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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718500/neurofilament-light-as-an-immune-target-for-pathogenic-antibodies
#1
Fabiola Puentes, Baukje J van der Star, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Markus Kipp, Louis Boon, Isabel Bosca, Joel Raffel, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Paul van der Valk, Jodie Stephenson, Susan C Barnett, David Baker, Sandra Amor
Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunisation with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light NF-L, a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, while antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717581/detection-of-echinococcus-granulosus-antigen-by-a-quantum-dot-porous-silicon-optical-biosensor
#2
Yanyu Li, Zhenhong Jia, Guodong Lv, Hao Wen, Peng Li, Hongyan Zhang, Jiajia Wang
Highly sensitive labeled detection of Echinococcus granulosus using colloidal quantum dots (QDs) based on a porous silicon Bragg mirror sensor are demonstrated. Rabbit anti-p38 labeled CdSe/ZnS QDs was infiltrated in porous silicon pores immobilized Egp38 antigen. QD-antibodies are specifically bound to antigens linked covalently to the pore walls of PSi after the immune reaction. By the design of the transfer matrix method and the preparation of the electrochemical etching method, the fluorescence peak wavelength of the quantum dots is located in the forbidden band of the Bragg mirror...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717579/deep-learning-based-automated-segmentation-of-macular-edema-in-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Cecilia S Lee, Ariel J Tyring, Nicolaas P Deruyter, Yue Wu, Ariel Rokem, Aaron Y Lee
Evaluation of clinical images is essential for diagnosis in many specialties. Therefore the development of computer vision algorithms to help analyze biomedical images will be important. In ophthalmology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is critical for managing retinal conditions. We developed a convolutional neural network (CNN) that detects intraretinal fluid (IRF) on OCT in a manner indistinguishable from clinicians. Using 1,289 OCT images, the CNN segmented images with a 0.911 cross-validated Dice coefficient, compared with segmentations by experts...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717574/detection-of-rotavirus-in-clinical-specimens-using-an-immunosensor-prototype-based-on-the-photon-burst-counting-technique
#4
Makoto Hasegawa, Ernest Apondi Wandera, Yuka Inoue, Nanami Kimura, Ryuzo Sasaki, Tamio Mizukami, Mohammad Monir Shah, Nobuaki Shirai, Osamu Takei, Hironori Shindo, Yoshio Ichinose
In this study, a sensitive fluorescence sensor was developed for the detection of small, fluorescence-labeled particles dispersed in a solution. The prototype system comprises of a laser confocal optical system and a mechanical sample stage to detect photon bursting of fluorescence-labeled small particles in sample volumes less than 5 μL within 3 minutes. To examine the feasibility of the prototype system as a diagnostic tool, assemblages of rotavirus and fluorescence-labeled antibody were analyzed. The detection sensitivity for rotavirus was 1 × 10(4) pfu/mL...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717565/twenty-five-years-of-optical-coherence-tomography-the-paradigm-shift-in-sensitivity-and-speed-provided-by-fourier-domain-oct-invited
#5
Johannes F de Boer, Rainer Leitgeb, Maciej Wojtkowski
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the most successful optical technologies implemented in medicine and clinical practice mostly due to the possibility of non-invasive and non-contact imaging by detecting back-scattered light. OCT has gone through a tremendous development over the past 25 years. From its initial inception in 1991 [Science254, 1178 (1991)] it has become an indispensable medical imaging technology in ophthalmology. Also in fields like cardiology and gastro-enterology the technology is envisioned to become a standard of care...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717562/development-of-thin-skin-mimicking-bilayer-solid-tissue-phantoms-for-optical-spectroscopic-studies
#6
K Bala Nivetha, N Sujatha
In vivo spectroscopic measurements have the proven potential to provide important insight about the changes in tissue during the development of malignancies and thus help to diagnose tissue pathologies. Extraction of intrinsic data in the presence of varying amounts of scatterers and absorbers offers great challenges in the development of such techniques to the clinical level. Fabrication of optical phantoms, tailored to the biochemical as well as morphological features of the target tissue, can help to generate a spectral database for a given optical spectral measurement system...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717068/first-in-man-trial-of-sio2-inert-coated-bare-metal-stent-system-in-native-coronary-stenosis%C3%A3-the-axetis-fim-trial
#7
Taku Asano, Pannipa Suwannasom, Yuki Katagiri, Yosuke Miyazaki, Yohei Sotomi, Robin P Kraak, Joanna Wykrzykowska, Benno J Rensing, Jan J Piek, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Patrick W Serruys, Yoshinobu Onuma
BACKGROUND: A novel bare metal stent with an SiO2coating was developed to prevent excessive neointimal hyperplasia by inertization of the metallic stent surface. The efficacy of the device was demonstrated in a preclinical model. The aim of this first-in-man trial was to assess the safety and feasibility of the new device.Methods and Results:This prospective non-randomized single-arm trial was designed to enroll 35 patients with a de novo coronary lesion. Quantitative coronary angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed at the baseline procedure and at the 6-month follow-up...
July 14, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716684/a-comparison-of-retrobulbar-and-two-peribulbar-regional-anesthetic-techniques-in-dog-cadavers
#8
Yael Shilo-Benjamini, Peter J Pascoe, Erik R Wisner, Nili Kahane, Philip H Kass, David J Maggs
OBJECTIVE: To compare injectate distribution and likelihood of regional anesthesia to the orbit following retrobulbar (RB) or peribulbar (PB) injections in dog cadavers. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, masked study. ANIMALS: Twenty-four dog cadavers (aged 5.5-17 years, 2.0-36.3 kg). METHODS: Orbits underwent one of three injection techniques with bupivacaine 0.5% and iohexol (1:1): ventrolateral RB injection (1-2 mL; 15 orbits), medial canthal PB injection (2-8 mL; PB-1; 16 orbits), or dorsomedial and ventrolateral PB injections (each 1-4 mL; PB-2; 16 orbits)...
April 13, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716289/devic-s-disease-before-devic-on-the-contribution-of-friedrich-albin-schanz-1863-1923
#9
S Jarius, B Wildemann
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic's disease) is an autoimmune disorder of the CNS that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord and, if not treated, can leave patients blind and wheelchair-bound. NMO was long considered a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). While the history of MS has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the early history of NMO. A dissertation written by Fernand Gault (1873-1936), a doctoral student to Eugène Devic (1858-1930), a Lyon-based neurologist after whom the disease would later be named, is considered by many the first review of NMO...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715592/inter-relationship-of-arterial-supply-to-human-retina-choroid-and-optic-nerve-head-using-micro-perfusion-and-labeling
#10
Paula K Yu, Ian L McAllister, William H Morgan, Stephen J Cringle, Dao-Yi Yu
Purpose: The prevailing view is that the human retina is supplied by the central retinal artery (CRA), the short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCAs) support the choroid, and both the CRA and the SPCAs are so-called "end artery" systems. In this study, we investigate whether vascular connections among the retina, choroid, and the optic nerve head (ONH) exist, using selective cannulation and microperfusion-labeling techniques. Methods: The CRA and/or one or more of the SPCAs were selected for cannulation in 18 human donor eyes...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715590/optical-coherence-tomography-features-preceding-the-onset-of-advanced-age-related-macular-degeneration
#11
Daniela Ferrara, Rachel E Silver, Ricardo N Louzada, Eduardo A Novais, Giliann K Collins, Johanna M Seddon
Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease with multifactorial etiology. There is a need to identify clinical features that are harbingers of advanced disease. We evaluated morphologic features of the retina and choroid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine if they predict progression to advanced disease. Methods: Progressors transitioned from early or intermediate AMD to advanced disease (n = 40 eyes), and were matched on baseline AMD grade and follow-up interval to nonprogressors who did not develop advanced AMD (n = 40 eyes)...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715584/reduced-retinal-vessel-density-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-patients-an-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-study
#12
Jian Yu, Kuanlin Xiao, Jingjing Huang, Xinghuai Sun, Chunhui Jiang
Purpose: To examine the retinal vasculature in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) and to determine the correlation between retinal vascularity and the severity of OSAS. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study. Methods: Sixty-nine consecutive subjects who underwent polysomnography were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of OSAS, which was defined using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as normal-to-mild (AHI <15), moderate (≥15 to <30), or severe (≥30)...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715367/microfluidic-imaging-flow-cytometry-by-asymmetric-detection-time-stretch-optical-microscopy-atom
#13
Anson H L Tang, Queenie T K Lai, Bob M F Chung, Kelvin C M Lee, Aaron T Y Mok, G K Yip, Anderson H C Shum, Kenneth K Y Wong, Kevin K Tsia
Scaling the number of measurable parameters, which allows for multidimensional data analysis and thus higher-confidence statistical results, has been the main trend in the advanced development of flow cytometry. Notably, adding high-resolution imaging capabilities allows for the complex morphological analysis of cellular/sub-cellular structures. This is not possible with standard flow cytometers. However, it is valuable for advancing our knowledge of cellular functions and can benefit life science research, clinical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714966/nanoscale-imaging-of-clinical-specimens-using-pathology-optimized-expansion-microscopy
#14
Yongxin Zhao, Octavian Bucur, Humayun Irshad, Fei Chen, Astrid Weins, Andreea L Stancu, Eun-Young Oh, Marcello DiStasio, Vanda Torous, Benjamin Glass, Isaac E Stillman, Stuart J Schnitt, Andrew H Beck, Edward S Boyden
Expansion microscopy (ExM), a method for improving the resolution of light microscopy by physically expanding a specimen, has not been applied to clinical tissue samples. Here we report a clinically optimized form of ExM that supports nanoscale imaging of human tissue specimens that have been fixed with formalin, embedded in paraffin, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and/or fresh frozen. The method, which we call expansion pathology (ExPath), converts clinical samples into an ExM-compatible state, then applies an ExM protocol with protein anchoring and mechanical homogenization steps optimized for clinical samples...
July 17, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713646/progression-of-local-glaucomatous-damage-near-fixation-as-seen-with-adaptive-optics-imaging
#15
Donald C Hood, Dongwon Lee, Ravivarn Jarukasetphon, Jason Nunez, Maria A Mavrommatis, Richard B Rosen, Robert Ritch, Alfredo Dubra, Toco Y P Chui
PURPOSE: Deep glaucomatous defects near fixation were followed over time with an adaptive optics-scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) to better understand the progression of these defects and to explore the use of AO-SLO in detecting them. METHODS: Six eyes of 5 patients were imaged with an AO-SLO from 2 to 4 times for a range of 14.6 to 33.6 months. All eyes had open-angle glaucoma with deep defects in the superior visual field (VF) near fixation as defined by 10-2 VFs with 5 or more points less than -15 dB; two of the eyes had deep defects in the inferior VF as well...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712905/endoscopic-endonasal-transsphenoidal-approach-for-the-removal-of-optochiasmatic-cavernoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Xiaoli Meng, Xiaoli Feng, Jinghai Wan
BACKGROUND: Cavernoma of the optic chiasm is a rare disease, and the most common clinical presentation is chiasmal apoplexy. Almost all the cases reported in the literature were treated surgically with craniotomy. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of optochiasmatic cavernoma successfully resected via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid diagnosis and complete resection of a symptomatic optochiasmatic cavernoma are helpful in improving visual dysfunction...
July 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712278/in-vivo-dosimetry-and-acute-toxicity-in-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-intraoperative-radiotherapy-as-boost
#17
Jason Joon Bock Lee, Jinhyun Choi, Sung Gwe Ahn, Joon Jeong, Ik Jae Lee, Kwangwoo Park, Kangpyo Kim, Jun Won Kim
PURPOSE: To report the results of a correlation analysis of skin dose assessed by in vivo dosimetry and the incidence of acute toxicity. This is a phase 2 trial evaluating the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a boost for breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were treated with IORT of 20 Gy followed by whole breast irradiation (WBI) of 46 Gy. A total of 55 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 month after WBI were evaluated...
June 2017: Radiation Oncology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712066/effect-of-ph-and-ionic-strength-on-the-binding-strength-of-anti-pf4-polyanion-antibodies
#18
Thi-Huong Nguyen, Andreas Greinacher
Antibodies against the chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) in complex with heparin cause the prothrombotic adverse drug reaction heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The current dilemma for laboratory diagnosis of HIT is that only about 50% of these antibodies are pathogenic, but the widely available enzyme immunosorbent assays (EIA), used for diagnosis in the clinical laboratory cannot differentiate between non-pathogenic- and pathogenic (platelet activating) antibodies. It would be highly desirable to improve diagnosis for HIT...
July 15, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712034/recurrence-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-manifesting-as-serous-retinal-detachments-and-optic-disc-swelling
#19
Ozge Yabas Kiziloglu, Mert Mestanoglu, Ozgun Melike Totuk Gedar, Cafer Adiguzel, Okan Toygar
PURPOSE: The aim of this case report is to describe a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who developed bilateral serous retinal detachments and unilateral optic disc swelling. METHODS: A 23-year-old woman with ALL presented to the ophthalmology clinic with bilateral subacute visual loss. RESULTS: Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral serous retinal detachments and unilateral optic disc swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging for differential diagnosis was inconclusive; however, cerebrospinal fluid sampling demonstrated leukemic involvement of the central nervous system...
July 15, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711588/a-framework-for-computational-fluid-dynamic-analyses-of-patient-specific-stented-coronary-arteries-from-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#20
Susanna Migliori, Claudio Chiastra, Marco Bologna, Eros Montin, Gabriele Dubini, Cristina Aurigemma, Roberto Fedele, Francesco Burzotta, Luca Mainardi, Francesco Migliavacca
The clinical challenge of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is highly dependent on the recognition of the coronary anatomy of each individual. The classic imaging modality used for PCI is angiography, but advanced imaging techniques that are routinely performed during PCI, like optical coherence tomography (OCT), may provide detailed knowledge of the pre-intervention vessel anatomy as well as the post-procedural assessment of the specific stent-to-vessel interactions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an emerging investigational tool in the setting of optimization of PCI results...
July 12, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
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