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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142345/in-vitro-protective-effect-of-rutin-and-quercetin-against-radiation-induced-genetic-damage-in-human-lymphocytes
#1
Shrikant L Patil, K Swaroop, Nilesh Kakde, H M Somashekarappa
Purpose of the Study: Rutin (RUT) and quercetin (QRT) which are dietary compounds were investigated for their ability to protect against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: The radiation antagonistic potential of RUT and QRT was assessed by alkaline comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Results: Treatment of lymphocytes with RUT and QRT (25 μg/ml) prior exposure to 2 Gy gamma radiation resulted in a significant reduction of frequency of micronuclei as compared to the control set of cells evaluated by CBMN assay...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141972/epigenetic-regulation-of-centromere-chromatin-stability-by-dietary-and-environmental-factors
#2
REVIEW
Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Rita S Strakovsky, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The centromere is a genomic locus required for the segregation of the chromosomes during cell division. This chromosomal region together with pericentromeres has been found to be susceptible to damage, and thus the perturbation of the centromere could lead to the development of aneuploidic events. Metabolic abnormalities that underlie the generation of cancer include inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle deregulation, and numerous others. The micronucleus assay, an early clinical marker of cancer, has been shown to provide a reliable measure of genotoxic damage that may signal cancer initiation...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137571/genotoxic-evaluation-of-common-commercial-pesticides-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#3
Cynthia Paz-Trejo, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo
This study aims to evaluate the genotoxic potential of four commercial pesticides with diverse health categorizations by different world associations currently in use. We tested the fungicide mancozeb and the insecticides pirimicarb, monocrotophos and permethrin. The research was done with in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DNA single gel electrophoresis assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) test, where we analysed common parameters such as the tail moment and the frequency of MN formation...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133038/new-metalo-therapeutics-of-nsaids-against-human-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Christina N Banti, Constantina Papatriantafyllopoulou, Anastasios J Tasiopoulos, Sotiris K Hadjikakou
The non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's)-silver(I) metallodrugs of aspirin (aspH), salicylic acid (salH2), naproxen (napH) acid or p-hydrobenzoic acid (pHbzaH) and the mitochondriotropic triphenylarsine (tpAs) with the formulae [Ag(asp)(tpAs)3] (1), [Ag(salH)(tpAs)3] (2), [Ag(nap)(tpAs)3] (3) and {[Ag(pHbza)(tpAs)3]∙(dmf)} (4) and [Ag(tpAs)3(NO3)] (5) have been synthesized and characterized by m.p., FT-IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR, spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1-5 against human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells: MCF-7 (positive to estrogen receptors (ERs)) and MDA-MB-231 (negative to estrogen receptors (ERs)) was evaluated...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130594/dna-damage-and-circulating-cell-free-dna-in-greenhouse-workers-exposed-to-pesticides
#5
Akin Çayir, Mahmut Coskun, Munevver Coskun, Hayal Cobanoglu
Pesticides widely used in agriculture and other applications have been linked to cancer and other diseases through several potential mechanisms. The goals of this study were to assess DNA damage in lymphocytes by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN), and to measure circulating cell free DNA (ccf-DNA) in the blood of pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers and matched controls living in the same area. CBMN was applied to peripheral blood lymphocyte samples taken at different times (spring and autumn) for each individual...
November 11, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128605/erythrocytes-as-a-biological-model-for-screening-of-xenobiotics-toxicity
#6
REVIEW
Mayada Ragab Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany
Erythrocytes are the main cells in circulation. They are devoid of internal membrane structures and easy to be isolated and handled providing a good model for different assays. Red blood cells (RBCs) plasma membrane is a multi-component structure that keeps the cell morphology, elasticity, flexibility and deformability. Alteration of membrane structure upon exposure to xenobiotics could induce various cellular abnormalities and releasing of intracellular components. Therefore the morphological changes and extracellular release of haemoglobin [hemolysis] and increased content of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) [as signs of membrane stability] could be used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of various molecules...
November 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127818/cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-parameters-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-the-general-population-contribution-of-age-sex-seasonal-variations-and-lifestyle-factors
#7
Goran Gajski, Marko Gerić, Višnja Oreščanin, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay was used to evaluate the baseline frequency of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the general population (average age, 38.28 ± 12.83 years) in relation to age, sex, body mass index, seasonal variations (season of sampling, period of sampling and different meteorological parameters) and lifestyle factors (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, exposure to medications and diagnostic radiation, physical activity, and family history of cancer)...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127630/analysis-of-various-effects-of-abamectin-on-erythrocyte-morphology-in-japanese-quails-coturnix-japonica
#8
Denise Braga Gomes de Faria, Mateus Flores Montalvão, Joyce Moreira de Souza, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Guilherme Malafaia, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues
Although previous studies have already confirmed the toxicological potential of abamectin (ABA) in different experimental models (from invertebrates to vertebrates), almost nothing is known about the impacts the exposure to this pesticide can cause on birds. Thus, the aim of our study is to investigate the cytotoxic effects on the erythrocytes of female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) exposed to low abamectin concentrations. In order to do so, three experimental groups were proposed: "control," composed of quails exposed to abamectin-free drinking water; "ABA 1% median lethal dose (LD50)," comprising birds exposed to water containing 15...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127482/a-single-low-dose-of-fe-ions-can-cause-long-term-biological-responses-in-nl20-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#9
Qianlin Cao, Wei Liu, Jingdong Wang, Jianping Cao, Hongying Yang
Space radiation cancer risk may be a potential obstacle for long-duration spaceflight. Among all types of cancer space radiation may induce, lung cancer has been estimated to be the largest potential risk. Although previous animal study has shown that Fe ions, the most important contributor to the total dose equivalent of space radiation, induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis per dose than X-rays, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated long-term biological changes in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to Fe ion or X-ray irradiation...
November 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126054/a-study-of-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-mercuric-chloride-in-the-marine-polychaete-perinereis-aibuhitensis
#10
Lai Jun Zhang, Yao Li, Pan Chen, Xiao Mei Li, Yong Gan Chen, Yu Yu Hang, Wei Jie Gong
The marine polychaete worm Perinereis aibuhitensis was used to study the genotoxic effects of mercuric chloride by means of the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. P. aibuhitensis was subjected in vivo to two different concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.05mgL(-1) and 0.5mgL(-1)) for 96h. The comet assay of coelomocytes demonstrated that TailDNA% values increased with extended exposure to or increased concentrations of HgCl2 (p<0.01). The frequency of MNs was the highest in the treatment with 96h of exposure at all concentrations (p<0...
October 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118473/validating-micronucleus-score-in-effusion-fluids
#11
Nidhya Ganesan, Manjiri D Phansalkar, Marie M Ambroise, Renu G Varghese
Background: Identifying malignant cells in effusion fluid is vital in staging and management of cancers. Differentiating reactive mesothelial cells from malignant cells in effusion fluid is a challenging task and there is an ongoing need for simpler and cost effective tool to aid the diagnosis. Micronucleus is an additional smaller nucleus in the cytoplasm, formed by chromosomes or chromosomal fragments formed during cell division. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the significance of micronucleated cell in effusion fluids to distinguish adenocarcinomatous from reactive mesothelial effusions...
October 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116991/association-between-polymorphisms-of-metabolic-enzyme-genes-and-chromosomal-damage-in-benzene-exposed-workers-in-china
#12
Yan Fang, Han-Tian Wu, Yun-Jie Ye, Li-Fang Zhou, Wei Hu, Guang-Hui Zhang, Pin Sun, William Au, Zhao-Lin Xia
OBJECTIVE: To provide better understanding of genetic susceptibility for health risk among current benzene-exposed workers. METHODS: Four hundred sixty one benzene-exposed workers and 88 matched controls were recruited, and their benzene exposure doses were monitored. Associations between genetic susceptibility for polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes CYP2E1 and NQO1, and expression of cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) were investigated. RESULTS: Mean MN frequency in the exposed workers was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0...
November 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114410/can-sevoflurane-induce-micronuclei-formation-in-nasal-epithelial-cells-of-adult-patients
#13
Elvin Kesimci, Erdem Çoşkun, Gökçer Uğur, Togay Müderris, Seval İzdeş, Bensu Karahalil
Objective: Volatile anaesthetics can inhibit the bronchociliary clearence in a dose- and time-dependend way. Moreover, they can have potential mutagenic/carcinogenic effects under chronic exposure. A genotoxicity test -micronuclei assay- was carried out in nasal epithelial cells to analyze the genotoxic effect of sevoflurane in adult patients undergoing general anesthesia. Methods: In this study, micronucleus (MN) assay was conducted using nasal epithelial cells of 37 adult patients (age, 18-65 years) who underwent elective, minor, short surgical procedures under general anaesthesia with sevoflurane...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111319/micronuclei-formation-in-rainbow-trout-cells-exposed-to-multiple-stressors-morpholine-heat-shock-and-ionizing-radiation
#14
Shayenthiran Sreetharan, Christopher Thome, Kara K Tsang, Christopher M Somers, Richard G Manzon, Douglas R Boreham, Joanna Y Wilson
Discharges from industrial cooling water systems can include low levels of morpholine (a chemical pH regulator and corrosion inhibitor), as well as transiently higher temperature effluent water which present a potential source of environmental impact to aquatic biota. The effects of environmental levels of morpholine or heat shock (HS) treatment alone and in combination with a challenge high-dose of (137)Cs ionizing radiation were studied using the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in a rainbow trout cell line (RTG-2)...
October 28, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108849/enzymatic-extract-from-ecklonia-cava-acute-and-subchronic-oral-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-studies
#15
Jun-Won Yun, Seung-Hyun Kim, Yun-Soon Kim, Ji-Ran You, Eun-Young Cho, Jung-Hee Yoon, Euna Kwon, In-Jue Yun, Je-Hun Oh, Ja-June Jang, Jin-Sung Park, Jeong-Hwan Che, Byeong-Cheol Kang
Ecklonia cava (EC) is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Despite its wide use and beneficial properties, comprehensive toxicological information regarding EC extract is currently limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, and genotoxicity of enzymatic EC extract according to test guidelines published by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The acute oral LD50 values of this EC extract administered to rats and dogs were estimated to be more than 3000 mg/kg BW...
November 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107335/analysis-of-chromatin-opening-in-heterochromatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-tumor-initiating-cells-in-relation-to-dna-damaging-antitumor-treatment
#16
Mina Eriksson, Petra Hååg, Beata Brzozowska, Magdalena Lipka, Halina Lisowska, Rolf Lewensohn, Andrzej Wojcik, Kristina Viktorsson, Lovisa Lundholm
PURPOSE: We previously reported that sphere-forming non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor-initiating cells (TICs) have an altered activation of DNA damage response- and repair proteins and are refractory to DNA-damaging treatments. We analyzed whether chromatin organization plays a role in the observed refractoriness. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Bulk cells and TICs from the NSCLC H23 and H1299 cell lines were examined using cell viability, clonogenic survival, Western blot, short interfering RNA analysis, and micronucleus assay...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102906/cytogenetic-instability-in-populations-with-residential-proximity-to-open-pit-coal-mine-in-northern-colombia-in-relation-to-pm10-and-pm2-5-levels
#17
Lyda Espitia-Pérez, Juliana da Silva, Pedro Espitia-Pérez, Hugo Brango, Shirley Salcedo-Arteaga, Luz Stella Hoyos-Giraldo, Claudia T de Souza, Johnny F Dias, Dayana Agudelo-Castañeda, Ana Valdés Toscano, Miguel Gómez-Pérez, João A P Henriques
Epidemiological studies indicate that living in proximity to coal mines is correlated with numerous diseases including cancer, and that exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 components could be associated with this phenomenon. However, the understanding of the mechanisms by which PM exerts its adverse effects is still incomplete and comes mainly from studies in occupationally exposed populations. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes assessing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) parameters; (2) identify aneugenic or clastogenic effects in lymphocytes of exposed populations using CREST immunostaining for micronuclei; (3) evaluate multi-elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter; and (4) verify relation between the DNA damage and PM2...
November 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100934/chemical-characterization-and-cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-properties-of-baccharis-trinervis-lam-persoon-from-colombia-and-brazil
#18
Victoria Jaramillo-García, Cristiano Trindade, Elisiane Lima, Temenouga N Guecheva, Izabel Villela, Wilner Martinez-Lopez, Dione S Corrêa, Alexandre de B F Ferraz, Sidnei Moura, Milton Quintana Sosa, Juliana Da Silva, João Antônio Pegas Henriques
PHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Baccharis trinervis leaves are used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of high fevers, edema, inflammation, sores and muscle cramps, snakebites and as antiseptics. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of extracts and fractions of B. trinervis from Brazil and Colombia in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, as well as the mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts (AE) of aerial parts of B...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100180/ecological-risk-assessment-of-a-contaminated-stream-using-multi-level-integrated-biomarker-response-in-carassius-auratus
#19
Palas Samanta, Hyungjoon Im, Joorim Na, Jinho Jung
The goal of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of wastewater effluents on freshwater crucian carp, Carassius auratus, inhabiting Sincheon stream using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) at the genotoxic (micronucleus [MN] test), oxidative stress (activity of catalase [CAT] and glutathione S-transferase [GST], and level of lipid peroxidation [LPO]), histopathological (degree of tissue changes [DTC]), and physiological (condition factor [CF] and liver somatic index [LSI]) levels. The CF and LSI were significantly (p < 0...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098592/genotoxicity-of-carbon-tetrachloride-and-the-protective-role-of-essential-oil-of-salvia-officinalis-l-in-mice-using-chromosomal-aberration-micronuclei-formation-and-comet-assay
#20
Kawthar Ae Diab, Maha A Fahmy, Zeinab M Hassan, Emad M Hassan, Adel B Salama, Enayat A Omara
The present work was conducted to evaluate the genotoxic effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mouse bone marrow and male germ cells. The safety and the modulating activity of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil (SEO) against the possible genotoxic effect of CCl4 were also evaluated. A combination of in vivo mutagenic endpoints was included: micronucleus (MN), apoptosis using dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, comet assay, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and sperm abnormalities...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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