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Micronucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231025/rabit-ii-implementation-of-a-high-throughput-micronucleus-biodosimetry-assay-on-commercial-biotech-robotic-systems
#1
Mikhail Repin, Sergey Pampou, Charles Karan, David J Brenner, Guy Garty
We demonstrate the use of high-throughput biodosimetry platforms based on commercial high-throughput/high-content screening robotic systems. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, using only 20 μl whole blood from a fingerstick, was implemented on a PerkinElmer cell::explorer and General Electric IN Cell Analyzer 2000. On average 500 binucleated cells per sample were detected by our FluorQuantMN software. A calibration curve was generated in the radiation dose range up to 5.0 Gy using the data from 8 donors and 48,083 binucleated cells in total...
February 23, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218683/antimutagenic-activity-of-ethanol-extract-of-rhaphidophora-pinnata-l-f-schott-leaves-on-mice
#2
Masfria, Sumaiyah, Aminah Dalimunthe
Rhaphidophora pinnata is suggested to prevent or treat cancer of genetic mutations. In this study, antimutagenic activity of an ethanol extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata leaves was evaluated by using a bone marrow micronucleus assay on mice. Male mice (20-30 g) were treated for sevendays with an ethanol extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata leaves at a dose of 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg/day/orally, prior to exposure to cyclophosphamide (i.p. 30 mg/kg), 24 h after the end of the treatment. Antimutagenic activity was determined by the decrease of micronuclei (MN)...
February 17, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216169/cytogenotoxicological-defense-of-retinyl-palmitate-in-the-front-damage-of-antineoplastics
#3
Ricardo Melo de Carvalho, Rai Pablo de Sousa Aguiar, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Marcus Vinicius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Antonio Lima Braga, Josemar José da Silva Júnior, Leonardo da Rocha Sousa, Rosália Maria Tôrres de Lima, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Cancer, the multifactorial pathology and to date is the most lethal causes of death in the world. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and doxorubicin (DOX) are the individually or combindly used two anticancer drugs. The antineoplastic drugs-mediated genetic instability can be overcome by using antioxidants. The study evaluated the cytogenotoxic modulatory potentials of retinyl palmitate (RP) caused by CPA and DOX in Swiss mice. For this, adult Mus musculus of either sex were divided equally regarding to the gender. Toxicogenetic effects were induced by the intraperitoneal (i...
February 16, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216063/the-nad-precursor-nicotinic-acid-improves-genomic-integrity-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-after-x-irradiation
#4
Kathrin Weidele, Sascha Beneke, Alexander Bürkle
NAD(+) is an essential cofactor for enzymes catalyzing redox-reactions as well as an electron carrier in energy metabolism. Aside from this, NAD(+) consuming enzymes like poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and sirtuins are important regulators involved in chromatin-restructuring processes during repair and epigenetics/transcriptional adaption. In order to replenish cellular NAD(+) levels after cleavage, synthesis starts from precursors such as nicotinamide, nicotinamide riboside or nicotinic acid to match the need for this essential molecule...
February 13, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213766/microelectrophoretic-study-of-environmentally-induced-dna-damage-in-fish-and-its-use-for-early-toxicity-screening-of-freshwater-bodies
#5
Bilal Hussain, Tayyaba Sultana, Salma Sultana, K A Al-Ghanim, Shahreef Masood, Muhammad Ali, Shahid Mahboob
This study investigates the potential of the comet and micronucleus assays of fish DNA as a means of screening the toxicity of aquatic environments. Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala collected from the River Chenab in Pakistan were used as a case study for the application of comet and micronucleus techniques. Comet and micronucleus assays were used to compare DNA damage in C. catla and C. mrigala collected from polluted areas of the River Chenab and farmed fish. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed an acute level of toxicity from Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Sn, and Hg in river water...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212500/cyto-genotoxic-and-dna-methylation-changes-induced-by-different-crystal-phases-of-tio2-np-in-bronchial-epithelial-16-hbe-cells
#6
Manosij Ghosh, Deniz Öner, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Stevan M Cokic, Sven Seys, Stef Kerkhofs, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Peter Hoet, Lode Godderis
With the increase in use of TiO2-np, a better understanding of their safety is important. In the present study the effect of different crystal phases of TiO2-np (anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture; 20-26nm) were studied for cyto-genotoxicity and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Cytotoxic response was observed at a concentration of 25μg/ml for the particles tested. Results of comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of these particles...
February 10, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211326/evaluation-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-toxicological-and-genotoxic-potential-of-aluminum-chloride
#7
Letícia Nazareth Fernandes Paz, Laís Mesquita Moura, Danielle Cristinne A Feio, Mirella de Souza Gonçalves Cardoso, Wagner Luiz O Ximenes, Raquel C Montenegro, Ana Paula N Alves, Rommel R Burbano, Patrícia Danielle L Lima
Aluminum and its compounds are common contaminants of water and food, as well as medications and cosmetics. The wide distribution of the element facilitates the demand for detailed studies of its biological and toxicological effects. This work aimed to evaluate the possible genotoxic and toxic activity resulting from in vivo and in vitro exposure to Al. For in vivo analysis, 40 Swiss mice were used, various concentrations of hydrated aluminum chloride were administered orally. They were analyzed for possible genic activity and metal cytotoxicity using a micronucleus test (MN), and for toxicity through histopathological evaluation of the extracted organs...
February 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211323/evaluation-the-urban-atmospheric-conditions-in-different-cities-using-comet-and-micronuclei-assay-in-tradescantia-pallida
#8
Juliana Caroline Vivian Sposito, Bruno do Amaral Crispim, Amanda Izadora Romãn, Rosilda Mara Mussury, Joelson Gonçalves Pereira, Leonardo Oliveira Seno, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
In the present study, genotoxicity and mutagenicity were investigated in Tradescantia pallida exposed to vehicular traffic at different sites in a high-altitude tropical climate. During March, May, July, September, and November 2014, a comet assay and micronucleus bioassays were conducted on young inflorescences and leaves of T. pallida collected from twelve towns in the southern region of Mato Grosso do Sul with different amounts of vehicular traffic. Weather parameters (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) were measured and vehicles were counted to determine traffic levels in each town...
February 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210952/two-dechlorinated-chlordecone-derivatives-formed-by-in-situ-chemical-reduction-are-devoid-of-genotoxicity-and-mutagenicity-and-have-lower-proangiogenic-properties-compared-to-the-parent-compound
#9
Samuel Legeay, Pierre-André Billat, Nicolas Clere, Fabrice Nesslany, Sébastien Bristeau, Sébastien Faure, Christophe Mouvet
Chlordecone (CLD) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, now classified as a persistent organic pollutant. Several studies have previously reported that chronic exposure to CLD leads to hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, raises early child development and pregnancy complications, and increases the risk of liver and prostate cancer. In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) has been identified as a possible way for the remediation of soils contaminated by CLD. In the present study, the objectives were (i) to evaluate the genotoxicity and the mutagenicity of two CLD metabolites formed by ISCR, CLD-5a-hydro, or CLD-5-hydro (5a- or 5- according to CAS nomenclature; CLD-1Cl) and tri-hydroCLD (CLD-3Cl), and (ii) to explore the angiogenic properties of these molecules...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207781/absence-of-genotoxic-effects-of-the-chalcone-e-1-2-hydroxyphenyl-3-4-methylphenyl-prop-2-en-1-one-and-its-potential-chemoprevention-against-dna-damage-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assays
#10
Débora Cristina da Silva Lima, Camila Regina do Vale, Jefferson Hollanda Véras, Aline Bernardes, Caridad Noda Pérez, Lee Chen-Chen
The chalcone (E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-methylphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one), or 2HMC, displays antileishmanial, antimalarial, and antioxidant activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and protective effects of 2HMC using the Ames mutagenicity test, the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, and the comet assay in mice. In the assessment using the Ames test, 2HMC did not increase the number of His+ revertants in Salmonella typhimurium strains, demonstrating lack of mutagenicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202346/acute-toxicity-twenty-eight-days-repeated-dose-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-vanadyl-trehalose-in-kunming-mice
#11
Pingzhe Jiang, Zaizhong Ni, Bin Wang, Baicheng Ma, Huikun Duan, Xiaodan Li, Xiaofeng Ma, Qian Wei, Xiangzhen Ji, Qiqi Liu, Shuguang Xing, Minggang Li
A new trend has been developed using vanadium and organic ligands to form novel compounds in order to improve the beneficial actions and reduce the toxicity of vanadium compounds. In present study, vanadyl trehalose was explored the oral acute toxicity, 28 days repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity in Kunming mice. The Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of vanadyl trehalose was revealed to be 1000 mg/kg body weight in fasted Kunming mice. Stomach and intestine were demonstrated to be the main target organs of vanadyl trehalose through 28 days repeated dose toxicity study...
February 12, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197649/dose-response-relationship-of-temozolomide-determined-by-the-pig-a-comet-and-micronucleus-assay
#12
M Guérard, G Johnson, S Dertinger, G Duran-Pacheco, J Funk, A Zeller
Temozolomide (TMZ), a monofunctional alkylating agent, was selected as a model compound to determine its quantitative genotoxic dose-response relationship in different tissues (blood, liver, and jejunum) and endpoints [Pig-a-, comet-, and micronucleus assay (MNT)] in male rats. TMZ was administered p.o. over 5 consecutive days (day 1-5), followed by a treatment-free period of 50 days (day 6-56) and a final administration prior to necropsy (day 57-59). TMZ showed a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in all interrogated endpoints...
February 15, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197528/antimutagenic-effect-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-aqueous-extract-on-rats-treated-with-monosodium-glutamate
#13
Ana Carla Guidini Valentini Gheller, Jacqueline Kerkhoff, Gerardo Magela Vieira Júnior, Kleber Eduardo de Campos, Marina Mariko Sugui
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185655/oxidative-stress-and-genotoxicity-biomarker-responses-in-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-exposed-to-environmental-concentration-of-1-nitropyrene
#14
Eugene T Bacolod, Seiichi Uno, Shiela S Villamor, Jiro Koyama
The present study aimed to assess whether environmental 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) concentration will induce genotoxicity and oxidative damages in tilapia, lives in estuarine and brackish water. Tilapia were exposed to waterborne 1-NP. Cellular antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase and oxidative damage, i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein and DNA oxidation were used as biomarkers of oxidative stress, while the micronucleus test was used for evaluation of chromosomal damage and was used as an indication of genotoxicity...
February 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184943/analysis-of-chromosomal-radiosensitivity-of-healthy-brca2-mutation-carriers-and-non-carriers-in-brca-families-with-the-g2-micronucleus-assay
#15
Annelot Baert, Julie Depuydt, Tom Van Maerken, Bruce Poppe, Fransiska Malfait, Tim Van Damme, Sylvia De Nobele, Gianpaolo Perletti, Kim De Leeneer, Kathleen B M Claes, Anne Vral
Breast cancer risk drastically increases in individuals with a heterozygous germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, while it is estimated to equal the population risk for relatives without the familial mutation (non-carriers). The aim of the present study was to use a G2 phase-specific micronucleus assay to investigate whether lymphocytes of healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by increased radiosensitivity compared to controls without a family history of breast/ovarian cancer and how this relates to healthy non-carrier relatives...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183058/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-investigation-of-the-genotoxic-potential-of-waters-from-rivers-under-the-influence-of-a-petroleum-refinery-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#16
Raquel Vaz Hara, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales
In recent years concern about the chemical composition of wastewater generated by the oil refining industry has increased, even after its treatment. These wastewaters contain substances that can harm both the entire aquatic ecosystem and the health of any exposed organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of the effluent generated by the largest Brazilian petroleum refinery, the effectiveness of the treatments used by the refinery, and whether its effluent can compromise the water quality of the river where it is discarded...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181396/the-aflatoxin-b1-fumonisin-b1-toxicity-in-brl-3a-hepatocytes-is-associated-to-induction-of-cytochrome-p450-activity-and-arachidonic-acid-metabolism
#17
Verónica S Mary, Silvina L Arias, Santiago N Otaiza, Pilar A Velez, Héctor R Rubinstein, Martín G Theumer
Human oral exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) is associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma. Although evidence suggested interactive AFB1 -FB1 hepatotoxicity, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly unidentified. This work was aimed at evaluating the possible AFB1 -FB1 interplay to induce genetic and cell cycle toxicities in BRL-3A rat hepatocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement, and the AFB1 metabolizing pathways cytochrome P450 (CYP) and arachidonic acid (ArAc) metabolism as ROS contributors...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179341/cytogenetic-biomonitoring-in-buccal-mucosal-cells-from-municipal-solid-waste-collectors
#18
Mariana Carvalho Andrade, Jean Nunes Dos Santos, Patricia Ramos Cury, Ana Carolina Correa Flygare, Samuel Rangel Claudio, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima, Daniel Araki Ribeiro
Waste collectors collect, transport, and process the garbage produced by people living in the city. Nowadays, this activity requires special attention due to the environmental impact of garbage and its potential consequences on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of garbage collection on waste collectors. For this purpose, a total of 47 male waste collectors aged from 24 to 53 years were included in the experimental group. A total of 30 men matched by age were used as the control group...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178195/overexpression-of-skp2-inhibits-the-radiation-induced-bystander-effects-of-esophageal-carcinoma
#19
Xiao-Chun Wang, Tie-Jun Zhang, Zi-Jian Guo, Chang-Yan Xiao, Xiao-Wen Ding, Fang Fang, Wen-Tao Sheng, Xu Shu, Jue Li
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in esophageal cancer (EC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot was used to detect the levels of SKP2, Rad51, and Ku70 in EC cells. Positive transfection, RNAi, micronucleus (MN), and γ-H2AX focus formation assay were used to investigate the effects of SKP2 on RIBE induced by irradiated cells. RESULTS: We found a significant negative correlation between SKP2 expression and MN frequency (p < 0...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167160/comparative-study-of-the-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-kaurenoic-acid-and-its-semi-synthetic-derivatives-methoxy-kaurenoic-acid-and-kaurenol-in-cho-k1-cells
#20
Bruno Limonti Cano, Monique Rodrigues Moreira, Mirian Oliveira Goulart, Natália Dos Santos Gonçalves, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Raquel Alves Dos Santos
The diterpene kaurenoic acid (KA) has vasorelaxant, antimicrobial, anti-tumoural and anti-leishmanial effects. Semi-synthetic derivatives were obtained to achieve more satisfactory responses. The assessment of genotoxicity is part of the toxicological evaluation of therapeutic compound candidates. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of KA and its semi-synthetic derivatives methoxy kaurenoic acid (MKA) and kaurenol (KRN) using the CHO-K1 cell line. The cytotoxicity evaluation demonstrated that treatments with 200 and 400 μM KA reduced cellular proliferation to 36...
February 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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