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Pulmonary MRI

Masateru Kawakubo, Hiroshi Akamine, Yuzo Yamasaki, Atsushi Takemura, Kohtaro Abe, Kazuya Hosokawa, Junji Morishita, Michinobu Nagao
In this study, three-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (3D-PC MRI), a novel technique, was validated to assess pulmonary artery (PA) flow in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The MR data of PAs from 3D-PC and two-dimensional PC (2D-PC) from before and after treatment for 3 patients with CTEPH were retrospectively analyzed. Additionally, 3D- and 2D-PC MR scans of PA were performed in 5 healthy volunteers. Correlation of stroke volumes (SVs) obtained by 3D-PC and 2D-PC was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients...
October 25, 2016: Radiological Physics and Technology
S Ipsen, O Blanck, N J Lowther, G P Liney, R Rai, F Bode, J Dunst, A Schweikard, P J Keall
Radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum in the left atrium (LA) has recently been proposed for non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Precise real-time target localization during treatment is necessary due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion and high radiation doses. To determine the 3D position of the LA for motion compensation during radiosurgery, a tracking method based on orthogonal real-time MRI planes was developed for AF treatments with an MRI-guided radiotherapy system. Four healthy volunteers underwent cardiac MRI of the LA...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Verena Ruhlmann, Marcus Ruhlmann, Alexander Bellendorf, Johannes Grueneisen, Lino M Sawicki, Hong Grafe, Michael Forsting, Andreas Bockisch, Lale Umutlu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the diagnostic potential of integrated whole-body [18F]FDG-PET/MRI to [18F]FDG-PET/CT for detection of a potential primary cancer and metastases in patients suspected for cancer of unknown primary (CUP). METHODS: A total of 20 patients (15 male, 5 female, age 53±13 years) suspect for CUP underwent a dedicated head and neck & whole-body [18F]FDG-PET/CT (Biograph mCT 128, Siemens Healthcare) and a subsequent simultaneous [18F]FDG-PET/MRI examination (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare)...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Orso Pusterla, Grzegorz Bauman, Mark O Wielpütz, Sylvia Nyilas, Philipp Latzin, Claus P Heussel, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To introduce a reproducible, nonenhanced 1H MRI method for rapid in vivo functional assessment of the whole lung at 1.5 Tesla (T). METHODS: At different respiratory volumes, the pulmonary signal of ultra-fast steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) follows an adapted sponge model, characterized by a respiratory index α. From the model, α reflects local ventilation-related information, is virtually independent from the lung density and thus from the inspiratory phase and breathing amplitude...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Hae-Young Lee, Chan-Soon Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Kyung-Jin Kim, Chan Joo Lee, Sungha Park
A 47-year-old woman was admitted via emergency department due to dyspnea NYHA Fc II-III aggravated for 2 months after upper respiratory infection. Her height and body weight were 161 cm / 67 kg. Initial vital signs were 110/70 mmHg - 112 BPM - 24/min - 36.5°C. Chest PA showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion (Figure 1). B-natriuretic peptide level was markedly increased (2002 pg/mL, normal range ≤ 100 pg/mL). The echocardiographic examination showed severely dilated LV cavity (61/72 mm) and severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF 28%) with normal left ventricular wall thickness (9/11 mm) (Figure 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fatma Nur Korkmaz, Gulsen Ozen, Ali Uğur Ünal, Pınar Kahraman Koytak, Nese Tuncer, Haner Direskeneli
Abstract/ Resumo Behcet's disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions and uveitis. The nervous system involvement of BD, neuro-Behcet's disease (NBD), is one of the important causes of mortality of the disease. Herein, we present a 29-year-old male with parenchymal NBD who has progressed rapidly and was managed with an uncommon aggressive immunosuppresive combination therapy. The patient first presented six years ago with vertigo and difficulty in talking and walking...
September 28, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Hooman Hamedani, Stephen Kadlecek, Yi Xin, Sarmad Siddiqui, Heather Gatens, Joseph Naji, Masaru Ishii, Maurizio Cereda, Milton Rossman, Rahim Rizi
PURPOSE: To present a method for simultaneous acquisition of alveolar oxygen tension (PA O2 ), specific ventilation (SV), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) gas in the human lung, allowing reinterpretation of the PA O2 and SV maps to produce a map of oxygen uptake (R). METHOD: An imaging scheme was designed with a series of identical normoxic HP gas wash-in breaths to measure ADC, SV, PA O2 , and R in less than 2 min. Signal dynamics were fit to an iterative recursive model that regionally solved for these parameters...
October 13, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Khadija Sheikh, Fumin Guo, Dante P I Capaldi, Alexei Ouriadov, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Grace Parraga
PURPOSE: To develop and assess ultrashort echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers of lung function in asthma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty participants including 13 healthy volunteers and 17 asthmatics provided written informed consent to UTE and pulmonary function tests in addition to hyperpolarized-noble-gas 3T MRI and computed tomography (CT) for asthmatics only. The difference in MRI signal-intensity (SI) across four lung volumes (full-expiration, functional-residual-capacity [FRC], FRC+1L, and full-inspiration) was determined on a voxel-by-voxel basis to generate dynamic proton-density (DPD) maps...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Trishan Patel, Amy Elphick, James E Jackson, Claire L Shovlin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if injection of intravenous particles may provoke migraines in subjects with right-to-left shunts due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). BACKGROUND: Migraine headaches commonly affect people with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), especially those with pulmonary AVMs that provide right-to-left shunts. In our clinical practice, patients occasionally reported acute precipitation of migraine headaches following injection of technetium-labeled albumin macroaggregates for nuclear medicine scans...
October 11, 2016: Headache
Yaxia Zhang, Michael Joyce, Jean Schils, Thomas W Bauer
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomas, predominantly involving lung, mediastinal lymph nodes and other organs. Synovium involvement is infrequent, and as far as we know, involvement of a periprosthetic membrane has not been reported in the English literature. Intra-articular diffuse tenosynovial giant cell tumor ("conventional diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis") is an uncommon, locally aggressive neoplasm with few previous case reports in which it arose in periprosthetic tissues after knee arthroplasty...
October 7, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based treatment and management for patients with bronchiectasis remain challenging. There is a need for regional disease measurements as focal distribution of disease is common. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect regional ventilation impairment and response to airway clearance therapy (ACT) in patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, providing a new way to objectively and regionally evaluate response to therapy...
October 4, 2016: Academic Radiology
Lukas Ebner, Jeff Kammerman, Bastiaan Driehuys, Mark L Schiebler, Robert V Cadman, Sean B Fain
In the last two decades, functional imaging of the lungs using hyperpolarized noble gases has entered the clinical stage. Both helium ((3)He) and xenon ((129)Xe) gas have been thoroughly investigated for their ability to assess both the global and regional patterns of lung ventilation. With advances in polarizer technology and the current transition towards the widely available (129)Xe gas, this method is ready for translation to the clinic. Currently, hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas lung MRI is limited to selected academic institutions; yet, the promising results from initial clinical trials have drawn the attention of the pulmonary medicine community...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Bilge Öztoprak
OBJECTIVES: Clinical applications of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) are increasing steadily. The aim of this study is to investigate the appearance of cerebral veins on SWI, which is very sensitive to the deoxyhaemoglobin level in vessels, in pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: The cranial SWI images of 19 patients with PE and 22 controls from September 2013 through March 2016 were retrospectively examined for the presence of prominent cerebral veins. MRI findings were correlated with blood oxygen levels...
October 4, 2016: European Radiology
Swati Vishwanathan, Michael Lucke, Indu G Poornima
A woman aged 22 years with a history of lupus presented in the 18th week of pregnancy with hypertensive emergency and flash pulmonary oedema. Bedside echocardiogram revealed severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with an ejection fraction (EF) of 25% and pericardial effusion. Laboratories revealed hypocomplementemia, proteinuria, elevated C reactive protein and anti-DS-DNA, raising concern for a lupus flare. Cardiac MRI showed an acute intramyocardial oedematous process, consistent with lupus carditis, and further worsening of LVEF to 13%...
October 4, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Tomofumi Nakamura, Kaoru Okishige, Toshiro Kanazawa, Mitsumi Yamashita, Naohiko Kawaguchi, Nobutaka Kato, Hideshi Aoyagi, Yasuteru Yamauchi, Tetsuo Sasano, Kenzo Hirao
AIMS: Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (PVI) utilizing a cryoballoon (CB) has become one of the standard therapeutic options for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it connotes a potential risk of cerebral ischaemic events (CIEs). This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CIEs after PVI using second-generation CBs assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. METHODS: This prospective observational study consisted of 160 patients that underwent PVI with second-generation CBs for drug-refractory AF...
October 4, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
A Khalil, M Majlath, V Gounant, A Hess, J P Laissy, M P Debray
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prognosis and treatment outcomes are known to be related to the disease stage at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the extent of disease is critical to determine the most appropriate therapy. Currently available imaging modalities for diagnosis and follow-up consist of morphological and functional imaging. Morphological investigations are mainly performed with CT-scan and in some cases with MRI. In this review, we describe the contribution of MRI in lung cancer staging focusing on solid pulmonary nodule characterization and TNM staging assessment using chest and whole-body MRI examinations, detailing in each chapter current recommendations and future developments...
October 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Atsuomi Kimura, Yukiko Yamauchi, Shota Hodono, Neil James Stewart, Osamu Hosokawa, Yu Hagiwara, Hirohiko Imai, Hideaki Fujiwara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate disease progression and treatment response in a murine model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using a preclinical hyperpolarized (129) Xe (HPXe) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategy. METHODS: COPD phenotypes were induced in 32 mice by 10 weeks of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Efficacy of ethyl pyruvate (EP), an anti-inflammatory drug, was investigated by administering EP to 16 of the 32 mice after 6 weeks of CS and LPS exposure...
September 30, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Bhaskar Bhardwaj, Ata Bajwa, Amit Sharma, Arooge Towheed, Bakul V Sanghani, A Iain McGhie
A 71-year-old male presented after sudden onset of confusion and expressive aphasia. MRI head revealed multiple ischemic lesions consistent with cardio-embolic pathophysiology. A computed tomography angiography of lung showed peripheral pulmonary emboli. He underwent a transesophageal echocardiogram as a part of the stroke workup and was found to have vegetations on both aortic and tricuspid valves. The blood cultures did not show any growth, and the patient remained afebrile during the course of hospitalization...
September 30, 2016: Echocardiography
J Li, J R Qu, H K Zhang, J C Xiao, L N Jiang, Y Zhao, H L Li
Objective: To initially explore MRI features and its changing trends including of lung tumors after Argon-Helium cryoablation therapy, and enhance the recognition of MR findings of lung tumors postcryoablation. Methods: Twenty-three cases of patients with twenty six nodules of pulmonary malignance who received Argon-Helium cryoablation therapy in Henan Cancer Hospital from July 2014 to January 2016 were enrolled.All patients underwent unenhanced and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans at pre-and 1-day, 1-week, 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month postcryoablation...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Lillian M Lai, Joseph Y Cheng, Marcus T Alley, Tao Zhang, Michael Lustig, Shreyas S Vasanawala
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of ferumoxytol-enhanced anesthesia-free cardiac MRI in neonates and young infants for complex congenital heart disease (CHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: With Institutional Review Board approval, 21 consecutive neonates and young infants (1 day to 11 weeks old; median age of 3 days) who underwent a rapid two-sequence (MR angiography [MRA] and four-dimensional [4D] flow) MRI protocol with intravenous ferumoxytol without sedation (n = 17) or light sedation (n = 4) at 3 Tesla (T) (except one case at 1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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