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Martin Poot
The highly complex structural genome variations chromothripsis, chromoanasynthesis, and chromoplexy are subsumed under the term chromoanagenesis, which means chromosome rebirth. Precipitated by numerous DNA double-strand breaks, they differ in number of and distances between breakpoints, associated copy number variations, order and orientation of segments, and flanking sequences at joining points. Results from patients with the autosomal dominant cancer susceptibility disorder Li-Fraumeni syndrome implicated somatic TP53 mutations in chromothripsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yanan Du, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Qiang Liu
In this data article, 146 villagers (exposed group) were randomly selected from the workers who involved in the e-wastes recycling directly as a daily job in Tianjin. Control group, including 121 villagers, came from another town without e-waste disposal sites. Chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus (CBMN) were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%), tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes and spermatozoa...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Eiji Yamamura, Chinami Aruga, Shigeharu Muto, Nobuyuki Baba, Yoshifumi Uno
Introduction: We examined the correlation between the results of in vitro and in vivo chromosomal damage tests by using in-house data of 18 pharmaceutical candidates that showed positive results in the in vitro chromosomal aberration or micronucleus test using CHL/IU cells, and quantitatively analyzed them especially in regard to exposure levels of the compounds. Findings: Eight compounds showed that the exposure levels [maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) and AUC0-24h ] were comparable with or higher than the in vitro exposure levels [the lowest effective (positive) concentration (LEC) and AUCvitro  = LEC (μg/mL) × treatment time (h)]...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Rit Bahadur Gurung, Dae Hee Kim, Lila Kim, Albert W Lee, Yonglin Gao, Zhenhua Wang
We performed a series of toxicity studies on the safety of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt as a food ingredient. 6'-SL sodium salt, up to a maximum dose of 5000 μg/plate, did not increase the number of revertant colonies in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. A chromosomal aberration assay (using Chinese hamster lung cells) found no clastogenic effects at any concentration of 6'-SL sodium salt in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation...
March 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
David Kirkland, Paul Fowler
Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) is a trifunctional acrylate monomer which polymerizes rapidly when exposed to sources of free radicals. It is widely used as a reactive diluent and polymer building block in the formulation of overprint varnishes, inks and a variety of wood, plastic and metal coatings. TMPTA has been tested in a range of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests. There is no clear evidence of induction of gene mutations by TMPTA in bacteria or mammalian cells in vitro, but there is evidence of clastogenicity from induction of small colony tk mutants in the mouse lymphoma assay, and also induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Sumee Khanal, Priyanka Singh, Svetlana L Avlasevich, Dorothea K Torous, Jeffrey C Bemis, Stephen D Dertinger
Regulatory guidance documents stress the value of assessing multiple tissues and the most appropriate endpoints when evaluating chemicals for in vivo genotoxic potential. However, conducting several independent studies to consider multiple endpoints and/or tissue compartments is resource intensive. Furthermore, conventional approaches for scoring genotoxicity endpoints are slow, tedious, and less objective than what would be considered ideal. In an effort to address these issues with current practices, we attempted to i) employ flow cytometry-based methods to score liver micronuclei, blood micronuclei, and blood Pig-a gene mutation, and ii) integrate the endpoints into a common general toxicology study design-the rat 28-day repeat dose study...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Tetsuya Suzuki, Kyomu Matsumoto, Masamitsu Honma, Takehiko Nohmi
In regulatory genetic toxicology, it is an axiom that there is no threshold for genotoxicity of chemicals, such that genotoxic chemicals may impose carcinogenic risk on humans even at very low doses. This paradigm is counterintuitive, however, because humans possess a number of self-defense mechanisms that may suppress the genotoxicity at these low doses and therefore manifest a practical threshold. DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ) is a specialized Pol that plays an important role in DNA synthesis across DNA damage, thereby modulating cell survival and genotoxicity...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Amal Mohamed Kamal El Safty, Aisha Mohamed Samir, Mona Kamal Mekkawy, Marwa Mohamed Fouad
Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Serpil Könen-Adıgüzel, Serap Ergene
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are used in a wide range of applications because of their unique properties. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are one of the important ENPs, and they can cause negative health effects, such as genotoxicity, in humans and other living organisms. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic effects of short-term (3-24 h) CeO2 NPs exposure to cultured human blood lymphocytes. Three genotoxicity systems "cytokinesis-block micronucleus test, comet assay, and gamma H2AX test" were used to show the genotoxic potential of CeO2 NPs (particle size <25 nm, concentrations: 6, 12, and 18 µg/mL)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Sylwia Terpilowska, Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chromium(III) and iron(III) and molybdenum(III) and nickel(II) and their combinations on cyto-, genotoxicity and mutagenicity in BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cells. The results obtained from cytotoxicity assays indicate that there are differences between BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cell lines in their sensitivity to chromium chloride, iron chloride, molybdenum trioxide and nickel chloride. The statistically significant increase of DNA damage of all used microelements in both cell lines was observed...
March 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Jesús Emilo Quintero Ojeda, Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Vicente Olimón-Andalón, Rosa Alicia García Jau, Alfredo Ayala Ham, José Geovanni Romero Quintana, Erika de Lourdes Silva-Benítez, Guzmán Sanchez-Schmitz, Rosalío Ramos-Payán
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent high levels of glucose in plasma. Chronic hyperglycemia is thought to increase oxidative stress and the formation of free radicals that in turn damage cells. Thus, we decided to determine the frequency of nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells from cheek and tongue mucosa of DM patients with type 1 (DM1, treated only with insulin) and type 2 (DM2, treated with metformin) using the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay. Micronuclei frequency in cheek epithelial cells was higher in both DM1 (0...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jasper Braun, Lukas Nabergall, Rafik Neme, Laura F Landweber, Masahico Saito, Nataša Jonoska
Ciliates have two different types of nuclei per cell, with one acting as a somatic, transcriptionally active nucleus (macronucleus; abbr. MAC) and another serving as a germline nucleus (micronucleus; abbr. MIC). Furthermore, Oxytricha trifallax undergoes extensive genome rearrangements during sexual conjugation and post-zygotic development of daughter cells. These rearrangements are necessary because the precursor MIC loci are often both fragmented and scrambled, with respect to the corresponding MAC loci. Such genome architectures are remarkably tolerant of encrypted MIC loci, because RNA-guided processes during MAC development reorganize the gene fragments in the correct order to resemble the parental MAC sequence...
March 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Li-Chan Yang, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Chi-Luan Wen, Wen-Chuan Lin
Dendrobium Taiseed Tosnobile is a new species of herba dendrobii (Shi-Hu) that was developed by crossbreeding D. tosaense and D. nobile . Its pharmacological activity and active component have been reported, but its subchronic toxicity and genetic safety have not yet been investigated. This study assessed the 90-day oral toxicity and genetic safety of the aqueous extracts of D. Taiseed Tosnobile (DTTE) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Eighty rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of ten male and ten female rats...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
María Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María Puerto, Sara Maisanaba, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Silvia Pichardo, Ana M Cameán
Essential oils from Origanum spp. exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities making them suitable for use as food additives. The incorporation of oregano essential oil in active food packaging is under study; however, it has been not authorized for this purpose thus far. In order to fulfill the requirements of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the aim of the present study was to determine the genotoxic potential of oregano essential oil using both the micronucleus (MN) test and comet (standard and enzyme-modified) assays in Wistar rats treated with 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight administered daily for 90 days...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jana Lebedová, Yolanda S Hedberg, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Hanna L Karlsson
Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising nanomaterials used in different technological solutions as well as in consumer products. Silver (Ag), gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) represent three metallic NPs with current or suggested use in different applications. Pt is also used as vehicle exhaust catalyst leading to a possible exposure via inhalation. Despite their use, there is limited data on their genotoxic potential and possible size-dependent effects, particularly for Pt NPs. The aim of this study was to explore size-dependent genotoxicity of these NPs (5 and 50 nm) following exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Mikko Herrala, Ehab Mustafa, Jonne Naarala, Jukka Juutilainen
PURPOSE: We examined genotoxicity, co-genotoxicity and induced genomic instability (IGI) in primary astrocytes exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were exposed to 872 MHz GSM-modulated or continuous wave (CW) RF radiation at specific absorption rates of 0.6 or 6.0 W/kg for 24 h. Menadione (MQ) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; only in genotoxicity experiments) were used as co-exposures. Alkaline Comet assay and flow cytometric micronucleus scoring were used to detect genetic damage...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Liana Bezerra Dias de Lima, Paula Benevides de Morais, Ricardo Lopes Tortorela de Andrade, Luciana Vieira Mattos, Sandro Estevan Moron
This research aimed to evaluate the ecological risk of xenobiotics associated with agricultural activities by determining metal contents and biomarker responses using tucunaré (Cichla sp.) as a bioindicator. The work was conducted in the southwest region of the state of Tocantins, in the cities of Lagoa da Confusão and Pium. Water samples and specimens of Cichla sp. were collected in the Javaés and Formoso Rivers at three collection points (A, B and C). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn in water and fish were analyzed...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sebastian Heger, Miaomiao Du, Kevin Bauer, Andreas Schäffer, Henner Hollert
The ecotoxicity of two biofuel candidates (1‑octanol and 2‑butanone) was investigated by an integrative test strategy using three bioassays: the acute immobilisation test with water flea (D. magna), the fish embryo acute toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the in vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells. The median effective concentration (EC50 ) values were 14.9±0.66mgL-1 for 1‑octanol, and 2152.1±44.6mgL-1 for 2‑butanone in the D. magna test. Both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone caused teratogenic and lethal effects on zebrafish embryos, while exposure to 1‑octanol significantly induced these effects at concentrations ≥2...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simon Brand, Michael P Schlüsener, Dinah Albrecht, Uwe Kunkel, Claudia Strobel, Tamara Grummt, Thomas A Ternes
An analytical method based on high resolution mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (LC-HRMS) for 25 quaternary phosphonium compounds (QPCs) and derived phosphine oxides (POs) was developed and validated. To investigate the occurrence and fate of QPCs in the aquatic environment, water, suspended solids and sediments from the rivers Rhine and Elbe (upper and middle Elbe as well as tidal Elbe) were analyzed, as well as samples from tributaries bearing significant loads of QPCs. For the first time, the quaternary phosphonium compound tetrabutylphosphonium (Bu4 P+ ) was detected...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Rashmi Metgud, Bhardwaj Tina Neelesh
Background: Tobacco consumption in smoke form causes severe health problems such as cancer. Micronuclei are structures that present after genomic damage in buccal mucosal cells which could be a good indicator of chromosomal alterations in cytological samples. The nuclear anomalies that are consequences of cell injury are also found in these cells. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-specific stain over DNA-nonspecific stain in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells in smokers and nonsmokers for assessment of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
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