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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920463/evaluation-of-genotoxicity-and-subchronic-toxicity-of-standardized-rose-hip-extract
#1
A Nagatomo, M Oguri, N Nishida, M Ogawa, A Ichikawa, Y Tanaka-Azuma
Rose hip is the fruit of the rose plant, which is widely used in food, cosmetics and as a traditional medicine. Therefore, rose hip is considered safe and has a sufficient history of consumption as food. However, few studies have reported on the safety of rose hip extracts in toxicological analyses. Thus, to evaluate the safety of rosehip polyphenol MJ (RHPMJ), an aqueous ethanol extract standardized with the trans-tiliroside content, we performed genotoxicity and 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity studies in compliance with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-Good Laboratory Practice...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914393/costunolide-induces-micronuclei-formation-chromosomal-aberrations-cytostasis-and-mitochondrial-mediated-apoptosis-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#2
Soma Shiva Nageswara Rao Singireesu, Sunil Misra, Sujan Kumar Mondal, Suresh Yerramsetty, Nivedita Sahu, Suresh Babu K
Costunolide (CE) is a sesquiterpene lactone well-known for its antihepatotoxic, antiulcer, and anticancer activities. The present study focused on the evaluation of the cytogenetic toxicity and cellular death-inducing potential of CE in CHO cells, an epithelial cell line derived from normal ovary cells of Chinese hamster. The cytotoxic effect denoting MTT assay has shown an IC50 value of 7.56 μM CE, where 50% proliferation inhibition occurs. The oxidative stress caused by CE was confirmed based on GSH depletion induced cell death, conspicuously absent in N-acetylcysteine (GSH precursor) pretreated cells...
September 15, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903625/radioprotective-activity-of-curcumin-encapsulated-liposomes-against-genotoxicity-caused-by-gamma-cobalt-60-irradiation-in-human-blood-cells
#3
Minh-Hiep Nguyen, Pham Ngoc Duy, Bingxue Dong, Thi-Huynh-Nga Nguyen, Chi-Bao Bui, Kunn Hadinoto
PURPOSE: While the radioprotective activity of curcumin against genotoxicity has been well established, its poor oral bioavailability has limited its successful clinical applications. Nanoscale formulations, including liposomes, have been demonstrated to improve curcumin bioavailability. The objective of the present work was (1) to prepare and characterize curcumin-encapsulated liposomes (i.e. size, colloidal stability, encapsulation efficiency, and payload), and (2) subsequently to evaluate their radioprotective activity against genotoxicity in human blood cells caused by Gamma Cobalt-60 irradiation...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903093/chlorination-chloramination-and-ozonation-of-carbamazepine-enhance-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-multi-endpoint-evaluation-and-identification-of-its-genotoxic-transformation-products
#4
Yingnan Han, Mei Ma, Na Li, Rui Hou, Chao Huang, Yoshimitsu Oda, Zijian Wang
Investigations have focused on the removal and transformation of pharmaceuticals during drinking water and wastewater treatment. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the changes of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity based on different modes of action (MoAs) during chlorination, chloramination and ozonation processes of the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ). The results illustrated that ozonation enhanced the cytotoxicity and the chromosome damage effects on CHO-K1 cells detected by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay based on high-content screening technique, though ozonation showed the highest removal efficiency for CBZ...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901170/hypogymnia-tubulosa-extracts-chemical-profile-and-biological-activities
#5
Gordana Stojanović, Ivana Zlatanović, Ivana Zrnzević, Miroslava Stanković, Vesna Stankov Jovanović, Bojan Zlatković
This study reports for the first time in the chemical composition of acetone, ether, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of Hypogymnia tubulosa determined by HPLC-UV, GC-FID and GC-MS as well as effect of H. tubulosa acetone extract on micronucleus distribution on human lymphocytes and on cholinesterase activity. Additionally, antioxidant (estimated via DPPH, ABTS, TRP, CUPRAC and TPC assays) and antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were also determined. The HPLC-UV analysis revealed the presence of depsidones, 3-hydroxyphysodic, 4-O-methyl physodic acid, physodic and physodalic acid together with two depsides, atranorin and chloroatranorin...
September 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899600/rebuilding-chromosomes-after-catastrophe-emerging-mechanisms-of-chromothripsis
#6
REVIEW
Peter Ly, Don W Cleveland
Cancer genome sequencing has identified chromothripsis, a complex class of structural genomic rearrangements involving the apparent shattering of an individual chromosome into tens to hundreds of fragments. An initial error during mitosis, producing either chromosome mis-segregation into a micronucleus or chromatin bridge interconnecting two daughter cells, can trigger the catastrophic pulverization of the spatially isolated chromosome. The resultant chromosomal fragments are religated in random order by DNA double-strand break repair during the subsequent interphase...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898877/identification-of-small-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-markers-in-peripheral-blood-using-cytokinesis-blocked-micronucleus-and-spectral-karyotyping-assays
#7
Randa A El-Zein, Shereen Abdel-Rahman, Kyle J Santee, Robert Yu, Sanjay Shete
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer. There is an urgent need to develop tools to identify individuals at high risk of developing SCLC. We have previously reported that the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay is a strong predictor of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we investigate the sensitivity of the CBMN endpoints as predictors of SCLC risk. We conducted the CBMN assay on SCLC patients (n = 216), NSCLC patients (n = 173), and healthy controls (n = 204)...
September 13, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895048/effects-of-abamectin-on-bullfrog-tadpoles-insights-on-cytotoxicity
#8
Mateus Flores Montalvão, Guilherme Malafaia
Abamectin is one of the most used pesticides worldwide. However, investigations about its effects on amphibian populations are rare. Thus, the present study sought to investigate possible cytotoxic effects on Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles exposed to low abamectin concentrations diluted in water. Accordingly, four experimental groups were set: negative control, positive control (cyclophosphamide-40 mL L(-1)), abamectin at concentrations 36 μg a.i./L (ABA36 group), and 72 μg a.i./L (ABA72 group), applied as Kraft® 36EC...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890382/in-vitro-genotoxicity-and-in-vivo-subchronic-evaluation-of-the-anti-inflammatory-pyrazole-compound-lqfm021
#9
Soraia Santa de Moura, Renato Ivan de Ávila, Lara Barroso Brito, Rhaul de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Francine Pazini, Ricardo Menegatti, Aline Carvalho Batista, Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Marize Campos Valadares
Scientific evidences have highlighted 5-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2H-tetrazole (LQFM021) as a promising anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive agent due to its effects on peripheral opioid receptors associated with activation of the nitric oxide/cGMP/KATP pathway. Despite these important pharmacological findings, toxicity data of LQFM021 are scarce. Thus, this study investigated the in vitro genotoxicity of LQFM021 through cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (OECD Nº 487/2014). Moreover, zebrafish model was used to assess the embryotoxicity potential of LQFM021 using fish embryo toxicity test (OECD Nº 236/2013) with extended exposure to evaluate subchronic larval development...
September 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888959/genotoxicity-and-sub-chronic-toxicity-of-myolution-%C3%A2-branched-chain-keto-acids
#10
Caroline Hall, Ian Grayson
MYOLUTION(®), which consists of a mixture of the branched chain keto acids, keto-leucine, keto-isoleucine and keto-valine, as their calcium salts, may potentially be used as a food ingredient based on the reported contributions of these compounds to muscle health and exercise performance. Tests on genotoxicity and sub-chronic toxicity were performed to evaluate the safety of branched chain keto acids. No genotoxic effects were observed in the bacterial mutation assay or the in vitro micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes...
September 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886142/effects-of-ozone-exposure-on-human-epithelial-adenocarcinoma-and-normal-fibroblasts-cells
#11
Anna Poma, Sabrina Colafarina, Eleonora Aruffo, Osvaldo Zarivi, Antonella Bonfigli, Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Piero Di Carlo
Previous studies show variable ozone cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in cell cultures, laboratory animals and humans directly exposed to tropospheric ozone. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the cyto and genotoxic effects of ozone using adenocarcinoma human alveolar basal epithelial cells A549 and normal human fibroblasts Hs27. A cell culture chamber with controlled atmosphere (a simulation reactor) was built to inject a flow of 120 ppb of ozone, which is two times the threshold value for the protection of human health, fixed by the EU legislation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880740/cytogenetic-monitoring-of-hospital-staff-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-optimize-protocol-considering-dna-repair-genes-variability
#12
Hajer Doukali, Ghada Ben Salah, Bochra Ben Rhouma, Mounira Hajjaji, Amel Jaouadi, Neila Belguith-Mahfouth, Mohamed-Larbi Masmoudi, Leila Ammar-Keskes, Hassen Kamoun
PURPOSE: Chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) induces a wide spectrum of DNA damages. The aim of this study was to assess the frequencies of micronucleus (MN), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and to evaluate their association with XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln and XRCC3 241 Thr/Met polymorphisms in Hospital staff occupationally exposed to IR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire followed by a cytogenetic analysis was concluded for each subject in our study...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879624/the-herbicides-trifluralin-and-tebuthiuron-have-no-genotoxic-or-mutagenic-potential-as-evidenced-by-genetic-tests
#13
Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes, Otávio Pelegrino Rocha, Lilian Cristina Pereira, Maria Júlia Tasso, Gabriela Meireles, Danielle Palma de Oliveira, Daniel Junqueira Dorta
Brazil has been the largest world consumer of pesticides since 2008, followed by the USA. The herbicides trifluralin and tebuthiuron have been widely applied in agriculture. These herbicides are selective for some plant species, and their use brings various benefits. However, the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of tebuthiuron on non-target organisms are poorly known, and in addition, the effects of trifluralin must be better investigated. Therefore, this study employed genetic tests including the comet assay and micronucleus test to evaluate the genotoxic effects of trifluralin and tebuthiuron on HepG2 cells...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878859/radioprotective-activity-of-blackcurrant-extract-evaluated-by-in-vitro-micronucleus-and-gene-mutation-assays-in-tk6-human-lymphoblastoid-cells
#14
Ayumi Yamamoto, Tokuhisa Hirouchi, Saori Kawamorita, Kana Nakashima, Atena Sugiyama, Yoji Kato
INTRODUCTION: Blackcurrant (Ribs nigrum L.) is a classical fruit that has long been used to prepare juice, jam, liqueur, and sometimes medicines in Europe. Previously, we reported a genome defense effect by the antioxidative activity of several types of blackcurrant extracts (BCEs) in yeast and human cell gene mutation assays. In this study, we determined if BCE exerted radioprotective activity against DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, and gene mutations in the TK6 human lymphoblastoid cell line...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875446/evaluating-the-potential-genotoxicity-of-phthalates-esters-paes-in-perfumes-using-in-vitro-assays
#15
Iman Al-Saleh, Tahreer Al-Rajudi, Ghofran Al-Qudaihi, Pulicat Manogaran
We previously reported high levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) added as solvents or fixatives in 47 brands of perfumes. Diethyl phthalate was the most abundant compound (0.232-23,649 ppm), and 83.3% of the perfumes had levels >1 ppm, the threshold limit cited by a Greenpeace investigation. All samples had dimethyl phthalate levels higher than its threshold limit of 0.1 ppm, and 88, 38, and 7% of the perfumes had benzyl butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dibutyl phthalate levels, respectively, above their threshold limits...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868735/micronuclei-and-other-erythrocyte-nuclear-abnormalities-in-fishes-from-the-great-lakes-basin-usa
#16
Ryan P Braham, Vicki S Blazer, Cassidy H Shaw, Patricia M Mazik
Biological markers (biomarkers) sensitive to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination in fishes are widely used to identify exposure effects in aquatic environments. The micronucleus assay was incorporated into a suite of indicators to assess exposure to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination at five Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), as well as one non-AOC (reference) site. The assay allowed enumeration of micronuclei as well as other nuclear abnormalities for both site and species comparisons. Erythrocyte abnormality data was also compared to skin and liver tumor prevalence and hepatic transcript abundance...
September 4, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866281/integrated-assessment-of-toxic-effects-of-maghemite-%C3%AE-fe2o3-nanoparticles-in-zebrafish
#17
Rolando A R Villacis, José S Filho, Benjamin Piña, Ricardo B Azevedo, Aline Pic-Taylor, Juliana F Mazzeu, Cesar K Grisolia
The increasing use of nanotechnology in the last decade has raised concerns about the impact of nanoparticles in the environment. In particular, the potential harmful effects of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in aquatic organisms have been poorly addressed. We analyze here the toxic effects induced by IONPs in zebrafish using a combination of classical (genotoxicity, oxidative stress) and molecular (transcriptomic) methodologies. Adult animals were exposed for 96h to five sub-lethal IONP concentrations, ranging from 4...
August 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866044/investigation-of-the-preventive-effect-of-sijunzi-decoction-on-mitomycin-c-induced-immunotoxicity-in-rats-by-1-h-nmr-and-ms-based-untargeted-metabolomic-analysis
#18
Zhibo Guan, Juan Wu, Cancan Wang, Fang Zhang, Yinan Wang, Miao Wang, Min Zhao, Chunjie Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sijunzi decoction (SJZD) is a well known traditional Chinese prescription used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and immunity enhancement. It has been found to indeed improve life quality of chemotherapy patients and extensive used in clinical conbined with chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of the immunotoxicity of SJZD on mitomycin C (MMC) and the metabolic mechanism of action...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854817/in-vitro-genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-effects-of-doxepin-and-escitalopram-on-human-peripheral-lymphocytes
#19
Hayal Cobanoglu, Mahmut Coskun, Akin Çayir, Munevver Coskun
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of many psychiatric conditions including depression. There are findings suggesting that these drugs might have genotoxic, carcinogenic, and/or mutagenic effects. Therefore, the present in vitro study is intended to investigate potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the antidepressants escitalopram (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and doxepin (Tricyclic antidepressant) on human peripheral lymphocytes cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and single cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline comet assay) were used for the purpose of the study...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844241/is-mobile-phone-radiation-genotoxic-an-analysis-of-micronucleus-frequency-in-exfoliated-buccal-cells
#20
F M de Oliveira, A M Carmona, C Ladeira
Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey...
October 2017: Mutation Research
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