-lipase-ftla-enhances-cellular-invasion-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis-lvs
#18
Fei Chen, Guolin Cui, Shuxia Wang, Manoj Kumar Mohan Nair, Lihong He, Xinyi Qi, Xiangmin Han, Hanqi Zhang, Jing-Ren Zhang, Jingliang Su
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen that infects a wide range of host species and causes fatal pneumonic tularemia in humans. ftlA was identified as a potential virulence determinant of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) in our previous transposon screen, but its function remained undefined. Here, we show that an unmarked deletion mutant of ftlA was avirulent in a pneumonia mouse model with a severely impaired capacity to infect host cells. Consistent with its sequence homology with GDSL lipase/esterase family proteins, the FtlA protein displayed lipolytic activity in both E...
July 26, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743939/a-cryosectioning-technique-for-the-observation-of-intracellular-structures-and-immunocytochemistry-of-tissues-in-atomic-force-microscopy-afm
#19
Eiji Usukura, Akihiro Narita, Akira Yagi, Nobuaki Sakai, Yoshitsugu Uekusa, Yuka Imaoka, Shuichi Ito, Jiro Usukura
The use of cryosectioning facilitates the morphological analysis and immunocytochemistry of cells in tissues in atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cantilever can access all parts of a tissue sample in cryosections after the embedding medium (sucrose) has been replaced with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and this approach has enabled the production of a type of high-resolution image. The images resembled those obtained from freeze-etching replica electron microscopy (EM) rather than from thin-section EM. The AFM images showed disks stacked and enveloped by the cell membrane in rod photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) at EM resolution...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743917/a-rapid-low-cost-and-microfluidic-chip-based-system-for-parallel-identification-of-multiple-pathogens-related-to-clinical-pneumonia
#20
Guoliang Huang, Qin Huang, Lan Xie, Guangxin Xiang, Lei Wang, Hui Xu, Li Ma, Xianbo Luo, Juan Xin, Xinying Zhou, Xiangyu Jin, Lei Zhang
An air-insulated microfluidic chip was designed for the automatic centrifugal distribution of samples to 24-test cells, enabling the parallel identification of multiple clinical pneumonia-related pathogens in 1.45-μL reactions without cross-contamination in 45 min. A portable nucleic acid analyzer that integrates mechanical, confocal optical, electronic, and software functions was also developed to collect fluorescence data in a Ø3 mm imaging field near the optical diffraction limit for highly sensitive fluorescence detection of nucleic acid amplification in real time...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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