keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Micronucleus

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092007/study-of-the-genotoxicity-of-organic-extracts-from-wastewater-irrigated-vegetables-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biological-tests
#1
Hongxia Gao, Yanhua Cao, Yingli Liu, Nan Liu, Weijun Guan
The purpose of this study was to explore genotoxicity due to organic pollutants in wastewater-irrigated vegetables using biological and chemical analyses. Chinese cabbages from wastewater-irrigated farmland were taken as the research object. For the in vitro test, DNA damage was characterized in rat hepatocytes exposed to organic extracts from the cabbages using the comet assay. For the in vivo tests, mice were exposed to organic extracts from the cabbages. DNA damage was assessed in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and chromosome damage was assessed in bone marrow cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test, respectively...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091709/use-of-in-silico-models-for-prioritization-of-heat-induced-food-contaminants-in-mutagenicity-and-carcinogenicity-testing
#2
Falko Frenzel, Thorsten Buhrke, Irina Wenzel, Jennifer Andrack, Jan Hielscher, Alfonso Lampen
Numerous Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation products are present in processed foods such as heated cereals, roasted meat, refined oils, coffee, and juices. Due to the lack of experimental toxicological data, risk assessment is hardly possible for most of these compounds. In the present study, an in silico approach was employed for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints mutagenicity and carcinogenicity on the basis of the structure of the respective compound, to examine (quantitative) structure-activity relationships for more than 800 compounds...
January 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089781/genotoxic-effect-and-rat-hepatocyte-death-occurred-after-oxidative-stress-induction-and-antioxidant-gene-downregulation-caused-by-long-term-fluoride-exposure
#3
F D Campos-Pereira, L Lopes-Aguiar, F L Renosto, G A S Nogueira, E F D Costa, R Barbieri Pulz, E C M Silva-Zacarin, C A Oliveira, A A Pigoso, G D C Severi-Aguiar
Studies focusing on possible genotoxic effects of excess fluoride are contradictory and inconclusive. Currently, studies have reported a probable link to oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis induced by fluoride in rat hepatocytes. We developed an in vivo study administering three doses of fluoride by gavage given to rats for 60 day. Micronucleus test was applied to investigate genotoxic potential of fluoride. The TUNEL method determined DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Biochemical parameters to investigate mitochondrial swelling and oxidative stress...
January 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087838/does-the-assessment-of-non-disjunction-provide-a-more-sensitive-assay-for-detection-of-aneugens
#4
Joanne M Elloway, Alexandra K Davies, Julie Hayes, Ann T Doherty
The detection of aneugenic chemicals is important due to the implications of aneuploidy for human health. Aneuploidy can result from chromosome loss or non-disjunction due to chromosome mis-segregation at anaphase. Frequently, aneugens are detected using the in vitro micronucleus assay (IVM), with either centromere or kinetochore labelling. However, this method does not consider non-disjunction, the suggested predominant mechanism of spindle poison induced aneugenicity in primary human lymphocytes. Therefore, the IVM may be relatively insensitive in detecting aneuploidy...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078519/decrease-in-the-genotoxicity-of-metal-contaminated-soils-with-biochar-amendments
#5
Frédéric Rees, Adrien Dhyèvre, Jean Louis Morel, Sylvie Cotelle
Biochar amendments, i.e., the solid product of biomass pyrolysis, reduce soil metal availability, which may lower the toxicity of metal-contaminated soils. A direct link between the decrease in soil metal availability and improved plant development is however often difficult to establish, as biochar may induce undesirable side effects on plant growth, e.g., a modification to plant nutrition. In order to investigate toxicity processes at a cellular level, roots of Vicia faba were exposed for 7 days to three metal-contaminated substrates and one control soil, amended with a 0 or 5% (w/w) addition of a wood-derived biochar...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078248/origanum-vulgare-leaf-extract-protects-mice-bone-marrow-cells-against-ionizing-radiation
#6
Reza Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Vahid Changizi, Farhang Haddad, Mansour Homayoun, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard
OBJECTIVE: Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which induce DNA damage and cell death. Origanum vulgare leaf extract (OVLE) is a natural compound and its capability of scavenging free radicals and its antioxidant activity have been demonstrated by many researchers. In this study, using micronucleus assay, radioprotective effect of OVLE against clastogenic and cytotoxic effect of gamma irradiation has been investigated in mice bone marrow cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OVLE was injected intraperitoneally to the BALB/c mice 1hr prior to gamma irradiation (3Gy) at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073664/extract-of-bulbus-fritillaria-cirrhosa-perturbs-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-induces-mitotic-aberrations-and-genomic-instability-in-human-colon-epithelial-cell-line
#7
Xihan Guo, Juan Ni, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
BACKGROUND: Bulbus Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don (BFC) has been used in China as a folk medicine for the treatment of cough and asthma for more than 2000 years. The antitussive and antiasthmatic effects of BFC have been reported before, nevertheless its toxicity and safety have not been documented. This study investigated the possible effects of BFC on spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic fidelity and genomic stability in human NCM460 colon epithelial cells. METHODS: Cells were treated with BFC (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160μg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72h and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072461/adverse-and-beneficial-effects-in-chinese-hamster-lung-fibroblast-cells-following-radiofrequency-exposure
#8
Anna Sannino, Olga Zeni, Stefania Romeo, Rita Massa, Maria Rosaria Scarfi
In this study, the effect of radiofrequency (RF) exposure to 1950 MHz, Universal Mobile Telecommunication System signal, was investigated in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79). Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 20-h exposure at specific absorption rate (SAR) values from 0.15 W/kg to 1.25 W/kg were measured by means of cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay. Exposure was carried out blinded under strictly controlled conditions of dosimetry and temperature. The effect of RF exposure alone at four SAR values was tested, that is, 0...
January 10, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062704/radiosensitization-by-the-atr-inhibitor-azd6738-through-generation-of-acentric-micronuclei
#9
Magnus T Dillon, Holly E Barker, Malin Pedersen, Hind Hafsi, Shreerang A Bhide, Kate L Newbold, Christopher M Nutting, Martin McLaughlin, Kevin J Harrington
AZD6738 is an orally active ATR inhibitor (ATRi) currently in phase I clinical trials. We found in vitro growth inhibitory activity of this ATRi in a panel of human cancer cell lines. We demonstrated radiosensitization by AZD6738 to single radiation fractions in multiple cancer cell lines independent of both p53 and BRCA2 status by the clonogenic assay. Radiosensitization by AZD6738 to clinically relevant doses of fractionated radiation was demonstrated in vitro using a 3D tumor spheroid model and, in vivo, AZD6738 radiosensitized by abrogating the radiation-induced G2 cell-cycle checkpoint and inhibiting homologous recombination...
January 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062373/liposomal-encapsulation-masks-genotoxicity-of-a-chemotherapeutic-agent-in-regulatory-toxicology-assessments
#10
Jenolyn F Alexander, David Aguirre-Villarreal, Biana Godin
The burgeoning application of nanotechnology to a variety of industries including cosmetics, food, medicine and materials has led to the exploration of nanotoxicology as a trending subject of research. However the role of a nanovector, in affecting the mutagenicity of its therapeutic payload has not yet been investigated. In this study, we compare the mutagenicity of the free drug - doxorubicin hydrochloride with its nanoencapsulated form - doxorubicin loaded liposome, using conventional methods required for regulatory approval...
January 3, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054742/evaluation-of-dna-damage-in-hepg2-cells-and-mutagenicity-of-garcinielliptone-fc-a-bioactive-benzophenone
#11
Lismare da Silva Prado, Juliana da Silva, Ana Letícia Hilario Garcia, Fernanda Brião Menezes Boaretto, Ivana Grivicich, Lucas Umpierre Conter, Aguisson de Oliveira Salvi, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Suele Bierhals Vencato, Alexandre de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada
Garcinielliptone FC (GFC) is a polyprenylated benzophenone isolated from the hexanic extract of Platonia insignis seeds with potential pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. In a pre-clinical study, this compound showed anticonvulsant action, becoming a candidate to treat epilepsy disorders. However, genotoxicological aspects of GFC should be known to ensure its safe use. This study investigated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of GFC. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the colourimetric assay of MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) (2 - 100 μg/mL) for 3, 6 and 24 hr...
January 5, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053272/trans-generational-function-of-tetrahymena-piwi-protein-twi8p-at-distinctive-non-coding-rna-loci
#12
Brian M Farley, Kathleen Collins
Trans-generational transmission of genome-regulatory epigenetic information can determine phenotypes in the progeny of sexual reproduction. Sequence specificity of trans-generational regulation derives from small RNAs assembled into Piwi-protein complexes. Known targets of trans-generational regulation are primarily transposons and transposon-derived sequences. Here, we extend the scope of Piwi-mediated trans-generational regulation to include unique non-coding RNA loci. Ciliates such as Tetrahymena have a phenotypically silent germline micronucleus and an expressed somatic macronucleus, which is differentiated anew from a germline genome copy in sexual reproduction...
January 4, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043162/micronucleus-frequency-and-content-in-healthy-relatives-of-cancer-patients
#13
Friedo Zölzer, Marcela Křížová, Zuzana Freitinger Skalická, Andrea Rössnerová, Radim Šrám
OBJECTIVE: To compare chromosomal damage in lymphocytes of individuals who did or did not report first-degree relatives with cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases and controls (68 each) were matched for sex, age and radon exposure. Chromosomal damage was quantified as frequency of micronucleus-containing cells and proportion of centromere-free micronuclei. RESULTS: Individuals not reporting cancer in their families showed lower values of both the frequency of micronucleus-containing cells (n...
January 3, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039793/lippia-graveolens-photochemopreventive-effect-against-uvb-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#14
A M García-Bores, A M Espinosa-González, A Reyna-Campos, S Cruz-Toscano, J C Benítez-Flores, C T Hernández-Delgado, S Flores-Maya, M Urzúa-Meza, I Peñalosa-Castro, C L Céspedes-Acuña, J G Avila-Acevedo
Lippia graveolens HBK (Mexican oregano) is a species that is regularly used as a condiment in Mexican cuisine. In traditional medicine, it is used for the treatment of respiratory and digestive illnesses, headaches, rheumatism and inflammation-related disorders. The main chemical components reported in this species include the following: terpenoids, iridoids and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to determine the potential photochemopreventive effect of the methanolic extract of Lippia graveolens (MELG) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin cancer in SKH-1 mice...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033104/micronuclei-and-other-nuclear-anomalies-in-buccal-epithelial-cells-of-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Banu Aykanat, Gonca Cakmak Demircigil, Necla Buyan, Esra Baskin, Kaan Gulleroglu, Kibriya Fidan, Umut Selda Bayrakci, Aydin Dalgic, Hamdi Karakayali, Mehmet Haberal, Sema Burgaz
The objective of this study was to reveal the likely genomic instability in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using micronucleus (MN) assay on buccal epithelial cells (BEC). We investigated the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies, such as nuclear buds, binucleated cells, condensed chromatin, and karyorrhectic and pyknotic cells in BEC. Children with CKD were grouped as follows: children in the pre-dialysis (PreD) stage (N=17), children on regular haemodialysis (HD) (N=14), and children who have undergone transplantation (Tx) (N=17)...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033097/age-and-sex-differences-in-genome-damage-between-prepubertal-and-adult-mice-after-exposure-to-ionising-radiation
#16
Ranko Stojković, Aleksandra Fucic, Dušica Ivanković, Zoran Jukić, Petra Radulović, Josip Grah, Nenad Kovačević, Lovro Barišić, Božo Krušlin
The mechanisms that lead to sex and age differences in biological responses to exposure to ionising radiation and related health risks have still not been investigated to a satisfactory extent. The significance of sex hormones in the aetiology of radiogenic cancer types requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, especially during organism development. The aim of this study was to show age and sex differences in genome damage between prepubertal and adult mice after single exposure to gamma radiation...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012894/the-genotoxic-potency-of-glycidol-established-from-micronucleus-frequency-and-hemoglobin-adduct-levels-in-mice
#17
Jenny Aasa, Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg, Henrik Carlsson, Margareta Törnqvist
Glycidol is a genotoxic animal carcinogen that has raised concern due to its presence in food, as glycidyl fatty acid esters. Here we investigated the genotoxicity of glycidol in BalbC mice (0-120 mg/kg) by monitoring the induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood as a marker of chromosomal damage. The scoring of the micronuclei was assessed by flow cytometry. In the treated mice, the internal dose of glycidol, expressed as area under the concentration-time curve, AUC (mol × L(-1) × h; Mh), was measured by dihydroxypropyl adducts to hemoglobin (Hb)...
December 22, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010927/assessing-the-genotoxicity-of-two-commonly-occurring-byproducts-of-water-disinfection-chloral-hydrate-and-bromal-hydrate
#18
Tarek Manasfi, Michel De Méo, Carole Di Giorgio, Bruno Coulomb, Jean-Luc Boudenne
Water disinfection treatments result in the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that have been linked to adverse human health outcomes including higher incidence of bladder and colorectal cancer. However, data about the genotoxicity of DBPs is limited to only a small fraction of compounds. Chloral hydrate (CH) and bromal hydrate (BH) are two trihaloacetaldehydes commonly detected in disinfected waters, but little is known about their genotoxicity, especially BH. We investigated the genotoxicity of CH and BH using a test battery that includes three in vitro genotoxicity assays...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010924/upregulation-of-nrf2-through-autophagy-erk-1-2-ameliorates-ionizing-radiation-induced-cell-death-of-human-osteosarcoma-u-2-os
#19
Ni Chen, Rui Zhang, Teruaki Konishi, Jun Wang
The antioxidative response mediated by transcription factor NRF2 is thought to be a pivotal cellular defense system against various extrinsic stresses. It has been reported that activation of the NRF2 pathway confers cells with resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the current research, it was found that α-particle radiation has the ability to stimulate NRF2 expression in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Knockdown of cellular NRF2 level by shRNA-mediated gene silencing decreased the survival rate, increased the micronucleus formation rate and apoptosis rate in irradiated cells...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008180/y-chromothripsis
#20
Emily M Hatch
Micronucleation of missegregated chromatin can lead to substantial chromosome rearrangements via chromothripsis. However, the molecular details of micronucleus-based chromothripsis are still unclear. Now, an elegant system that specifically induces missegregation of the Y chromosome provides insight into this process, including a role for non-homologous end joining.
December 23, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
keyword
keyword
3311
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"