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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325677/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-among-lung-cancer-free-smokers-the-importance-of-healthy-controls
#1
Michelle D Karpman, Ronald Eldridge, Jack L Follis, Carol J Etzel, Sanjay Shete, Randa A El-Zein
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322347/all-aspect-of-toxic-effect-of-brilliant-blue-and-sunset-yellow-in-allium-cepa-roots
#2
Kemal Koç, Dilek Pandir
Substances added to food are considerable for survival and are the oldest technologies used in preservation, sweetening and coloring. This work was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the food additives sunset yellow (SY) and brilliant blue (BB) on Allium cepa root meristematic cells. Control and treatment groups were created from germinated roots. Group 1 (control group) did not receive chemicals. Group 2 (SY or BB-treatment group), received increasing doses of SY (25, 50, 100 and 500 ppm) and BB (100, 200, 400 and 500 ppm) with time periods of 24, 48 and 72 h...
January 10, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317330/comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-flavonol-anti-oxidants-alpha-glycosyl-isoquercitrin-and-isoquercitrin-for-genotoxic-potential
#3
Cheryl A Hobbs, Mihoko Koyanagi, Carol Swartz, Jeffrey Davis, Sawako Kasamoto, Robert Maronpot, Leslie Recio, Shim-Mo Hayashi
Quercetin and its glycosides possess potential benefits to human health. Several flavonols are available to consumers as dietary supplements, promoted as anti-oxidants; however, incorporation of natural quercetin glycosides into food and beverage products has been limited by poor miscibility in water. Enzymatic conjugation of multiple glucose moieties to isoquercitrin to produce alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) enhances solubility and bioavailability. AGIQ is used in Japan as a food additive and has been granted generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status...
January 6, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317328/investigation-of-in-vitro-genotoxic-effects-of-an-anti-diabetic-drug-sitagliptin
#4
Deniz Yuzbasioglu, Cemile Enguzel-Alperen, Fatma Unal
Sitagliptin is an active ingredient of antidiabetic drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, the genotoxic effects of sitagliptin were determined in human lymphocytes by using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. 31.25-1000 μg/mL concentrations of sitagliptin were used. Sitagliptin significantly increased the frequency of CAs and SCEs at the highest concentration at 24 h treatment and all concentrations (except 250 μg/mL for CA, except 31...
January 6, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308674/the-role-of-molecular-modelling-strategies-in-validating-the-effects-of-chrysin-on-sodium-arsenite-induced-chromosomal-and-dna-damage
#5
S Babangida, S Ibrahim, A Muhammad, D E Arthur, A Uzairu, A Garba
Chrysin (CHR) is a food-based bioactive ingredient whereas, sodium arsenite (SA) is one of the major contaminant in drinking water. When ingested, SA contributes to tissue damage due to bioactivation by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase. Hence, the needs to nullify this effect by investigating the potentials of CHR on SA-induced genotoxicity in rats. The experiment was divided into two successive stages (ameliorative and preventive, curative studies) for 1 week. Rats were divided into four groups: distilled water, 10mg/kg SA, 10mg/kg CHR and co-administration...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307377/the-backwater-clam-meretrix-casta-as-a-bioindicator-species-for-monitoring-the-pollution-of-an-estuarine-environment-by-genotoxic-agents
#6
Avelyno H D'costa, Shyama S K, Praveen Kumar M K, Swizzle Furtado
The coast of Goa receives anthropogenic stress through its major rivers, which carry mining wastes, including iron and manganese ores from upstream mining sites, and petroleum hydrocarbons from shipping activities. These contaminants show seasonal variation in concentration and may be bioaccumulated by fauna inhabiting these waters. These fauna, including the bivalve molluscs, are particularly at risk due to these insults. In the present study, the use of the backwater clam, Meretrix casta (Chemnitz), as a bioindicator species was evaluated, comparing two sites (Vasco and Palolem) on the Goan coast...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307375/a-three-dimensional-in-vitro-hepg2-cells-liver-spheroid-model-for-genotoxicity-studies
#7
Ume-Kulsoom Shah, Jefferson de Oliveira Mallia, Neenu Singh, Katherine E Chapman, Shareen H Doak, Gareth J S Jenkins
The liver's role in metabolism of chemicals makes it an appropriate tissue for toxicity testing. Current testing protocols, such as animal testing and two-dimensional liver cell systems, offer limited resemblance to in vivo liver cell behaviour, in terms of gene expression profiles and metabolic competence; thus, they do not always accurately predict human toxicology. In vitro three-dimensional liver cell models offer an attractive alternative. This study reports on the development of a 3D liver model, using HepG2 cells, by a hanging-drop technique, with a focus on evaluating spheroid growth characteristics and suitability for genotoxicity testing...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307374/analysis-of-negative-historical-control-group-data-from-the-in-vitro-micronucleus-assay-using-tk6-cells
#8
David P Lovell, Mick Fellows, Francesco Marchetti, Joan Christiansen, Azeddine Elhajouji, Kiyohiro Hashimoto, Sawako Kasamoto, Yan Li, Ozaki Masayasu, Martha M Moore, Maik Schuler, Robert Smith, Leon F Stankowski, Jin Tanaka, Jennifer Y Tanir, Veronique Thybaud, Freddy Van Goethem, James Whitwell
The recent revisions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) genetic toxicology test guidelines emphasize the importance of historical negative controls both for data quality and interpretation. The goal of a HESI Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) workgroup was to collect data from participating laboratories and to conduct a statistical analysis to understand and publish the range of values that are normally seen in experienced laboratories using TK6 cells to conduct the in vitro micronucleus assay...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307373/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-the-mutagenicity-of-3-alkylpyridine-marine-alkaloid-analogues-with-anticancer-potential
#9
Maria Cristina S Barbosa, Camila de Souza Barbosa, Júlia T de Oliveira, Natália Chermont S Moreira, Natália Rezende de Miranda Martins, Gabrielle K Alves Gomes, Camila A Caldeira, Marília Ladeira Alves E Costa, Daniel Silqueira Martins Guimarães, Luciana Guimarães, Clebio S Nascimento, Fernando de Pilla Varotti, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro Viana, Fabio Vieira Dos Santos
Theonella sp is an important source of biologically-active 3-alkylpyridine alkaloids (3-APAs) that has shown a wide variety of promising biological effects. In the present work, two new 3-APAs analogues were synthesized based on molecular modeling studies to act as potential antimalarial agents. These theoneladin C analogues, containing the thiocyanate group in their chemical structures, were synthesized and evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 values ranging from 2.3 to 5.5μM). The structural and energetic analysis demonstrated a high chemical affinity of the two analogues for their target, the heme group...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307372/biphasic-regulation-of-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-by-low-and-high-concentrations-of-resveratrol-leads-to-the-opposite-effect-on-chromosomal-instability
#10
Xihan Guo, Juan Ni, Xueqin Dai, Tao Zhou, Guofang Yang, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic phytoalexin possessing numerous health-promoting effects. Chromosomal instability (CIN), usually results from defective spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is a major contributor to many diseases. While it's recently recognized that RSV exhibits a nonlinear dose response for disease prevention, whether it's the case for its role in CIN remains unknown. Here, we investigated the potential of a broad range of RSV concentrations (0.01-100μM) on CIN and the underlying mechanisms in human normal colon epithelial NCM460 cells...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307370/evaluation-of-chromosomal-dna-damage-cytotoxicity-cytostasis-oxidative-dna-damage-and-their-relationship-with-endocrine-hormones-in-patients-with-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#11
Kursat Gundogan, Hamiyet Donmez-Altuntas, Zuhal Hamurcu, Ismail Hakkı Akbudak, Murat Sungur, Nazmiye Bitgen, Gulden Baskol, Fahri Bayram
Pesticides are commonly used compounds in agriculture. Especially, organophosphates (OPs) are among the extensively used pesticides. Therefore, OPs poisoning is common, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. Primary aim of this study was to research the effects of acute OPs poisoning on genome instability in the individuals' lymphocytes with acute OPs poisoning both by using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-cyt) assay to examine chromosome/genome damage, cell proliferation index and cell death rate and by using the plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels to determine oxidative DNA damage...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306823/sensitivity-of-medaka-oryzias-latipes-to-4-nonylphenol-subacute-exposure-erythrocyte-alterations-and-apoptosis
#12
Alaa El-Din H Sayed, Chisato Kataoka, Shoji Oda, Shosaku Kashiwada, Hiroshi Mitani
The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of the endocrine-disrupting compound; 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). The frequencies of erythrocyte alterations, apoptosis, and micronuclei were used as biological indicators of damage. Medaka were exposed 15 days to 4-NP at three sublethal concentrations (50, 80, and 100 μg/l 4-NP) and results compared with those of a previous study using catfish as an animal model. Exposure of medaka resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of erythrocyte alterations, apoptosis and micronucleus (MN)...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304400/in-situ-assessment-of-karaj-river-genotoxic-impact-with-the-alkaline-comet-assay-and-micronucleus-test-on-feral-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-fario
#13
Mehran Hariri, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Hamid Farahmand, Lobat Taghavi, Amir-Reza Shahabinia
The in situ evaluation of the genotoxic impact of the Karaj River was performed using the comet and micronucleus (MN) assays in erythrocytes, liver, gill and kidney of indigenous brown trout, Salmo trutta fario from three different stations, including Varangerud, Asara and Purkan. The results showed that DNA damage significantly increased in sampled fish erythrocytes, liver and gill from low levels in the upstream river (Varangerud) via intermediate levels in downstream (Purkan) to high levels in the middle of the river (Asara), correlating with the river increasing pollution gradient...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303016/a-toxicological-evaluation-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-a-green-algae
#14
Timothy S Murbach, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Gábor Hirka, Adél Vértesi, Erzsébet Béres, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
There is a current worldwide interest in developing novel sustainable nonanimal nutritional sources, and one such source is the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the only green algae that has been studied as a model organism for many biological processes ranging from photosynthesis to flagellar movement. However, its potential as a safe nutritional source for use in various foods has not been thoroughly investigated. To assess the safety of C reinhardtii for use as a nutritional human food ingredient, in accordance with internationally accepted standards, the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of the dried C reinhardtii (THN 6) algal biomass was investigated...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296563/single-repeated-dose-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-assessment-of-herb-formula-kiom2012h
#15
Hwayong Park, Youn-Hwan Hwang, Jin Yeul Ma
Background: Traditional medicine and herbal prescriptions are becoming more popular, and they account for a large share of the world's healthcare research studies, developments, and market demands. Increasing scientific evidence of the substantive efficacies such as preventive health keeping pharmaceutical materials and dietary supplements can be found elsewhere. Above all, safety should be the critical premise for considering developmental materials such as pharmaceuticals without side effects and toxicity...
December 2017: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288979/in-vitro-genotoxic-effect-of-secondary-minerals-crystallized-in-rocks-from-coal-mine-drainage
#16
Adriane Perachi Nordin, Juliana da Silva, Claudia Telles de Souza, Liana A B Niekraszewicz, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Kátia da Boit, Marcos L S Oliveira, Ivana Grivicich, Ana Letícia Hilario Garcia, Luis Felipe Silva Oliveira, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva
Coal processing generates a large volume of waste that can damage human health and the environment. Often these wastes produce acid drainage in which several minerals are crystallized (evaporites). This study aimed to identify secondary minerals, as well as the genotoxic potential of these materials. The samples were collected at two sites along the Rocinha River in Santa Catarina state (Brazil): (1) directly from the source of the acid drainage (evaporite 1), and (2) on the river bank (evaporite 2). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and by particle-induced X-ray emission techniques...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287801/subchronic-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-studies-of-antrodia-mushroom-%C3%AE-glucan-preparation
#17
S N Chen, C S Chang, S Chen, Madhu Soni
Antrodia cinnamomea is one of the most highly valued mushrooms utilized in traditional Taiwanese therapeutic practices. Its neutral monosaccharides (mannose, glucose and xylose) linked by a β-D-glucan chain have been claimed to be responsible for its health benefits. The objective of the present study was to investigate adverse effects, if any, of β-glucan (∼65% pure) from A. cinnamomea in subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were followed Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) application, and were administered (gavage) Antrodia mushroom β-glucan preparation at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days...
December 26, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286884/antigenotoxicity-properties-of-copaifera-multijuga-oleoresin-and-its-chemical-marker-the-diterpene-copalic-acid
#18
Jacqueline Morais Alves, Luís Fernando Leandro, Juliana Marques Senedese, Pâmela Tinti de Castro, Daiane Eleutério Pereira, Flávia Aparecida Resende, Débora Leite Campos, Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva, Eliana Aparecida Varanda, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Denise Crispim Tavares
In view of the biological activities and growing therapeutic interest in oleoresin obtained from Copaifera multijuga, this study aimed to determine the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of this oleoresin (CMO) and its chemical marker, diterpene (-)-copalic acid (CA). The micronucleus (MN) assay in V79 cell cultures and the Ames test were used for in vitro analyses, as well as MN and comet assays in Swiss mice for in vivo analyses. The in vitro genotoxicity/mutagenicity results showed that either CMO (30, 60, or 120 µg/ml-MN assay; 0...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281926/investigation-of-genotoxic-effects-of-paraben-in-cultured-human-lymphocytes
#19
Devrim Güzel Bayülken, Berrin Ayaz Tüylü, Handan Sinan, Hülya Sivas
Paraben is a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid extensively used as preservatives in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its antimicrobial characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic effects of paraben in human lymphocyte cultures. Cells were analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN), chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and comet tests. For CBMN, CA, and SCE assays, the human lymphocytes were isolated from healthy donors and incubated with 500, 250, 100, and 50 µg/mL of paraben for 24 and 48 h, and for comet assay, cells were exposed to 1000, 750, 500, and 250 µg/mL of paraben for an hour...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275520/probiotic-strain-stenotrophomonas-acidaminiphila-bj1-degrades-and-reduces-chlorothalonil-toxicity-to-soil-enzymes-microbial-communities-and-plant-roots
#20
Qingming Zhang, Muhammad Saleem, Caixia Wang
Chlorothalonil, a non-systemic and broad-spectrum fungicide, is widely used to control the pathogens of agricultural plants. Although microbial degradation of chlorothalonil is known, we know little about the colonization and degradation capacity of these microbes in the natural and semi-natural soil environments. Therefore, we studied the colonization and detoxification potential of a chlorothalonil degrading Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila probiotic strain BJ1 in the soil under green conditions. The results from polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis demonstrated that probiotic strain BJ1 successfully colonized the soil by competing with the native biota...
December 23, 2017: AMB Express
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