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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426857/next-generation-high-throughput-dna-damage-detection-platform-for-genotoxic-compound-screening
#1
Peter Sykora, Kristine L Witt, Pooja Revanna, Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Jonathan Dismukes, Donald G Lloyd, Bevin P Engelward, Robert W Sobol
Methods for quantifying DNA damage, as well as repair of that damage, in a high-throughput format are lacking. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) is a widely-used method due to its technical simplicity and sensitivity, but the standard comet assay has limitations in reproducibility and throughput. We have advanced the SCGE assay by creating a 96-well hardware platform coupled with dedicated data processing software (CometChip Platform). Based on the original cometchip approach, the CometChip Platform increases capacity ~200 times over the traditional slide-based SCGE protocol, with excellent reproducibility...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391002/genotoxicity-study-of-ethiopian-medicinal-plant-extracts-on-hepg2-cells
#2
Wubayehu Kahaliw, Bjorn Hellman, Ephrem Engidawork
BACKGROUND: Most of herbal medicines are used without any standard safety and toxicological trials although common assumption is that these products are nontoxic. However, this assumption is incorrect and dangerous, so toxicological studies should be done for herbal drugs. Although Pterolobium stellatum, Otostegia integrifolia and Vernonia amygdalina root extracts are frequently used in Ethiopian traditional medicine, there are no evidences of their active toxic compounds. Therefore, we made an effort to assess probable genotoxic effect of these plant extracts on DNA of human hematoma (HepG2) cells using alkaline comet assay...
February 1, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332075/patient-evaluation-and-selection-for-movement-disorders-surgery-the-changing-spectrum-of-indications
#3
Steffen Paschen, Günther Deuschl
This report summarizes the state-of-the-art and controversies around patient selection for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for various conditions. Parkinson's disease (PD): several class I studies have shown superiority of DBS over best medical treatment for advanced PD with fluctuations and further inclusion criteria. One class I study suggests that PD patients with early motor complications might gain more quality of life if operated within 3 years after the onset of fluctuations. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is still the standard target...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193677/gallic-acid-improves-health-associated-biochemical-parameters-and-prevents-oxidative-damage-of-dna-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-results-of-a-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#4
Franziska Ferk, Michael Kundi, Helmut Brath, Thomas Szekeres, Halh Al-Serori, Miroslav Mišík, Philipp Saiko, Rodrig Marculescu, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Siegfried Knasmueller
SCOPE: Oxidative imbalance plays a key role in cancer induction and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study is to find out if gallic acid (GA) prevents oxidative stress in diabetic patients. Therefore, we investigate its impact on oxidation of DNA bases and on other health-related macromolecules. METHODS AND RESULTS: We perform an intervention study (n = 19) with GA and monitored alterations of the DNA stability in single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays in lymphocytes...
February 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614929/-research-of-relationship-between-occupational-exposure-to-coal-tar-pitch-workers-and-cytogenetic-damage
#5
X C Sun, F Zhang, W Zhang, X Yang, H Shao, Z X Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of coal tar pitch occupational exposure on the cytogenetic damage. Methods: In July 2015, 691 workers exposed to coal tar pitch were selected as contact group. The administrative and the support crew 201 cases were selected as control group. Detect the tail DNA% and tail moment in peripheral blood lymphocyte as DNA damage degree by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) . Detect the concentration of the metabolic product in urine by HPLC/MC as exposure levels. Results: The contact group were significantly higher than the control group in tail DNA% (contact group14...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503984/the-genotoxic-effect-of-oxcarbazepine-on-mice-blood-lymphocytes
#6
Huma Akbar, Ajmal Khan, Imdadullah Mohammadzai, Muhammad Khisroon, Ilham Begum
This study was conducted to assess the amount of DNA damage caused by Oxcarbazepine (OXC) through single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique/comet assay. OXC derived from dibenzazepine series is an effective second generation antiepileptic drug (AED) for both children and adults. Side effects like genotoxic effects of AEDs are of prime importance resulting from toxic metabolites, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Forty Eight adult male Bagg's albino mice (BALB/c) were randomly classified into eight groups, each comprising of six animals...
April 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475923/evaluation-of-imazethapyr-induced-dna-oxidative-damage-by-alkaline-endo-iii-and-fpg-modified-single-cell-gel-electrophoresis-assay-in-hypsiboas-pulchellus-tadpoles-anura-hylidae
#7
Juan Manuel Pérez-Iglesias, Celeste Ruiz de Arcaute, Guillermo S Natale, S Soloneski, Marcelo L Larramendy
Imazethapyr (IMZT) is a selective postemergent herbicide with residual action. Available data analyzing its effects in aquatic vertebrates are scarce. In previous studies, we demonstrated that IMZT induces lesions into the DNA of Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay as a biomarker for genotoxicity. Currently, this assay can be modified by including incubation with lesion-specific endonucleases, e.g., endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which detect oxidized pyrimidine and purine bases, respectively...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454784/evaluation-of-cytotoxic-apoptotic-mutagenic-and-chemopreventive-activities-of-semi-synthetic-esters-of-gallic-acid
#8
I C Silva, C R Polaquini, L O Regasini, H Ferreira, F R Pavan
Gallic acid and its derivatives are phenolic compounds widely used as food supplements in the form of capsules, liquid extracts, and ointments owing to their good antioxidant properties. Besides, these compounds are potent inhibitors of fungi, bacteria, and some viruses and possess strong antiproliferative and chemopreventive activities. However, gallic acid derivatives are also known to exert harmful effects like mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. The present study aimed to understand and explore the toxicological risks of these compounds...
July 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449966/environmental-concentrations-of-cocaine-and-its-main-metabolites-modulated-antioxidant-response-and-caused-cyto-genotoxic-effects-in-zebrafish-embryo-cells
#9
Marco Parolini, Anna Ghilardi, Camilla Della Torre, Stefano Magni, Laura Prosperi, Matteo Calvagno, Luca Del Giacco, Andrea Binelli
Illicit drugs have been recently identified as a serious environmental problem because of the growing evidence regarding their occurrence in aquatic environment and potential toxicity towards non-target organisms. Among them, cocaine (COC) and its main metabolites, namely benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), are commonly measured in freshwaters worldwide at levels that might cause diverse sub-lethal effects to aquatic organisms. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the potential adverse effects induced by the exposure to environmental concentrations (0...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395470/-an-investigation-of-trichloroethylene-induced-effects-on-histone-methylation-in-l-02-hepatic-cells
#10
R X Deng, X H Ren, J W Ruan, J Zheng, J C Zhong, W X Lu, X Q Zou, J J Liu
Objective: To further explore TCE-induced hepatotoxicity and its mechanisms by identification of trichloroethylene (TCE) induced abnormal histone methylation in human liver cells. Methods: L-02 cells were treated with 0 and 8 mmol/L TCE for 24 h. Histones were extracted by acid. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) were used to identify and quantify TCE related histone methylations. TCE induced abnormal methylation of H3K79 me2 and H3K79 me3 were validated by Western blot analysis...
April 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321020/assessment-of-dna-damage-in-leukocytes-of-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-by-comet-assay
#11
Mohd Akbar Bhat, Gursatej Gandhi
DNA damage in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was investigated using the sensitive alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/comet assay.This case-control study consisted of CAD patients (n = 200; mean age, 59.04 ± 0.75 years) undergoing treatment at local hospitals and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls (n = 200; mean age, 57.88 ± 0.96 years) from the general population.CAD patients had significantly (P < 0.001) increased DNA damage (tail DNA percent (T-DNA %) 22...
April 6, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229249/adcy5-related-dyskinesia-presenting-as-familial-myoclonus-dystonia
#12
Andrew G L Douglas, Gaia Andreoletti, Kevin Talbot, Simon R Hammans, Jaspal Singh, Andrea Whitney, Sarah Ennis, Nicola C Foulds
We describe a family with an autosomal dominant familial dyskinesia resembling myoclonus-dystonia associated with a novel missense mutation in ADCY5, found through whole-exome sequencing. A tiered analytical approach was used to analyse whole-exome sequencing data from an affected grandmother-granddaughter pair. Whole-exome sequencing identified 18,000 shared variants, of which 46 were non-synonymous changes not present in a local cohort of control exomes (n = 422). Further filtering based on predicted splicing effect, minor allele frequency in the 1000 Genomes Project and on phylogenetic conservation yielded 13 candidate variants, of which the heterozygous missense mutation c...
April 2017: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198569/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-on-bovine-cumulus-oocyte-complex-in-vitro
#13
Noelia Nikoloff, Ana M Pascua, Juan M Anchordoquy, Juan P Anchordoquy, Matías A Sirini, Analia Seoane, Cecilia C Furnus
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. The concentrations tested in all experiments were 1 nM, 1 μM, and 1 mM EPA. The effect of EPA was evaluated on cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) by oocyte maturation (cumulus expansion area and oocyte nuclear maturation), genotoxicity [single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)], and cytotoxicity (apoptosis, viability, and MTT assays) end points. The maturation parameters were affected by exposure of COC to different EPA concentrations in the IVM medium...
May 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154553/identification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profiles-of-candida-nivariensis-and-candida-bracarensis-in-a-multi-center-chinese-collection-of-yeasts
#14
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, He Wang, Shu-Ying Yu, Xin Fan, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis are two emerging cryptic species within the C. glabrata complex. Thirteen of these isolates from 10 hospitals in China were studied for their species identification and antifungal susceptibilities. Phenotypic and molecular [rDNA ITS sequencing, D1/D2 sequencing and ITS sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS identification methods were compared for their performance in species identification...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017168/comparisons-of-the-effects-of-the-sevoflurane-and-propofol-on-acute-ischemia-reperfusion-and-dna-damages-in-rabbits
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sema Oncul, Lale Karabiyik, Erdem Coskun, Ela Kadioglu, Ozlem Gulbahar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on oxidative DNA damage that occurs in low-extremity ischemia and is caused by tourniquet application. METHODS: Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into two equal groups. Group S (n=7) received sevoflurane (2.5-4 percent) inhalation and Group P (n=7) received a propofol infusion (1-2mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), after which a pneumatic tourniquet was placed on the right lower extremity...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749897/16s-23s-internal-transcribed-spacer-region-pcr-and-sequencer-based-capillary-gel-electrophoresis-has-potential-as-an-alternative-to-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-identification-of-slowly-growing-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#16
Shradha Subedi, Fanrong Kong, Peter Jelfs, Timothy J Gray, Meng Xiao, Vitali Sintchenko, Sharon C-A Chen
Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631679/synthesis-characterization-and-determination-of-genotoxic-effect-of-a-novel-dimeric-8-hydroxyquinoline-cd-ii-scn-complex
#17
Hatice Tunca, Ahmet Ali Berber, Kubra Çanakçi, Murat Tuna, Salih Zeki Yildiz, Hüseyin Aksoy
In this study, a Cd(II) complex was synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline and thiocyanate as the ligands and structurally characterized with the combination of FTIR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, UV-vis, and MS spectral data. Then, genotoxic effects of the prepared complex were investigated. Genotoxic properties of the dimeric 8-hydroxyquinolinthiocyanatoCd(II) [Cd2(8Q)2(SCN)2] complex synthesized as drug raw material were analyzed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 μg/mL [Cd2(8Q)2(SCN)2] were used for 24 and 48  h durations...
July 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574524/isolation-of-mesophyll-protoplasts-from-mediterranean-woody-plants-for-the-study-of-dna-integrity-under-abiotic-stress
#18
Elena Kuzminsky, Roberta Meschini, Serena Terzoli, Liliana Pavani, Cristian Silvestri, Zineb Choury, Giuseppe Scarascia-Mugnozza
Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554922/anticancer-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-potential-of-thymol-in-vitro-brain-tumor-cell-model
#19
Elanur Aydın, Hasan Turkez, Sener Tasdemir, Fazıl Hacımuftuoglu
BACKGROUND: Thymol (THY), which is a monocyclic monoterpene, found in oil of thyme various other kinds of plants. Until today, although different biological properties of THY have been indicated, its neurological toxicity has never been investigated. METHOD: In this study, in vitro antiproliferative (by 3-(4,5 dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenlytetrazolium bromide (MTT) test), genotoxic (by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)) and oxidative effects (by total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) analysis) of THY (0-400 mg/L) were assessed on cultured primary rat neurons (CPRNs) and N2a neuroblastoma cells...
2017: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535688/identification-and-antifungal-susceptibility-profiles-of-candida-haemulonii-species-complex-clinical-isolates-from-a-multicenter-study-in-china
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, He Wang, Jing-Wei Cheng, Xin-Xin Chen, Zhi-Peng Xu, Xin Fan, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida haemulonii complex (Candida haemulonii, Candida haemulonii var. vulnera, and Candida duobushaemulonii) consists of emerging pathogens. Thirty-one isolates from 14 hospitals in China were studied for their species classification and antifungal susceptibilities. Performances of molecular (i.e., ribosomal DNA [rDNA] internal transcribed spacer [ITS] sequencing, D1/D2 sequencing, and ITS sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis [SCGE]) and phenotypic identification methods in species identification were compared...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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