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Risk reduction

Li Xie, Liqin Chen, Pan Gu, Lanlan Wei, Xuejun Kang
The extraction and analysis of catecholamine neurotransmitters in biological fluids is of great importance in assessing nervous system function and related diseases, but their precise measurement is still a challenge. Many protocols have been described for neurotransmitter measurement by a variety of instruments, including high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, there are shortcomings, such as complicated operation or hard-to-detect multiple targets, which cannot be avoided, and presently, the dominant analysis technique is still HPLC coupled with sensitive electrochemical or fluorimetric detection, due to its high sensitivity and good selectivity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Erica M Eaton, Molly Magill, Christy Capone, Margaret A Cramer, Nadine R Mastroleo, Racheal Reavy, Brian Borsari
OBJECTIVE: Colleges continue to experience a high number of referred students because of campus alcohol violations. Subsequently, there has been a trend to use peer-implemented minimal interventions (PMIs), often using motivational interviewing (MI). However, little is known about how PMIs facilitate behavior change. This study aims to examine the mechanisms of behavior change within PMIs and their influence on alcohol reduction among mandated students. METHOD: Participants (N = 146; mean age = 18...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Mini Kamboj, Teresa Childers, Jessica Sugalski, Donna Antonelli, Juliane Bingener-Casey, Jamie Cannon, Karie Cluff, Kimberly A Davis, E Patchen Dellinger, Sean C Dowdy, Kim Duncan, Julie Fedderson, Robert Glasgow, Bruce Hall, Marilyn Hirsch, Matthew Hutter, Lisa Kimbro, Boris Kuvshinoff, Martin Makary, Melanie Morris, Sharon Nehring, Sonia Ramamoorthy, Rebekah Scott, Mindy Sovel, Vivian Strong, Ashley Webster, Elizabeth Wick, Julio Garcia Aguilar, Robert Carlson, Kent Sepkowitz
BACKGROUND Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery (CRS) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Reduction in colorectal SSI rates is an important goal for surgical quality improvement. OBJECTIVE To examine rates of SSI in patients with and without cancer and to identify potential predictors of SSI risk following CRS DESIGN American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data files for 2011-2013 from a sample of 12 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions were combined...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Giovanna Casili, Maurizio Evangelista, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Aging is a major risk factor for idiopathic PD. Several prior studies examined the neuroprotective effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), alone or combined with antioxidants, in a model of PD induced by the dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Here, we analyzed the pretreatment effect of micronized PEA (PEAm) on neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death in the MPTP model...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Antonio López-Uceda, Adela P Galvín, Jesús Ayuso, José Ramón Jiménez, Tom Vanwalleghem, Adolfo Peña
Extensive green roofs are urban construction systems that provide thermal regulation and sound proofing for the buildings involved, in addition to providing an urban heat island mitigation or water retention. On the other hand, policies towards reduction of energy consumption, a circular economy and sustainability are core in the European Union. Motivated by this, an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the environmental risk assessment according to release levels of polluting elements on leachates of different green roof substrate mixtures based on recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste through (i) the performance in laboratory of two procedures: compliance and percolation tests and (ii) an upscaled experimental leaching test for long-term on-site prediction...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Sibel Guzel, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) followed by re-oxygenation in normoxia or supplemental oxygen (IHR) increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The exact timing for the onset of retinal damage which may guide strategic interventions during retinal development, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure of the immature retina to neonatal IH induces early manifestations of retinal damage that can be utilized as key time points for strategic pharmacologic intervention. Newborn rats were exposed to IH within 2 hours of birth (P0) until P14, or allowed to recover in room air (RA) from P14 to P21 (IHR)...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
Yusuke Tsuyuguchi, Tomoyuki Nakasa, Masakazu Ishikawa, Yasunari Ikuta, Mikiya Sawa, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Nobuo Adachi
Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique for ankle joint treatment. However, injury to the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (IDCN) and the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve (MDCN) is a common complication during anterior portal placement. To prevent injuries, methods such as palpating the nerves topographically and marking the nerves by transilluminating the skin with an arthroscope have been proposed. Easier and more definitive methods of identifying the IDCN and MDCN should result in a reduction of complications...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Katherine Smith, Jeffrey P Fleming, Bernard Gros
Heart failure (HF) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States (U.S.), with an estimated prevalence of five million patients in the U.S. and an annual healthcare cost of greater than 30 billion dollars. Readmission rates for HF patients are astronomically high, with up to 25% of hospitalized patients with HF requiring readmission within 30 days of discharge. The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act aims to address these concerns by financially penalizing institutions with unacceptably high risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates for HF patients...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Abdul-Amir Yassine, William Kingsford, Yiwen Xu, Jeffrey Cassidy, Lothar Lilge, Vaughn Betz
Finding a high-quality treatment plan is an essential, yet difficult, stage of Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as it will determine the therapeutic efficacy in eradicating malignant tumors. A high-quality plan is patient-specific, and provides clinicians with the number of fiber-based spherical diffusers, their powers, and their interstitial locations to deliver the required light dose to destroy the tumor while minimizing the damage to surrounding healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a general convex light source power allocation algorithm that, given light source locations, guarantees optimality of the resulting solution in minimizing the over/under-dosage of volumes of interest...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Rupert Page, Rohit Shankar, Brendan N McLean, Jane Hanna, Craig Newman
Epilepsy is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. The likelihood is significantly greater for those patients with specific risk factors. Identifying those at greatest risk of injury and providing expert management from the earliest opportunity is made more challenging by the circumstances in which many such patients present. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of earlier identification of those at risk, there is little or no improvement in outcomes over more than 30 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Babak Ebrahimi, Bryan T Jackson, Julie L Guseman, Colin M Przybylowicz, Christopher M Stone, Woodbridge A Foster
Knowledge of the link between a vector population's pathogen-transmission potential and its biotic environment can generate more realistic forecasts of disease risk due to environmental change. It also can promote more effective vector control by both conventional and novel means.This study assessed the effect of particular plant species assemblages differing in nectar production on components of the vectorial capacity of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. , an important vector of African malaria.We followed cohorts of mosquitoes for three weeks in greenhouse mesocosms holding nectar-poor and nectar-rich plant species by tracking daily mortalities and estimating daily biting rates and fecundities...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Marleen Vonder, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Merel A Kaatee, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Peter M A van Ooijen, Geertruida H de Bock, Jan Willem Gratama, Dirkjan Kuijpers, Harry J de Koning, Matthijs Oudkerk
BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of high-pitch spiral acquisition on radiation dose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification by coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment with computed tomography in individuals with a high heart rate. METHODS: Of the ROBINSCA trial, 1990 participants with regular rhythm and heart rates >65 beats per minute (bpm) were included. As reference, 390 participants with regular heart rates ≤65 bpm were used. All participants underwent prospectively electrocardiographically(ECG)-triggered imaging of the coronary arteries using dual source CT at 120 kVp, 80 ref mAs using both high-pitch spiral mode and sequential mode...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Elan D Louis, James H Meyers, Ashley D Cristal, Ruby Hickman, Pam Factor-Litvak
BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are measurable clinical characteristics that may be present in individuals with increased risk for disease (e.g., unaffected family members). Endophenotypes are useful; they may clarify diagnosis in genetic studies and foster the development of animal models. In recent years, problems with balance and mild gait ataxia have been associated with essential tremor (ET). We compared gait and balance of first-degree relatives of ET cases (FD-ET) to that of age-matched controls (Co)...
March 13, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Paolo Vercellini, Paola Viganò, Laura Buggio, Sofia Makieva, Giovanna Scarfone, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Fabio Parazzini, Edgardo Somigliana
In women with endometriosis, the lifetime risk of ovarian cancer is increased from 1.4% to about 1.9%. The risk of clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer is, respectively, tripled and doubled. Atypical endometriosis, observed in 1-3% of endometriomas excised in premenopausal women, is the intermediate precursor lesion linking typical endometriosis and clear cell/endometrioid tumors. Prolonged oral contraceptive use is associated with a major reduction in ovarian cancer risk among women with endometriosis...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Carolien Zwiers, Mirjam Ea Scheffer-Rath, Enrico Lopriore, Masja de Haas, Helen G Liley
BACKGROUND: Exchange transfusion and phototherapy have traditionally been used to treat jaundice and avoid the associated neurological complications. Because of the risks and burdens of exchange transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been suggested as an alternative therapy for alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to reduce the need for exchange transfusion. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect and complications of IVIg in newborn infants with alloimmune HDN on the need for and number of exchange transfusions...
March 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Richard Conway, Declan Byrne, Seán Cournane, Deirdre O'Riordan, Bernard Silke
BACKGROUND: The Acute Medical Admission Unit (AMAU) model of care has been associated with improved short- and medium-term outcomes; whether these improvements are sustained remains unclear. We report on the 15-year outcomes of an AMAU in our institution. METHODS: All emergency medical admissions between 2002 and 2016 were examined and 30-day in-hospital mortality, admission rates, readmission rates and length of stay (LOS) assessed. We used logistic and Poisson regression and margin statistics to evaluate outcomes...
March 17, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Sarang Kim, Mitchell McMaster, Susan Torres, Kay L Cox, Nicola Lautenschlager, George W Rebok, Dimity Pond, Catherine D'Este, Ian McRae, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
INTRODUCTION: It has been estimated that a 10%-25% reduction in seven key risk factors could potentially prevent 1.1-3.0 million Alzheimer's disease cases globally. In addition, as dementia is preceded by more subtle cognitive deficits which have substantial social and economic impact, effective preventative interventions would likely have more extensive benefits. The current study evaluates in primary care a multidomain risk-reduction intervention targeting adults with high risk of developing dementia...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Marian Jenkins, Kate Sofronoff
BACKGROUND: Many parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report that they are ill-equipped to support their children's behaviour, and these youths are known to be at substantially greater risk of emotional or behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. There is a need for an efficient and tailored parenting program for parents of adolescents with ASD that includes guidance on how to best support these youths' development and well-being. AIMS: The current study examined the feasibility of Building Bridges Triple P (BBTP), an eight-week (11...
March 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Sandrine Girerd, Lucie Tosca, Olivier Herault, Christine Vignon, Denis Biard, Djamel Aggoune, Fatima Dkhissi, Marie Laure Bonnet, Nathalie Sorel, Christophe Desterke, Annelise Bennaceur-Griscelli, Gerard Tachdjian, François Guilhot, Joelle Guilhot, Jean-Claude Chomel, Ali G Turhan
Manganese Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) plays a crucial role in antioxidant defense but there are no data suggesting its role in genetic instability in CML. We evaluated the effects of SOD2 silencing in human UT7 cell line expressing either non-mutated or T315I-mutated BCR-ABL. Array-CGH experiments detected in BCR-ABL-expressing cells silenced for SOD2 a major genetic instability within several chromosomal loci, especially in regions carrying the glypican family (duplicated) and β-defensin genes (deleted)...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marietta Zita Poles, Nikolett Bódi, Mária Bagyánszki, Éva Fekete, András Tamás Mészáros, Gabriella Varga, Szilárd Szűcs, Anna Nászai, Liliána Kiss, Andrey V Kozlov, Mihály Boros, József Kaszaki
Our aim was to characterize the main components of the nitrosative response with quantitative changes of the nitrergic myenteric neurons in adjacent intestinal segments after transient superior mesenteric artery occlusion. We also tested the hypothesis that exogenous methane may modulate the evolution of nitroxidation by influencing xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity. The microcirculatory consequences of a 50min ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion were investigated in anesthetized rats (n=124) inhaling normoxic air with or without 2...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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