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Jie Tang, Ce Chen, Cheng Zha, Zhaohua Wang, Chen Zhang, Linli Zeng, Baiqing Li
Objective To investigate the differences of proportions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-producing cells in peripheral blood γδ T cells stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat resistant antigen (MTB-HAg) among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and healthy subjects (HC). Methods The peripheral blood specimens were collected from 15 normal adults, which were divided into HC group (n=9) and LTBI group (n=6), by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) kit for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and 12 patients with active PTB...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Kimberly Fryer, Sharon Keiser, Kenneth Trofatter, Kacey Y Eichelberger, Emily Heberlein
OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of race/ethnicity on cerclage efficacy, as measured by the prevalence of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), in a cohort of patients with history-indicated, ultrasound-indicated, and physical-exam indicated cerclages. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing history-indicated, ultrasound-indicated, and physical-exam indicated cerclage placement from January 2003 to July 2013 at a tertiary care hospital...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Ejaz Ahmad, Mohammad S Jamal, Mohd Rehan, Mourad Assidi, Iftikhar A Tayubi, Samera F AlBasri, Osama S Bajouh, Rola F Turki, Adel M Abuzenadah, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohd A Beg, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB), birth at <37 weeks of gestation, is a significant global public health problem. World-wide, about 15 million babies are born preterm each year resulting in more than a million deaths of children. Preterm neonates are more prone to problems and need intensive care hospitalization. Health issues may persist through early adulthood and even be carried on to the next generation. Majority (70 %) of PTBs are spontaneous with about a half without any apparent cause and the other half associated with a number of risk factors...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Yong Suk Jo, Ju-Hee Park, Jung Kyu Lee, Eun Young Heo, Hee Soon Chung, Deog Kyeom Kim
The prevalence and clinical implications of discordance between Xpert MTB/RIF assays and the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bronchial washing specimens have not been studied in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. The discordant proportion and its clinical impact were evaluated in 320 patients from the bronchoscopy registry whose bronchial washing specimens were tested simultaneously with Xpert MTB/RIF and the TB/NTM PCR assay for three years, and the accuracy of the assays, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were studied...
2016: PloS One
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Matthew S Payne, Demelza J Ireland, Rory Watts, Elizabeth A Nathan, Lucy L Furfaro, Matthew W Kemp, Jeffrey A Keelan, John P Newnham
BACKGROUND: Detection of Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma and Candida spp. in the vagina during pregnancy has previously been associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, the prevalence of these microorganisms and the associated obstetric risks (likely to be population-specific) have not been determined in Australian women; furthermore, in the case of Ureaplasma spp., very few studies have attempted characterisation at the species level and none have examined genotype/serovar status to further refine risk assessment...
October 18, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Maritza Samayoa-Peláez, Nancy Ayala, Zaida E Yadon, Einar Heldal
Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Anne Blangy
Tensins are focal adhesion molecules that were identified and characterized in the late 1980's - early 1990's. They play an essential role in the control of cell adhesion. Tensins can bind the tail of ß integrin via their Phospho Tyrosine Binding (PTB) domain, they exhibit various protein interaction domains including a Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain and they are serine-, threonine- and tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to various stimuli. Tensins serve as scaffolds to gather signaling molecules at the extracellular matrix adhesion complexes...
October 17, 2016: Biology of the Cell
Vipin Tyagi, M D Mustafa, Tusha Sharma, B D Banerjee, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi, Kiran Guleria
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth (PTB) is an important cause of prenatal death, neonatal morbidity and mortality and adult illness. Increased inflammation occurs in normal parturition, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are found to be higher in PTB cases. The present study was planned to investigate the association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with mRNA expression of inflammatory pathway genes such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in preterm delivery (PTD) cases...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Annick Renevey, Sereina Riniker
Polytheonamide B (pTB), a highly cytotoxic peptide produced by a symbiotic bacterium of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei, forms a transmembrane pore consisting of 49 residues. More than half of its residues are posttranslationally modified. Epimerizations result in alternating L- and D-amino acids that allow the peptide to adopt a [Formula: see text]-helical conformation. Unusually, the wide [Formula: see text]-helix of pTB is stable in a polar environment, which is in contrast to gramicidin A, an antibiotic with similar function and structure...
October 15, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Vijay G Mammen, Ziyaad Dangor, David P Moore, Alane Izu, Natalie Beylis, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Children hospitalized with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) frequently present with acute symptoms, possibly because of superimposed pneumococcal pneumonia. We undertook a time-series analysis to determine whether routine immunization of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was temporally associated with changes in the incidence of hospitalization for PTB in South African children. METHODS: PCV was introduced in the South African public immunization program in April 2009, with coverage for the third dose of PCV of 10%, 64% and 89% in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
M Senkoro, A M V Kumar, P Chinnakali, S G Mfinanga, S Egwaga, V Kamara, F van Leth, S G Hinderaker
SETTING: Tanzania has an estimated tuberculosis (TB) prevalence of 295 per 100 000 adult population. There is currently no nationally representative information on factors associated with TB in Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and clinical factors associated with bacteriologically confirmed TB in the adult general population of Tanzania. DESIGN: A case-control study nested in a nationally representative TB prevalence survey...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Simon Walusimbi, Brendan Kwesiga, Rashmi Rodrigues, Melles Haile, Ayesha de Costa, Lennart Bogg, Achilles Katamba
BACKGROUND: Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) and Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) are highly sensitive tests for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of utilizing MODS versus Xpert for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in HIV infected patients in Uganda. METHODS: A decision analysis model comparing MODS versus Xpert for TB diagnosis was used. Costs were estimated by measuring and valuing relevant resources required to perform the MODS and Xpert tests...
October 10, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Didem C Dogan, Seonghun Cho, Sun-Mi Hwang, Young-Min Kim, Hwanuk Guim, Tae-Hyun Yang, Seok-Hee Park, Gu-Gon Park, Sung-Dae Yim
Supportless Pt catalysts have several advantages over conventional carbon-supported Pt catalysts in that they are not susceptible to carbon corrosion. However, the need for high Pt loadings in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) to achieve state-of-the-art fuel cell performance has limited their application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Herein, we report a new approach to the design of a supportless Pt catalyst in terms of catalyst layer architecture, which is crucial for fuel cell performance as it affects water management and oxygen transport in the catalyst layers...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jennifer Jao, Laura Freimanis, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Rachel A Cohen, Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro, Maria Leticia Cruz, Andrea Branch, Rhoda S Sperling, George K Siberry
Background Low maternal vitamin D has been associated with preterm birth (PTB). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women are at risk for PTB, but data on maternal vitamin D and PTB in this population are scarce. Methods In a cohort of Latin American HIV-infected pregnant women from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative protocol, we examined the association between maternal vitamin D status and PTB. Vitamin D status was defined as the following 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: severe deficiency (< 10 ng/mL), deficiency (10-20 ng/mL), insufficiency (21-29 ng/mL), and sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL)...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Ida Pam Ombura, Noel Onyango, Susan Odera, Florence Mutua, Joshua Nyagol
BACKGROUND: Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Drug resistance was evaluated in 258 randomly selected sputa smear TB positive cases between the periods of November 2011 to February 2012 at the CPGH-Mombasa...
2016: PloS One
Wen-Qing Huang, Cong-Xia Lu, Ya Zhang, Ke-Hui Yi, Liang-Liang Cai, Ming-Li Li, Han Wang, Qing Lin, Chi-Meng Tzeng
Background: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular malformations that predominantly arise in the central nervous system and are mainly characterized by enlarged vascular cavities without intervening brain parenchyma. Familial CCMs (FCCMs) is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with incomplete penetrance and variable symptoms. Methods: Mutations of three pathogenic genes, CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3, were investigated by direct DNA sequencing in a Chinese family with multiple CCM lesions...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kathrin Zürcher, Marcel Zwahlen, Marie Ballif, Hans L Rieder, Matthias Egger, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) mortality declined in the northern hemisphere over the last 200 years, but peaked during the Russian (1889) and the Spanish (1918) influenza pandemics. We studied the impact of these two pandemics on TB mortality. METHODS: We retrieved historic data from mortality registers for the city of Bern and countrywide for Switzerland. We used Poisson regression models to quantify the excess pulmonary TB (PTB) mortality attributable to influenza...
2016: PloS One
Rikard G Fred, Syrina Mehrabi, Christopher M Adams, Nils Welsh
OBJECTIVES: Insulin expression is highly controlled on the posttranscriptional level. The RNA binding proteins (RBPs) responsible for this result are still largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify RBPs that bind to insulin mRNA we performed mass spectrometry analysis on proteins that bound synthetic oligonucloetides mimicing the 5'- and the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of rat and human insulin mRNA in vitro. We observed that the RBPs heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) U, polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), hnRNP L and T-cell restricted intracellular antigen 1-related protein (TIA-1-related protein; TIAR) bind to insulin mRNA sequences, and that the in vitro binding affinity of these RBPs changed when INS-1 cells were exposed to glucose, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) or nitric oxide...
September 2016: Heliyon
Lydia J Leon, Nita Solanky, Susanne E Stalman, Charalambos Demetriou, Sayeda Abu-Amero, Philip Stanier, Lesley Regan, Gudrun E Moore
About 20% of pregnancies are affected by some form of complication. Research has shown that anomalies in implantation, development, and growth of the fetus; ineffective nutrient exchange between mother and fetus due to placental dysfunction; and maternal problems such as hypertension or infection during pregnancy can all lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the molecular aetiology of such events remains poorly understood. Fetal growth restriction (FGR), recurrent miscarriage (RM), preterm birth (PTB), and pre-eclampsia (PE) are the most common pregnancy complications encountered in the UK and these outcomes can result in an array of morbidities in both mother and baby, and in the most severe cases in mortality...
October 2016: Placenta
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