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Micronucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531839/genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-atrazine-atanor-50-sc-on-dendropsophus-minutus-peters-1872-anura-hylidae-developmental-larval-stages
#1
Macks Wendhell Gonçalves, Calebe Bertolino Marins de Campos, Vinícius Guerra Batista, Aparecido Divino da Cruz, Paulo de Marco Junior, Rogério Pereira Bastos, Daniela de Melo E Silva
The potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine were investigated in different developmental stages of Dendropsophus minutus tadpoles. These animals were exposed to 4 nominal concentrations of atrazine (2.25, 4.5, 9, and 18 mg/L) and 40 mg/L of Cyclophosphamide as a positive control, for 96 h. Negative controls were also added to the experiment. The tadpoles were divided into three groups according to Gosner's developmental stages, namely GS 25-33 as premetamorphic, GS 36-39 as prometamorphic, and GS 42-43 as metamorphic climax...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527047/dietary-ascorbic-acid-reduced-micronucleus-and-nuclear-abnormalities-in-clarias-gariepinus-burchell-1822-exposed-to-hospital-effluent
#2
Chibuisi G Alimba, Raphael D Ajiboye, Olakunle S Fagbenro
Hospital effluents contain myriad of mutagens and genotoxins capable of increasing DNA damage in aquatic biota. African mudfish, Clarias gariepinus, are exposed to genotoxins when cultured in swamps and derelict water bodies often contaminated by effluents. Moreover, its DNA is susceptible to xenobiotic-induced lesions since it lacks L-gulonolactone oxidase and hence cannot synthesize L-ascorbic acid. This study investigated 96-h acute toxicity and protective effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) against micronucleus (MN) and abnormal nuclear (NAs) formation in C...
May 19, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526447/toxicity-screening-of-a-novel-poly-methylmethacrylate-eudragit-nanocarrier-on-l929-fibroblasts
#3
Diogo Graça, Henriqueta Louro, Joana Santos, Kamila Dias, Lídia Gonçalves, António Almeida, Maria João Silva, Ana Bettencourt
Toxicity screening of a novel poly(methylmethacrylate)-Eudragit nanocarrier on L929 fibroblasts Translation of innovative drug delivery nanosystems into the market involves an early toxicity screening in the development phase. Previously, we showed that inclusion of the polymer (Eudragit, EUD) into poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles (NP) resulted in a novel nanocarrier (PMMA-EUD) with an improved biomedical performance. The safety of this novel nanoparticulate system (PMMA-EUDNPs) was assessed in this work and compared to that of the original PMMANPs by using an integrated approach, comprising in vitro toxicity assessment and NPs physicochemical characterization in water and cell medium...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524728/a-reduction-in-dna-damage-in-neural-tissue-and-peripheral-blood-of-old-mice-treated-with-caffeine
#4
Adriani Paganini Damiani, Michelle Lima Garcez, Larissa Letieli de Abreu, Taís Helena Tavares, Carina Rodrigues Boeck, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade
Studies on caffeine consumption have shown a negative correlation with development of some diseases with subsequent beneficial manifestations. Our aim was to assess the effects of caffeine on peripheral blood and neural tissue DNA in young adult and aged mice. Male Swiss mice (age 2-3 or 16-18 months, respectively) were treated with a caffeine solution (0.3 g/l) for 4 weeks, while controls received water. After the treatments, blood and hippocampal cells (for a comet assay) and femurs (for a micronucleus [MN] test) were collected...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523965/safety-evaluation-of-an-oat-grain-alkaloid-gramine-by-genotoxicity-assays
#5
Manash Pratim Pathak, Rudragoud S Policegoudra, Danswrang Goyary, Aparoop Das, Santa Mandal, Srijita Chakraborti, Nilutpal Sharma Bora, Johirul Islam, Pompy Patowary, P Srinivas Raju, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
Gramine is a natural indole alkaloid that has been isolated from different raw plants occurring mainly in Avena sativa, etc. The study was aimed to investigate the possible in vitro antioxidant, in vitro mutagenic, in vitro antimutagenic, and in vivo genotoxic activity of gramine using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, Metal chelating, Ames bacterial reverse mutation test, and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay as well as chromosomal aberration. Four concentrations of gramine viz. 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg/mL were evaluated for its antioxidant activity in FRAP Assay and Metal Chelating Test...
May 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511592/cytotoxicity-mutagenicity-and-antimutagenicity-of-the-gentisic-acid-on-htc-cells
#6
Flavia Maria Lima Cavalcante, Igor Vivian Almeida, Elisângela Düsman, Mário Sérgio Mantovani, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
Gentisic acid (GA) exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic activities. This substance can be found in citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and peas. Considering that there are few studies in the literature on the toxicity of GA, the present work aimed to investigate its cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities on HTC cells. GA was diluted in culture medium at the final concentration of 0.08, 0.16, 0.8, 1.6, and 8 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue exclusion method, with methyl methanesulfonate and doxorubicin as positive controls, respectively...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511489/micronucleus-assay-in-urothelial-cells-in-cancer-cervix
#7
Suresh Kumar Sundararajan, Pratheepa Sivasankari Natarajan, Kanchana
INTRODUCTION: Cancer ranks third among the ten leading global causes of death. To evaluate the genotoxic risks, observed as DNA damages, can be assessed by Micronucleus (MN) test. AIM: To identify the occurrence of MN in normal and cancer cervix and find the correlation between MN and stage of cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 females were included in the study and visual examination of the cervix was done. Based on the examination two groups were formed: A- Normal cervix (n-23) and B- Presence of erosion or growth or ulcer etc...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511303/-association-of-xrcc1-gene-polymorphism-and-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-with-peripheral-blood-lymphocyte-micronucleus
#8
F Yang, P Xiong, X L Yuan, C R Liu, L J Ran, Y Yang, J Y Li
Objective: To explore the effects of X-ray repair cross complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) polymorphism and low dose ionizing radiation exposure on radiology professionals' peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus. Methods: A matched case-control study was designed. From 2013 to 2015, 1 102 radiology professionals with micronucleus test rusults, and 45 cases with present micronucleus were enroled into case group. 180 diagnostic radiology technicians detecting no micronucleus were chosen as control group, cases and controls were 1∶4 mached on gender, age ≤40 or >40 years old...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510803/occupational-and-life-style-factors-acquired-mutagenicity-in-agric-workers-of-northeastern-brazil
#9
Tatiana Vieira Souza Chaves, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Manoel Odoríco de Moraes, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Débora Cássia Vieira Gomes, Rodrigo Mendes de Carvalho, Sharbel Weider Maluf, Fabrício Pires de Moura do Amaral, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Maria Elisabete Amaral de Moraes
Pesticides are a complex mixture of chemicals used to protect crops from a number of pests and diseases. They have been considered as potential mutagenic agents. This study aims at evaluation of the mutagenic effect of pesticide exposure to agricultural workers through chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosal cells, respectively. The exposed group was consisted with 97 farmers, while the control (un-exposed) group consisted of 55. The results showed a significant (p < 0...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510357/kif11-silencing-and-inhibition-induces-chromosome-instability-that-may-contribute-to-cancer
#10
Yasamin Asbaghi, Laura L Thompson, Zelda Lichtensztejn, Kirk J McManus
Understanding the aberrant pathways that contribute to oncogenesis and identifying the altered genes involved in these pathways is a critical first step to develop effective strategies to better combat cancer. Chromosome instability (CIN) is an aberrant phenotype that occurs in ∼80% of all cancer types and is associated with aggressive tumors, the acquisition of multi-drug resistance and poor patient prognosis. Despite these associations however, the aberrant genes and molecular defects underlying CIN remain poorly understood...
May 16, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503683/cellular-evaluation-of-diselenonicotinamide-dsna-as-a-radioprotector-against-cell-death-and-dna-damage
#11
M Raghuraman, Prachi Verma, Amit Kunwar, Prasad P Phadnis, V K Jain, K Indira Priyadarsini
Diselenonicotinamide (DSNA), a synthetic organoselenium compound, was evaluated for its radioprotective effect in cellular models. A clonogenic assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and an apoptosis assay in murine splenic lymphocytes indicated that pre-treatment with DSNA at a concentration of 25 μM significantly protected them from radiation-induced cell death. Upon irradiation (1-12 Gy), dose-response studies were carried out under similar treatment conditions, and its dose modification factor (DMF) was estimated to be 1...
May 15, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494764/possible-benefits-of-tomato-juice-consumption-a-pilot-study-on-irradiated-human-lymphocytes-from-healthy-donors
#12
Ayumi Nakamura, Chieko Itaki, Ayako Saito, Toko Yonezawa, Koichi Aizawa, Ayumi Hirai, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Tomisato Miura, Yasushi Mariya, Siamak Haghdoost
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate much of the DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene, present in tomato juice, are known to be strong radical scavengers. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of tomato juice intake on the levels of DNA damage and oxidative stress in human whole blood induced by in vitro exposure to X-rays. METHODS: Ten healthy adults were asked to drink 190 g of tomato juice, containing 17 mg lycopene and 0...
May 12, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487065/a-comprehensive-study-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-toxicological-evaluation-of-artemisia-capillaris
#13
Jun-Won Yun, Seung-Hyun Kim, Yun-Soon Kim, Ji-Ran You, Eun-Young Cho, Jung-Hee Yoon, Euna Kwon, Jae Hun Ahn, Ja-June Jang, Jeong-Hwan Che, Byeong-Cheol Kang
Artemisia capillaris (AC) has been used as an alternative therapy in obesity, atopic dermatitis, and liver diseases through several biological activity including anti-steatotic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite its ethnomedicinal benefits, no sufficient background information is available about the long-term safety and genotoxicity of the AC extract. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the 13-week subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of the AC extract according to the test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development...
May 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480612/pharmacological-and-toxicological-study-of-maytenus-ilicifolia-leaf-extract-part-i-preclinical-studies
#14
Ricardo Tabach, Joaquim M Duarte-Almeida, Elisaldo A Carlini
One of the Brazilians medicinal plants most cited in ethnopharmacological surveys for the treatment of ulcers and gastric diseases was evaluated for its efficacy and toxicity. Maytenus ilicifolia leaf extract (MIE) was acutely and chronically (180 days) administered to rats, mice, and dogs. Acute tests were antiulcer effect and toxicological trials (observational pharmacological screening, LD50, motor coordination, sleeping time and motor activity). Chronic tests were the following: weight gain/loss and behavioral parameters in rats and mice; estrus cycle, effects on fertility, and teratogenic studies in rats and mutagenic features in mice, in addition to the Ames and micronucleus test...
May 8, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472308/the-oecd-s-micronucleus-test-guideline-for-single-exposure-to-an-agent-and-the-genotox-kinetic-alternative
#15
Pedro Morales-Ramírez, Teresita Vallarino-Kelly, Virginia Leticia Cruz-Vallejo
The 'Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals' aims to identify whether a chemical is a genotoxic hazard, and these guidelines 'are periodically reviewed in the light of scientific progress, changing regulatory needs and animal welfare considerations'. OECD published a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test guideline for testing chemicals (1) that proposes: 'Animals are treated with the test chemical once…Samples of peripheral blood are taken at least twice (from the same group of animals), starting not earlier than 36 h after treatment, with appropriate intervals following the first sample, but not extending beyond 72 h'...
May 4, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469462/role-of-macronutrients-and-micronutrients-in-dna-damage-results-from-a-food-frequency-questionnaire
#16
Carina Ladeira, Elisabete Carolino, Manuel C Gomes, Miguel Brito
The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464995/in-vivo-reporter-gene-mutation-and-micronucleus-assays-in-gpt-delta-mice-treated-with-a-flame-retardant-decabromodiphenyl-ether
#17
Shinji Takasu, Yuji Ishii, Yuh Yokoo, Takuma Tsuchiya, Aki Kijima, Yukio Kodama, Kumiko Ogawa, Takashi Umemura
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used as additive flame retardants. Recently, the use of brominated flame retardants has been restricted or prohibited under various legislative acts because of the persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity of these compounds. However, there are also additional concerns regarding environmental contamination and human exposure to PBDEs resulting from informal recycling technology. Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), one type of PBDE, has carcinogenic potential in the livers of rodents...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464993/genotoxicity-of-two-new-carbazole-derivatives-with-antifungal-activity
#18
Aliy K Zhanataev, Natalya V Eremina, Zlata V Chayka, Vasily I Kazey, Ekaterina L Andrianova, Andrei A Purmal, Elena B Rydkina, Andrey D Durnev
The class of carbazoles includes compounds with high biological activities and broad spectra of action. PLX01107 and PLX01008 are xenomycins, a new subclass of antimicrobial carbazole derivatives demonstrating strong antifungal activity in vitro. We performed three tests, a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay, and chromosome aberration test in mouse bone marrow cells, to investigate the possible genotoxicity of these compounds. Despite their structural similarity, the two compounds had different genotoxicity profiles...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464992/2-nitroanisole-induced-oxidative-dna-damage-in-salmonella-typhimurium-and-in-rat-urinary-bladder-cells
#19
Kunio Wada, Yoshitaka Katoh, Aya Ohnuma-Koyama, Naofumi Takahashi, Masami Yamada, Kyomu Matsumoto
2-Nitroanisole (2-NA) is used in the manufacturing of azo dyes and causes cancer, mainly in the urinary bladder. Previous in vivo genotoxic data seems to be insufficient to explain the mechanism through which 2-NA induces carcinogenesis, and several bladder carcinogens were reported to induce oxidative DNA damage. Thus, we examined the potential induction of oxidative DNA damage by 2-NA using bacterial strain YG3008, a mutMST-deficient derivative of strain TA100. Consequently, strain YG3008, when compared with strain TA100, was found to be more sensitive to 2-NA, indicating oxidative DNA damage in bacterial cells...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460157/wancura-et%C3%A2-al-nuclear-features-of-blepharisma-americanum-nuclear-features-of-the-heterotrich-ciliate-blepharisma-americanum-genomic-amplification-life-cycle-and-nuclear-inclusion
#20
Megan M Wancura, Ying Yan, Laura A Katz, Xyrus X Maurer-Alcalá
Blepharisma americanum, a member of the understudied ciliate class Heterotrichea, has a moniliform somatic macronucleus that resembles beads on a string. B. americanum is distinguishable by its pink coloration derived from the autofluorescent pigment blepharismin and tends to have a single somatic macronucleus with 3-6 nodes and multiple germline micronuclei. We used fluorescence confocal microscopy to explore the DNA content and amplification between the somatic and germline nuclei of B. americanum through its life cycle...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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