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Jie-Hua Chen, Jia Song, Yan Chen, Qiang Ding, Anfang Peng, Limei Mao
Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using rat models. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups and given diets containing one of the following proteins for 12 weeks: casein (CAS, control diet), soy protein (SOY), and gluten-soy mixed protein (GSM)...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Agata Kornek, Alicja Kucharska, Katarzyna Kamela
INTRODUCTION: Research increasingly provide evidence that vegetarian diet can have a positive impact on health. The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet and prove which of them is more optimal in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 83 women (47 vegetarians and 36 non-vegetarians). Estimates of the supply of individual fatty acids in the diet was based on analysis of 3-day dietary records (calculations in a computer program DIETA 5)...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Iveta Brožková, Veronika Dvořáková, Kateřina Michálková, Libor Červenka, Helena Velichová
Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Janice L Daniels, Richard J Bloomer, Marie van der Merwe, Samantha L Davis, Karyl K Buddington, Randal K Buddington
BACKGROUND: Endurance athletes search for diet regimens that will improve performance and decrease gastrointestinal disturbances during training and events. Although the intestine can adapt to changes in the amount and composition of dietary inputs, the responses to the combination of endurance exercise and diet are poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated small intestinal dimensions and mucosal architecture and calculated the capacities of the entire small intestine to digest maltose and maltodextrin and absorb glucose in response to two different diet types; a western human diet and the Daniel Fast, a vegan style diet, and with moderate intensity endurance training or a no-exercise sedentary lifestyle for a 13 week period (n = 7 per group)...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Rossella Attini, Filomena Leone, Silvia Parisi, Federica Fassio, Irene Capizzi, Valentina Loi, Loredana Colla, Maura Rossetti, Martina Gerbino, Stefania Maxia, Maria Grazia Alemanno, Fosca Minelli, Ettore Piccoli, Elisabetta Versino, Marilisa Biolcati, Paolo Avagnina, Antonello Pani, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Tullia Todros, Giorgina B Piccoli
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15 years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or > =1 g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for comparison...
2016: BMC Nephrology
T Berman, T Göen, L Novack, L Beacher, L Grinshpan, D Segev, K Tordjman
Few population studies have measured urinary levels of pesticides in individuals with vegan, vegetarian, or organic diets. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether a vegan/vegetarian diet was associated with increased exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, and to evaluate the impact of organic consumption on pesticide exposure in vegans and vegetarians. In the current pilot study conducted in 2013-2014, we collected spot urine samples and detailed 24h recall dietary data in 42 adult residents of Amirim, a vegetarian community in Northern Israel...
August 30, 2016: Environment International
Rima Obeid, Hussain M Awwad, Markus Keller, Juergen Geisel
PURPOSE: Restriction of animal foods and choline may affect plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). In vegetarians, we investigated the association between TMAO concentrations and the strictness of the diet or sex. We also studied the biological variations of TMAO in vegans. METHODS: Concentrations of plasma TMAO and choline metabolites were measured in 38 vegans and 67 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (group 1: mean age ± SD = 50 ± 15 years). Group 2 consisted of 66 vegans (29...
August 25, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Chelsea Chuck, Samantha A Fernandes, Lauri L Hyers
In this qualitative study, the process of developing a politicized identity around diet was explored through a social psychological lens. Applying one of the most influencial models of group identity development proposed by Cross (1978) in which an "encounter" experience spurs an awakening into a politicized identity, we asked 36 participants who followed alternative diets due to political reasons to describe their unique encounter experiences that brought them to their politicized awakening. Their self-identified diets included pescetarian, vegetarian, vegan, raw, non-GMO/organic, and reduced meat consumption...
August 20, 2016: Appetite
Sasha Mathieu, Géraldine Dorard
Vegetarianism is a food consumption pattern. Vegetarianism, at large, includes several diets depending on exclusion's degree (partial or total) of animal products (meat or dairy). Among them we distinguish, according to the restriction order, flexitarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, vegan food, raw food and fruit diets. These three last modes can extend to a lifestyle called veganism, which is defined as the lack of use of animal products in daily life (cosmetics, clothing, materials, etc...
September 2016: La Presse Médicale
Vesanto Melina
What can make your work as a dietitian so meaningful that you begin each day with enthusiasm, and if you so choose, retain that joy in your work for 5 decades or more? Three themes are: (i) doing work that profoundly makes sense to you, (ii) inspiring others (and yourself) to make healthful choices, and (iii) moving through challenges to success. Initially it can be challenging to make a living through work that is most deeply meaningful or closest to your heart. Yet it is well worth finding the balance between practicality and movement in the desired direction...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Ben J Callahan, Kris Sankaran, Julia A Fukuyama, Paul J McMurdie, Susan P Holmes
High-throughput sequencing of PCR-amplified taxonomic markers (like the 16S rRNA gene) has enabled a new level of analysis of complex bacterial communities known as microbiomes. Many tools exist to quantify and compare abundance levels or microbial composition of communities in different conditions. The sequencing reads have to be denoised and assigned to the closest taxa from a reference database. Common approaches use a notion of 97% similarity and normalize the data by subsampling to equalize library sizes...
2016: F1000Research
Anna Catany Ritter, Annarita Sabrina Egger, Jennifer Machacek, Rosa Aspalter
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that the incidence of cancer is low in vegan populations, and experimental studies have revealed a significant role of dietary proteins in cancer development and progression. However, little data currently exists regarding the effect of a plant-based diet on the progression of diagnosed cancer. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to determine if a reduction or total elimination of animal protein from the diet can positively influence the outcome of an existing cancer and, in addition to standard oncological therapies, increase remission rates...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Martin J J Ronis
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play an important role in metabolism and clearance of most clinically utilized drugs and other xenobiotics. They are important in metabolism of endogenous compounds including fatty acids, sterols, steroids and lipid-soluble vitamins. Dietary factors such as phytochemicals are capable of affecting CYP expression and activity, which may be important in diet-drug interactions and in the development of fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. One important diet-CYP interaction is with diets containing plant proteins, particularly soy protein...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Anne Kelly Kambura, Romano Kachiuru Mwirichia, Remmy Wekesa Kasili, Edward Nderitu Karanja, Huxley Mae Makonde, Hamadi Iddi Boga
BACKGROUND: Lake Magadi and little Magadi are hypersaline, alkaline lakes situated in the southern part of Kenyan Rift Valley. Solutes are supplied mainly by a series of alkaline hot springs with temperatures as high as 86 °C. Previous culture-dependent and culture-independent studies have revealed diverse groups of microorganisms thriving under these conditions. Previous culture independent studies were based on the analysis of 16S rDNA but were done on less saline lakes. For the first time, this study combined illumina sequencing and analysis of amplicons of both total community rDNA and 16S rRNA cDNA to determine the diversity and community structure of bacteria and archaea within 3 hot springs of L...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Meike Janssen, Claudia Busch, Manika Rödiger, Ulrich Hamm
The number of consumers following a vegan diet has notably increased in many industrialised countries and it is likely that their influence on the food sector will continue to grow. The aim of the present study was to identify different segments of consumers according to their motivation for following a vegan diet. Another objective was to analyse the attitudes of these consumers towards animal agriculture. The main focus was to determine whether all consumers following a vegan diet oppose animal agriculture in general or if some of these consumers accept certain forms of animal agriculture...
October 1, 2016: Appetite
Elieke Demmer, Marta D Van Loan, Nancy Rivera, Tara S Rogers, Erik R Gertz, J Bruce German, Angela M Zivkovic, Jennifer T Smilowitz
Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Julia Baudry, Mathilde Touvier, Benjamin Allès, Sandrine Péneau, Caroline Méjean, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Denis Lairon, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
Limited information is available on large-scale populations regarding the socio-demographic and nutrient profiles and eating behaviour of consumers, taking into account both organic and conventional foods. The aims of this study were to draw up a typology of consumers according to their eating habits, based both on their dietary patterns and the mode of food production, and to outline their socio-demographic, behavioural and nutritional characteristics. Data were collected from 28 245 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Amany Elshorbagy, Fredrik Jernerén, Marianne Basta, Caroline Basta, Cheryl Turner, Maram Khaled, Helga Refsum
PURPOSE: To explore whether changes in dietary protein sources can lower plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids and sulfur amino acids (SAAs) that are often elevated in the obese, insulin-resistant state and in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects (mean age 31 ± 2 years) underwent a voluntary abstinence from meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products for 6 weeks, while enriching the diet with fish, in fulfillment of a religious fast...
June 11, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Eliza M Orzylowska, John D Jacobson, Gihan M Bareh, Edmund Y Ko, Johannah U Corselli, Philip J Chan
OBJECTIVES: The study examined the effect the life-long vegetarian diet on male fertility and focused on vegetarians living in the Loma Linda blue zone, a demographic area known for life longevity. The objective was to compare sperm characteristics of vegetarian with non-vegetarian males. STUDY DESIGN: The cross-sectional observational study was based on semen analyses of 474 males from 2009 to 2013. Patients categorized themselves as either life-long lacto-ovo vegetarians (N=26; vegetable diet with dairy and egg products), vegans (N=5; strictly vegetables with no animal products) or non-vegetarians (N=443; no diet restrictions)...
August 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Yu-Mi Lee, Se-A Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Jung-Guk Kim, Keun-Gyu Park, Ji-Yun Jeong, Jae-Han Jeon, Ji-Yeon Shin, Duk-Hee Lee
OBJECTIVE: Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks...
2016: PloS One
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