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Shradha Subedi, Fanrong Kong, Peter Jelfs, Timothy J Gray, Meng Xiao, Vitali Sintchenko, Sharon C-A Chen
Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included...
2016: PloS One
Hatice Tunca, Ahmet Ali Berber, Kubra Çanakçi, Murat Tuna, Salih Zeki Yildiz, Hüseyin Aksoy
In this study, a Cd(II) complex was synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline and thiocyanate as the ligands and structurally characterized with the combination of FTIR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, UV-vis, and MS spectral data. Then, genotoxic effects of the prepared complex were investigated. Genotoxic properties of the dimeric 8-hydroxyquinolinthiocyanatoCd(II) [Cd2(8Q)2(SCN)2] complex synthesized as drug raw material were analyzed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 μg/mL [Cd2(8Q)2(SCN)2] were used for 24 and 48  h durations...
September 15, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Elena Kuzminsky, Roberta Meschini, Serena Terzoli, Liliana Pavani, Cristian Silvestri, Zineb Choury, Giuseppe Scarascia-Mugnozza
Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marcella Reale, Elanur Aydin
Thymol (THY), which is a monocyclic monoterpene, is one of the major constituent of the essential oils of thyme and origanum. To date, although various biological activities of THY have been demonstrated, its neurotoxicity has never been explored. We aimed to describe in vitro antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic properties (by 3-(4,5 dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenlytetrazolium bromide (MTT) test), genotoxic damage potentials (by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)) and oxidative effects (by total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) analysis) of THY...
August 23, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, He Wang, Jing-Wei Cheng, Xin-Xin Chen, Zhi-Peng Xu, Xin Fan, Fanrong Kong, Ying-Chun Xu
Candida haemulonii complex (Candida haemulonii, Candida haemulonii var. vulnera and Candida duobushaemulonii) are emerging pathogens. Thirty-one isolates from 14 hospitals in China were studied for their species classification and antifungal susceptibilities. Molecular (i.e. rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, D1/D2 sequencing and ITS sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE)) and phenotypic identification methods were compared for their performance in species identification. Twenty-six of 31 (83...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Mohammad Salimi-Asl, Hossein Mozdarani, Mehdi Kadivar
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a multigenic endocrine disorder, is highly associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, however its etiology remains unclear. In this study, we employed dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-treated mice to reveal the molecular mechanism of inflammation and its correlation with oxidative stress in PCOS patients. METHODS: miR-21 and miR-146a expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
2016: BioImpacts: BI
Marco Parolini, Sara Castiglioni, Stefano Magni, Camilla Della Torre, Andrea Binelli
Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide and in some countries a new regulatory policy makes it legal under some restrictions. This situation could lead to a substantial increase in environmental levels of the cannabis active principle (Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [Δ-9-THC]) and its main metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). Although previous studies have highlighted the toxicity of Δ-9-THC, the adverse effects of THC-COOH on aquatic organisms is completely unknown, even though such effects could be more significant because the environmental concentrations of THC-COOH are higher than those of the parent compound...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Marcos Mateo-Fernández, Tania Merinas-Amo, Miguel Moreno-Millán, Ángeles Alonso-Moraga, Sebastián Demyda-Peyrás
The aim of this work was to assess the biological and food safety of two different beverages: Classic Coca Cola™ (CCC) and Caffeine-Free Coca Cola (CFCC). To this end, we determined the genotoxicological and biological effects of different doses of lyophilised CCC and CFCC and Caffeine (CAF), the main distinctive constituent. Their toxic/antitoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic, and chronic toxicity (lifespan assay) effects were determined in vivo using the Drosophila model. Their cytotoxic activities were determined using the HL-60 in vitro cancer model...
2016: BioMed Research International
Wenshuang Wu, Buyun Ma, Haoyu Ye, Taijin Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Jianhong Yang, Yuquan Wei, Jingqiang Zhu, Lijuan Chen
Millepachine (MIL) was a novel chalcone that was separated from Millettia pachycarpa Benth (Leguminosae). We found MIL induced apoptosis through activating NF-κB pathway both in SK-OV-3 and A2780S cells. Western blot showed that MIL increased the levels of IKKα, p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and NF-κB (p65) proteins, and decreased the expression of IκBα protein. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus increased in both ovarian cancer cells. EMSA assay proved MIL enhanced NF-κB DNA-binding activity in the nuclear...
July 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Teresa T Duncan, Barbara H Berrie, Richard G Weiss
We report the influence of adding five short-chain glycol ethers (SCGEs) on the structure, stability, and viscoelastic properties of aqueous dispersions of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) and borax. The properties of these gel-like materials have been investigated as a function of the structure of the added SCGE both below and above the critical aggregation (or micellar) concentrations using (11) B and (13) C NMR, rheology, and small-angle neutron scattering. The results indicate that the SCGE aggregation behavior is not affected by incorporation into the gel-like network...
August 18, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Juan José Rodríguez-Mercado, Diana Florín-Ramírez, Lucila Álvarez-Barrera, Mario Agustín Altamirano-Lozano
A variety of metal ions have biological functions, and many researchers have not actively investigated copper compounds, based on the assumption that endogenous metals might be less toxic. In the present study, we used a dual fluorochrome method and a single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay at pH > 13 to evaluate the cell viability and DNA damage induced by a copper-based antineoplastic drug, Casiopeina II-gly®, at concentrations of 1.04, 2.08, 4.17, 8.35 or 16 μg/mL in human peripheral-blood leukocytes in vitro...
June 16, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Sonia Soloneski, Celeste Ruiz de Arcaute, Marcelo L Larramendy
The acute toxicity of two herbicide formulations, namely, the 57.71 % dicamba (DIC)-based Banvel(®) and the 48 % glyphosate (GLY)-based Credit(®), alone as well as the binary mixture of these herbicides was evaluated on late-stage Rhinella arenarum larvae (stage 36) exposed under laboratory conditions. Mortality was used as an endpoint for determining acute lethal effects, whereas the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was employed as genotoxic endpoint to study sublethal effects. Lethality studies revealed LC5096 h values of 358...
September 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Minor P Huffman, Anja H Høie, Camilla Svendsen, Gunnar Brunborg, Michael Murkovic, Hansruedi Glatt, Trine Husøy
2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) and furfuryl alcohol (FFA) are two substituted furans that are formed during the processing of foods and have also been used as food flavorings. DMF and FFA are proposed to be bioactivated by human sulfotransferases (SULTs) which are not expressed in conventional cell lines used for genotoxicity testing. Therefore, in addition to the standard V79 cell line, we used a transfected V79 derived cell line co-expressing human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 and human SULT1A1 to assess the genotoxicity of DMF and FFA...
September 2016: Mutagenesis
Taixiu Liu, Jianfang Gao, Niya Zhou, Min Mo, Xiaogang Wang, Xi Zhang, Huan Yang, Qing Chen, Lin Ao, Jinyi Liu, Zhihong Cui, Jia Cao
Several methods are currently available for selection when conducting sperm cryopreservation, however, these methods might cause different degrees of damage on sperm DNA. The aim of the this study is to compare the effects of storage at -80 °C (in ultra-low temperature refrigerator) and at -196 °C (in liquid nitrogen) on sperm DNA damage, thus to provide a reference for choosing the right method according to different aims. We randomly collected 28 semen samples from college students of Chongqing city...
June 2016: Cryobiology
Xin Hou, Meng Xiao, Sharon C-A Chen, He Wang, Li Zhang, Xin Fan, Zhi-Peng Xu, Jing-Wei Cheng, Fanrong Kong, Yu-Pei Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu
Accurate species identification of Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon and other yeast pathogens is important for clinical management. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a yeast species identification scheme by determining the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region length types (LTs) using a sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE) approach. A total of 156 yeast isolates encompassing 32 species were first used to establish a reference SCGE ITS LT database. Evaluation of the ITS LT database was then performed on (i) a separate set of (n = 97) clinical isolates by SCGE, and (ii) 41 isolates of 41 additional yeast species from GenBank by in silico analysis...
2016: PloS One
A K Singh, P Pandey, M Tewari, H P Pandey, I S Gambhir, H S Shukla
BACKGROUND: Free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce oxidative stress, are the main contributors to head and neck carcinogenesis (HNC). The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the oxidant/antioxidant status and DNA damage analysis in head and neck cancer/control patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 60 patients with biopsy-proven HNC and 17 patients of head and neck disease (HND). The total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined by novel automatic colorimetric methods from tissue homogenate...
April 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Karolina Sunjog, Stoimir Kolarević, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Željka Višnjić-Jeftić, Stefan Skorić, Zoran Gačić, Mirjana Lenhardt, Nebojša Vasić, Branka Vuković-Gačić
Metals and metalloids are natural components of the biosphere, which are not produced per se by human beings, but whose form and distribution can be affected by human activities. Like all substances, they are a contaminant if present in excess compared to background levels and/or in a form that would not normally occur in the environment. Samples of liver, gills, gonads and muscle from European chub, Squalius cephalus, were analyzed for Al, As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sr and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to highlight the importance of tissue selection in monitoring research...
June 2016: Environmental Pollution
Lingling Xu, Wei Guo, Ying Liu, Xueqing Zhang, Juntao Yu, Wencai Wu, Tiejun Zhao
Chemotherapy as a routine method for clinical treatment of cancer has disadvantages such as significant toxicity and strong resistance. In order to improve the efficacy of the drugs and reduce the by-effects, we tried to combine static magnetic field (SMF) with cisplatin or adriamycin. The growth of Hepa1-6 cells treated with the static magnetic field (SMF) combined with cisplatin or adriamycin was significantly inhibited, as detected with MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) test...
September 2015: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
C Ruiz de Arcaute, S Soloneski, M L Larramendy
Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the 54.8% 2,4-D-based commercial herbicide DMA® were assayed on Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces, Poeciliidae). Whereas lethal effect was used as the end point for mortality, frequency of micronuclei (MNs), other nuclear abnormalities and primary DNA damage evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay were employed as end points for genotoxicity. Mortality studies demonstrated an LC50 96 h value of 1008 mg/L (range, 929-1070) of 2,4-D. Behavioral changes, e...
June 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sonia Soloneski, Noelia Nikoloff, Marcelo L Larramendy
Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of flurochloridone (FLC) and its formulations Twin Pack Gold(®) and Rainbow(®) were evaluated in CHO-K1 cells. Using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, we observed that FLC (15 μg/ml), Twin Pack Gold(®) or Rainbow(®) induced primary DNA damage, increasing the frequency of damaged nucleoids. Vitamin E pretreatment did not modify the effect. Decreased cell viability was observed only in Twin Pack Gold(®)-treated cultures and was significantly ameliorated by vitamin E...
February 2016: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
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