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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649636/interplay-of-space-radiation-and-microgravity-in-dna-damage-and-dna-damage-response
#1
María Moreno-Villanueva, Michael Wong, Tao Lu, Ye Zhang, Honglu Wu
In space, multiple unique environmental factors, particularly microgravity and space radiation, pose constant threat to the DNA integrity of living organisms. Specifically, space radiation can cause damage to DNA directly, through the interaction of charged particles with the DNA molecules themselves, or indirectly through the production of free radicals. Although organisms have evolved strategies on Earth to confront such damage, space environmental conditions, especially microgravity, can impact DNA repair resulting in accumulation of severe DNA lesions...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644429/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-studies-of-essential-oil-from-rosa-damascene-mill-kashan-iran
#2
Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Emran Habibi, Mona Modanloo
Aim Rosa damascene Mill. belongs to the family of Roseaceae and its essential oil is produced in large amounts in Iran. The wide application of rose oil has raised questions about potential adverse health effects. We have investigated cytotoxic activity and genotoxic effects of Rosa oil from Kashan, Iran. Methods The cytotoxic effect and IC50 of the essential oil on the cell lines was studied followed by MTT assay. In this assay mitochondrial oxidoreductase enzymes with reducing the tetrazolium dye MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reflect the number of viable cells...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643002/genotoxicity-testing-of-different-surface-functionalized-sio2-zro2-and-silver-nanomaterials-in-3d-human-bronchial-models
#3
Andrea Haase, Nils Dommershausen, Markus Schulz, Robert Landsiedel, Philipp Reichardt, Benjamin-Christoph Krause, Jutta Tentschert, Andreas Luch
Inhalation is considered a critical uptake route for NMs, demanding for sound toxicity testing using relevant test systems. This study investigates cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in EpiAirway™ 3D human bronchial models using 16 well-characterized NMs, including surface-functionalized 15 nm SiO2 (4 variants), 10 nm ZrO2 (4), and nanosilver (3), ZnO NM-110, TiO2 NM-105, BaSO4 NM-220, and two AlOOH NMs. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH and ATP assays and genotoxicity by the alkaline comet assay. For 9 NMs, uptake was investigated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641238/water-soluble-fraction-of-petroleum-induces-genotoxicity-and-morphological-effects-in-fat-snook-centropomus-parallelus
#4
Laila Carine Campos Medeiros, Frederico Augusto Cariello Delunardo, Larissa Novaes Simões, Marcelo Gustavo Paulino, Thais Souza Vargas, Marisa Narciso Fernandes, Rodrigo Scherer, Adriana Regina Chippari-Gomes
Petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the primary organic chemicals found in water bodies, and the water-soluble fraction of petroleum (WSFP) may be responsible for much of the toxic effects. In the present study, genotoxicity assays and histopathological analysis of the gills were analyzed for two experimental protocols: 1) Juvenile Centropomus parallelus were exposed to different concentrations of WFSP (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) for 96h; 2) A second fish group was exposed to 50% WFSP for 168h followed by a post-exposure period for 168h in clean water (recovery)...
June 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635296/benzoxaborole-antimalarial-agents-part-5-lead-optimization-of-novel-amide-pyrazinyloxy-benzoxaboroles-and-identification-of-a-preclinical-candidate
#5
Yong-Kang Zhang, Jacob J Plattner, Eric E Easom, Robert Toms Jacobs, Denghui Guo, Yvonne R Freund, Pamela Berry, Vic Ciaravino, John C L Erve, Philip J Rosenthal, Brice Campo, Francisco-Javier Gamo, Laura M Sanz, Jianxin Cao
Carboxamide pyrazinyloxy benzoxaboroles were investigated with the goal to identify a molecule with satisfactory antimalarial activity, physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic profile, in vivo efficacy, and safety profile. This optimization effort discovered 46, which met our target candidate profile. Compound 46 had excellent activity against cultured Plasmodium falciparum, and in vivo against P. falciparum and P. berghei in infected mice. It exhibited good PK properties in mouse, rat and dog. It was highly active against other eleven P...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634794/evaluation-in-situ-of-genotoxicity-and-stress-in-south-american-common-toad-rhinella-arenarum-in-environments-related-to-fluorite-mine
#6
Favio E Pollo, Pablo R Grenat, Zulma A Salinas, Manuel A Otero, Nancy E Salas, Adolfo L Martino
Little attention has been paid to the impact of wastewater generated by mining activities on fluoride. In this study, we evaluated the hematology responses of common South American toad Rhinella arenarum inhabiting natural and artificial environments associated with a fluorite mine from central Argentina. We analyzed three sampling stations associated with the fluorite mine: (I) Los Cerros Negros stream (CN), which runs on granitic rock with a high fluorite content; (II) Los Vallecitos stream (LV), which runs on metamorphic rock with low fluorite content; and (III) artificial decantation ponds (DP) containing sediments produced by fluorite flotation process...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634331/genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-the-plasma-jet-treated-medium-on-lymphoblastoid-wil2-ns-cell-line-using-the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay
#7
Sung-Ha Hong, Endre J Szili, Michael Fenech, Nishtha Gaur, Robert D Short
Despite growing interest in the application of atmospheric plasma jets as medical treatment strategies, there has been comparatively little research on the potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of plasma jet treatment. In this study, we have employed the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay with WIL2-NS B lymphoblastoid cells to test the potential genotoxicity, as well as the cytotoxicity, of toxic species generated in cell culture media by an argon (Ar) plasma jet. Elevated levels of cell death (necrosis) and occurrence of chromosomal damage (micronuclei MN, nculeoplasmic bridge NPBs and nuclear bus, Nbuds) were observed when cells were exposed to plasma jet-treated media...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634058/apoptotic-gene-expression-profiles-and-dna-damage-levels-in-rat-liver-treated-with-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-and-protective-role-of-curcumin
#8
Dilek Eke, Ayla Çelik, Mehmet Bertan Yilmaz, Nurcan Aras, Sabriye Kocatürk Sel, Davut Alptekin
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS and PFOA, are xenobiotics that can be detected worldwide in the environment and humans. PFOS (C8F17SO3(-)) is a fluorinated organic compound has been used for decades in industrial and commercial products. We investigated the genotoxic and apoptotic impact of PFOS in rat liver using comet assay, micronucleus test and apoptotic gene expression methods for caspase 3, caspase 8 and the protective role of curcumin on the PFOS- induced damage under chronic exposure. In this study, rats were treated either with three different PFOS doses only (0...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624472/nonclinical-safety-of-astilbin-a-4-week-oral-toxicity-study-in-rats-with-genotoxicity-chromosomal-aberration-and-mammalian-micronucleus-tests
#9
Yonglin Gao, Chunmei Li, Yunzhi Wang, Yunguo Liu, Guisheng Li, Xiaochen Fan, Yanshen Li, Jingwei Tian, Albert W Lee
Astilbin is an active flavonoid compound isolated from Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae. It has been widely used as an anti-hepatic, anti-arthritic, and anti-renal injury agent. However, its safety has not yet been established. The objective of this study was to evaluate 4-week repeated oral toxicity and genotoxicity of astilbin. We examined oral toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats after daily oral administration of astilbin at 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Negative control animals received the same volume of the solvent...
June 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622827/copaifera-multijuga-oleoresin-and-its-constituent-diterpene-copalic-acid-genotoxicity-and-chemoprevention-study
#10
Jacqueline M Alves, Juliana M Senedese, Luís F Leandro, Pâmela T Castro, Daiane E Pereira, Luiza J Carneiro, Sérgio R Ambrósio, Jairo K Bastos, Denise C Tavares
Copaiba oleoresins are used in alternative medicine as anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial treatments. (-)-Copalic acid (CA) is the major diterpene found in exudates from Copaifera species. We have examined the genotoxicity and the chemopreventive potential of Copaifera multijuga oleoresin (CM) and CA. Genotoxicity assessment was examined with the peripheral blood micronucleus test and the comet assay (male Swiss mouse hepatocytes). In the chemoprevention study, we evaluated the effects of CM and CA on the formation of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male Wistar rat colon...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622824/toxicological-assessment-of-nano-and-micron-sized-tungsten-oxide-after-28days-repeated-oral-administration-to-wistar-rats
#11
Srinivas Chinde, Paramjit Grover
Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles (NPs) are being used in various applications. However, the health consequences of WO3 NPs exposure have not been explored extensively. Hence, the goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of WO3 NPs and their microparticles (MPs) after 28days repeated oral administration in Wistar rats. The particles were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET), X- ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES)...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615853/genotoxic-potential-of-fasciolagigantica-infection-in-experimentally-infected-rabbits
#12
M A Hannan Khan, P A A Shareef, Abdur Rehman, Rizwan Ullah, Lubna Rehman, S M A Abidi
A number of parasitic platyhelminthes are known to cause genotoxicity in humans and animals. However no such information is available on tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, which incurs huge economic losses worldwide. In the present study the genotoxic potential of F. gigantica infection in rabbits, experimentally infected with the metacercarial cysts of this parasite, has been investigated using the standard comet assay and micronucleus (MNi) test on the isolated hepatocytes and the whole blood from the infected rabbits...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613380/influence-of-processing-and-storage-of-integral-grape-juice-vitis-labrusca-l-on-its-physical-and-chemical-characteristics-cytotoxicity-and-mutagenicity-in-vitro
#13
E Düsman, I V Almeida, E P Pinto, L Lucchetta, V E P Vicentini
Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608257/mutagenic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-anilofos-with-micronucleus-chromosome-aberrations-sister-chromatid-exchanges-and-ames-test
#14
Dilek Akyil, Muhsin Konuk, Yasin Eren, Recep Liman, Esra Sağlam
We aimed to evaluate the mutagenic effect of Anilofos, organophosphate pesticide, by using Ames/Salmonella/microsome test. Its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were also determined by chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the Ames test, five different concentrations of Anilofos were examined on TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains in the absence and presence of S9 fraction. According to the results all concentrations of this pesticide have not shown any mutagenic activity on TA97, TA100 and TA102 strains in the absence and presence of S9 fraction...
June 12, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607647/filed-studies-on-some-probiotics-to-minimize-hazard-effects-of-prevailing-heavy-metals-contamination-for-improving-immunity-and-growth-performance-of-oreochromis-niloticus
#15
Alla Zikaria Abu-Braka, Mona Saad Zaki, Hossam Hassan Abbas, Noor El Deen Ahmed Ismail, Riyad Khalil, Mahmoud Tanekhy, Talat Saad
AIM: The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of some types of probiotics to minimize the hazard effect of cadmium on Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) and to determine the influence of probiotics on the growth performance and immune status of O. niloticus. METHODS: Fish were divided into four groups, the first one was fed on a diet without any additives (control group), and the second group was fed on diet with the addition of 0.1 from (LC50) of cadmium 32 ppm in water...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606765/genotoxicity-assessment-of-piperitenone-oxide-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in-silico-evaluation
#16
Antonella Di Sotto, Silvia Di Giacomo, Lorena Abete, Mijat Božović, Olga A Parisi, Fabio Barile, Annabella Vitalone, Angelo A Izzo, Rino Ragno, Gabriela Mazzanti
Piperitenone oxide, a natural flavouring agent also known as rotundifolone, has been studied for the genotoxicity assessment by an integrated in vitro and in silico experimental approach, including the bacterial reverse mutation assay, the micronucleus test, the comet assay and the computational prediction by Toxtree and VEGA tools. Under our experimental conditions, the monoterpene showed to induce both point mutations (i.e. frameshift, base-substitution and/or oxidative damage) and DNA damage (i.e. clastogenic or aneuploidic damage, or single-strand breaks)...
June 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606764/transcriptional-profiling-of-male-f344-rats-suggests-the-involvement-of-calcium-signaling-in-the-mode-of-action-of-acrylamide-induced-thyroid-cancer
#17
Nikolai L Chepelev, Rémi Gagné, Timothy Maynor, Byron Kuo, Cheryl A Hobbs, Leslie Recio, Carole L Yauk
Acrylamide (AA) exposure in 2-year cancer bioassays leads to thyroid, but not liver, adenomas and adenocarcinomas in rats. Hypothesized modes of action (MOAs) include genotoxicity/mutagenicity, or thyroid hormone dysregulation. To examine the plausibility of these two, or any alternative MOAs, RNA-sequencing was performed on the thyroids and livers of AA-exposed rats, in parallel with measurement of genotoxicity (blood micronucleus and Pig-a mutant frequency) and serum thyroid hormone levels, following the exposure of male Fischer 344/DuCrl rats to 0...
June 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585597/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-formaldehyde-on-micronucleus-rate-of-bone-marrow-cells-in-male-mice
#18
Yunru Liu, Dee Yu, Sha Xiao
Formaldehyde (FA) is the major volatile organic chemical (VOC) present in indoor air, and a constituent known to be associated with sick building syndrome. In the present study, mice were exposed to different concentrations of FA (0, 1, 10 mg/ m3) through static inhalation for 2 hours per day for 20 weeks. The polychromatic erythrocytes/ normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE/NCE) ratio and the micronucleus rates in bone marrow cells were detected. Data indicated that the PCE/NCE ratio in two FA exposure groups were statistically significant lower than the negative control group (P <0...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583667/dietary-safety-of-a-dual-enzyme-preparation-for-animal-feed-acute-and-subchronic-oral-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-studies
#19
G P Dillon, M A Gaffney, C M Curran, C A Moran
Animal feed is routinely supplemented with exogenous enzymes to improve nutrient utilization, such as proteases to enhance protein hydrolysis in vivo and xylanases to alleviate feed related anti-nutritional factors. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the potential oral toxicity and genotoxicity of a dual-enzyme preparation, Vegpro(®) concentrate (VPr-C). Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley Crl CD rats and CHS Swiss ICO:OFI (IOPS Caw) mice. Thirteen week preliminary and final subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in male and female rats...
June 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580039/giemsa-stained-pseudo-micronuclei-in-rat-skin-treated-with-vitamin-d3-analog-pefcalcitol
#20
Akira Takeiri, Kenji Tanaka, Asako Harada, Kaori Matsuzaki, Mariko Yano, Shigeki Motoyama, Chie Katoh, Masayuki Mishima
BACKGROUND: Pefcalcitol, an analog of vitamin D3 (VD3), is an anti-psoriatic drug candidate that is designed to achieve much higher pharmacological effects, such as keratinocyte differentiation, than those of VD3, with fewer side effects. Genotoxicity of the compound was evaluated in a rat skin micronucleus (MN) test. RESULTS: In the rat skin MN test, pefcalcitol showed positive when specimens were stained with Giemsa, whereas neither an in vitro chromosome aberration test in CHL cells nor an in vivo bone marrow MN test in rats indicated clastogenicity...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
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