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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340259/sedative-prescriptions-are-common-at-opioid-initiation-an-observational-study-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#1
Hilary J Mosher, Kelly K Richardson, Brian C Lund
Background.:  Concurrent use of sedatives, especially anxiolytics, and opioids is associated with increased risk of medication-related harms. To the extent that multiple prescribers are involved, approaches to influence patterns of coprescribing will differ from those to influence prescribing within a single drug class. Objectives.:  Describe the proportion of new opioid recipients with concurrent sedative medications at opioid initiation and determine whether these medications were prescribed by the same prescriber...
March 18, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339573/augmented-h2s-production-via-cystathionine-beta-synthase-upregulation-plays-a-role-in-pregnancy-associated-uterine-vasodilation%C3%A2
#2
Lili Sheibani, Thomas J Lechuga, Honghai Zhang, Afshan Hameed, Deborah A Wing, Sathish Kumar, Charles R Rosenfeld, Dong-Bao Chen
Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) synthesized via metabolizing L-cysteine by cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) is a potent vasodilator and angiogenic factor. The objectives of this study were to determine if human uterine artery (UA) H2S production increases with augmented expression and/or activity of CBS and/or CSE during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy and whether exogenous H2S dilates UA. Uterine arteries from nonpregnant (NP) premenopausal proliferative (pPRM) and secretory (sPRM) phases of the menstrual cycle and pregnant (P) women were studied...
January 24, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338578/spinal-cord-is-the-primary-site-of-action-for-skeletal-muscle-relaxation-by-sevoflurane
#3
Peng Zhang, Pingliang Yang, Ling Ye, Tao Zhu
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, in vivo study was performed to explore the skeletal muscle relaxation action site of sevoflurane. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the skeletal muscle relaxation action of sevoflurane by a modified selective anesthetics delivery rabbit model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The action site and mechanisms of skeletal muscle relaxation caused by sevoflurane was unclear. So a modified selective anesthetics delivery model was used...
March 23, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338396/should-ballet-dancers-vary-postures-and-under-foot-surfaces-when-practicing-postural-balance
#4
Nili Steinberg, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Janet Karin, Oren Tirosh
BACKGROUND: Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not been adequately addressed. PURPOSE: The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. METHOD: Thirty-six male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14-19) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turn-out position, under six different conditions: 1...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337027/obesity-induced-decreases-in-muscle-performance-are-not-reversed-by-weight-loss
#5
F Seebacher, J Tallis, K McShea, R S James
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity can affect muscle phenotypes, and may thereby constrain movement and energy expenditure. Weight loss is a common and intuitive intervention for obesity, but it is not known whether the effects of obesity on muscle function are reversible by weight loss. Here we tested whether obesity-induced changes in muscle metabolic and contractile phenotypes are reversible by weight loss. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a factorial design to compare energy metabolism, locomotor capacity, muscle isometric force and work-loop power output, and myosin heavy chain composition between lean fish, diet-induced obese fish, and fish that were obese and then returned to lean body mass following diet restriction...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332039/combined-quantification-of-fatty-infiltration-t-1-relaxation-times-and-t-2-relaxation-times-in-normal-appearing-skeletal-muscle-of-controls-and-dystrophic-patients
#6
Benjamin Leporq, Arnaud Le Troter, Yann Le Fur, Emmanuelle Salort-Campana, Maxime Guye, Olivier Beuf, Shahram Attarian, David Bendahan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the combination of a fat-water separation method with an automated segmentation algorithm to quantify the intermuscular fatty-infiltrated fraction, the relaxation times, and the microscopic fatty infiltration in the normal-appearing muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR acquisitions were performed at 1.5T in seven patients with facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy and eight controls. Disease severity was assessed using commonly used scales for the upper and lower limbs...
March 22, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331575/lumbar-lordosis-in-prone-position-and-prone-hip-extension-test-comparison-between-subjects-with-and-without-low-back-pain
#7
Amir Massoud Arab, Arash Haghighat, Zahra Amiri, Fariba Khosravi
BACKGROUND: Prone hip extension (PHE) is a common and widely accepted test used for assessment of the lumbo-pelvic movement pattern. Considerable increased in lumbar lordosis during this test has been considered as impairment of movement patterns in lumbo-pelvic region. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of lumbar lordosis in PHE test in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP). METHOD: A two-way mixed design with repeated measurements was used to investigate the lumbar lordosis changes during PHE in two groups of subjects with and without LBP...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326563/early-structural-and-functional-signature-of-3-day-human-skeletal-muscle-disuse-using-the-dry-immersion-model
#8
Rémi Demangel, Loïc Treffel, Guillaume Py, Thomas Brioche, Allan F Pagano, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Arnaud Beck, Laurence Pessemesse, Robin Candau, Claude Gharib, Angèle Chopard, Catherine Millet
Microgravity and hypoactivity are associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning. The decrease of muscle mass is an exponential decay with major changes in the first days. The purpose of the study was to dissect out the effects of a short-term 3-day dry immersion (DI) on human quadriceps muscle function and structure. The DI model, by suppressing all support zones, accurately reproduces the effects of microgravity. Twelve healthy volunteers (32 ± 5 yrs) completed 3 days of DI. Muscle function was investigated through maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) tests and muscle viscoelasticity...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325152/synthesis-computational-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-n-2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl-2-4-substituted-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl-acetamides-as-cns-agents
#9
Shweta Verma, Surendra Kumar, Sushil Kumar
A series of new N-(2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-(substituted phenyl) piperazin-1-yl) acetamides (3a-j) have been synthesized by the chloroacetylation of 2-amino-5-chlorbenzophenone which was further reacted with substituted phenylpiperazine. The chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed on the basis of their TLC, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and by elemental analysis. The physicochemical similarity of the target compounds with respect to standard drug diazepam was assessed by calculating from a set of physicochemical properties using software programs...
March 21, 2017: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321637/the-time-course-of-short-term-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-eccentric-muscle-damage
#10
Matt S Stock, Jacob A Mota, Ryan N DeFranco, Katherine A Grue, A Unique Jacobo, Eunhee Chung, Jordan R Moon, Jason M DeFreitas, Travis W Beck
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the increase in skeletal muscle mass observed during the initial weeks of initiating a resistance training program is concomitant with eccentric muscle damage and edema. PURPOSE: We examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy during 4 weeks of concentric-only resistance training. METHODS: Thirteen untrained men performed unilateral concentric-only dumbbell curls and shoulder presses twice per week for 4 weeks...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320373/nelumbo-nucifera-leaves-extracts-inhibit-mouse-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction
#11
Xiao Yang, Lu Xue, Qingyang Zhao, Congli Cai, Qing-Hua Liu, Jinhua Shen
BACKGROUND: Alkaloids extracted from lotus leaves (AELL) can relax vascular smooth muscle. However, whether AELL has a similar relaxant role on airway smooth muscle (ASM) remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the relaxant property of AELL on ASM and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Alkaloids were extracted from dried lotus leaves using the high temperature rotary evaporation extraction method. The effects of AELL on mouse ASM tension were studied using force measuring and patch-clamp techniques...
March 20, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319644/the-retinal-relaxing-factor-update-on-an-enigmatic-regulator-of-the-retinal-circulation
#12
Laura Vanden Daele, Charlotte Boydens, Bart Pauwels, Johan Van de Voorde
The retinal circulation is regulated by different local factors and might include the retinal relaxing factor (RRF). This factor is found to be continuously released by the retina and relaxes smooth muscle cells. This review describes the current knowledge about the RRF. Despite many research efforts, the cellular source, identity, mechanism, and physiological role of the RRF remain largely unknown. Thus far, it seems that the RRF is a hydrophilic, thermostable, diffusible chemical messenger, which characteristics do not correspond with most well-known endogenous vasorelaxants...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317837/inhibitory-responses-mediated-by-vagal-nerve-stimulation-are-diminished-in-stomachs-of-mice-with-reduced-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#13
Elizabeth A H Beckett, Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward
Intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) are closely associated with enteric motor nerve terminals and electrically coupled to smooth muscle cells within the gastric musculature. Previous studies investigating the role of ICC-IM in motor neurotransmission have used indiscriminate electric field stimulation of neural elements within the gastric wall. To determine the role of ICC-IM in transduction of vagally-mediated motor input to gastric muscles electrical and mechanical responses to selective electrical vagal stimulation (EVS) were recorded from gastric fundus and antral regions of wild type and W/W(V) mice, which lack most ICC-IM...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315343/inhibition-of-agonist-induced-smooth-muscle-contraction-by-picotamide-in-the-male-human-lower-urinary-tract-outflow-region
#14
Martin Hennenberg, Alexander Tamalunas, Yiming Wang, Patrick Keller, Melanie Schott, Frank Strittmatter, Annika Herlemann, Qingfeng Yu, Beata Rutz, Anna Ciotkowska, Christian G Stief, Christian Gratzke
Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to bladder outlet obstruction are characterized by abnormal smooth muscle contractions in the lower urinary tract. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists may induce smooth muscle relaxation in the outflow region and represent the current goldstandard of medical treatment. However, results may be unsatisfactory or inadequate. Apart from α1-adrenoceptor agonists, smooth muscle contraction in the outflow region may be induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2), endothelins, or muscarinic receptor agonists...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315342/ethanol-induced-erectile-dysfunction-and-increased-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-proteins-in-the-rat-cavernosal-smooth-muscle-are-mediated-by-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species
#15
Letícia N Leite, Gabriel T do Vale, Janaina A Simplicio, Bruno S De Martinis, Fernando S Carneiro, Carlos R Tirapelli
Ethanol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED), but the molecular mechanisms through which ethanol causes ED remain elusive. Reactive oxygen species are described as mediators of ethanol-induced cell toxicity/damage in distinctive tissues. The enzyme NADPH oxidase is the main source of reactive oxygen species in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells and ethanol is described to increase NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species generation. This study evaluated the contribution of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species to ethanol-induced ED, endothelial dysfunction and production of pro-inflammatory and redox-sensitive proteins in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314055/localization-of-muscle-damage-within-the-quadriceps-femoris-induced-by-different-types-of-eccentric-exercises
#16
Sumiaki Maeo, Akira Saito, Shun Otsuka, Xiyao Shan, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami
This study examined localization of muscle damage within the quadriceps femoris induced by different types of eccentric exercises by using transverse relaxation time (T2 )-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-three young males performed either of the following three exercises: single-joint eccentric contraction of the knee extensors (KE), eccentric squat (S), or downhill walking (DW) (n=11/exercise). KE and S consisted of 5-set × 10-lowering of 90% one-repetition maximum load. DW was performed for 60 min with -10% slope, 6 km/h velocity, and 20% body mass load carried...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298786/comparison-of-dexmedetomidine-and-magnesium-sulfate-as-adjuvants-with-ropivacaine-for-spinal-anesthesia-in-infraumbilical-surgeries-and-postoperative-analgesia
#17
Reena Makhni, Joginder Pal Attri, Payal Jain, Veena Chatrath
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain is a major cause of fear and anxiety in hospitalized patients and so if patients remain pain-free during this period, they can cooperate with the circumstances well, leading to early recovery. Over the last two decades, there has been considerable revival of interest in the use of regional anesthesia techniques for surgery and pain management. As very few studies have been conducted using ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as adjuvants, the present study was undertaken with primary aims to compare the hemodynamic stability, onset and duration of sensory and motor block and with secondary aims of the postoperative analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine and MgSO4 along with ropivacaine...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298767/airway-management-in-patients-with-tracheal-compression-undergoing-thyroidectomy-a-retrospective-analysis
#18
Binu Sajid, K Rekha
BACKGROUND: Airway management in large and retrosternal goiters with tracheal compression is often fraught with challenges and is a source of apprehension among anesthesiologists globally. AIMS: In this study we attempt to delineate the preferred techniques of airway management of such cases in our institution and also to assess whether airway management was unnecessarily complicated. SETTING AND DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of thyroidectomies performed in our institution over a three year period from January 2013...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296277/effect-of-icariin-in-combination-with-daily-sildenafil-on-penile-atrophy-and-erectile-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-bilateral-cavernous-nerves-injury
#19
Y Xu, H Xin, Y Wu, R Guan, H Lei, X Fu, Z Xin, Y Yang
The commonly utilized phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors do not lead to satisfactory penile erection after radical prostatectomy mainly because of insufficient nitric oxide drive from the damaged cavernous nerves. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and mechanisms of icariin in combination with daily sildenafil on neurogenic erectile dysfunction and penile atrophy in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerves injury. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (50 mg/kg) at postnatal day 1 for the purpose of tracking endogenous stem cells in penis...
March 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295256/visualization-of-stimulus-specific-heterogeneous-activation-of-individual-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-aortic-tissues
#20
Satoshi Komatsu, Toshio Kitazawa, Mitsuo Ikebe
Intercellular communication among autonomic nerves, endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in an uninterrupted regulation of blood flow through vascular contractile machinery. Impairment of this communication is linked to development of vascular diseases such as hypertension, cerebral/coronary vasospasms, aortic aneurism, and erectile dysfunction. Although the basic concept of the communication as a whole has been studied, the spatiotemporal correlation of ECs/VSMCs in tissues at the cellular level is unknown...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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