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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633417/polypyrimidine-tract-binding-protein-ptb-and-ptb-associated-splicing-factor-in-cvb3-infection-an-itaf-for-an-itaf
#1
Pratik Dave, Biju George, Divya Khandige Sharma, Saumitra Das
The 5΄ UTR of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) contains internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which allows cap-independent translation of the viral RNA and a 5΄-terminal cloverleaf structure that regulates viral replication, translation and stability. Here, we demonstrate that host protein PSF (PTB associated splicing factor) interacts with the cloverleaf RNA as well as the IRES element. PSF was found to be an important IRES trans acting factor (ITAF) for efficient translation of CVB3 RNA. Interestingly, cytoplasmic abundance of PSF protein increased during CVB3 infection and this is regulated by phosphorylation status at two different amino acid positions...
June 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633335/pulmonary-tb-varying-radiological-presentations-in-individuals-with-hiv-in-soweto-south-africa
#2
Jesne Kistan, Fatima Laher, Kennedy Otwombe, Ravindre Panchia, Nohemie Mawaka, Limakatso Lebina, Andreas Diacon, Bavesh Kana, Neil Martinson
Background: HIV-uninfected individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) commonly present with radiological features of upper lobe cavitatory disease. In contrast, individuals with HIV and PTB may present differently. This study compared radiological features of individuals with laboratory-confirmed PTB by HIV status from the largest study in South Africa. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adults recruited between 2012 and 2015 with laboratory-confirmed PTB in Soweto, South Africa...
March 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629333/efficacy-of-ultra-short-course-chemotherapy-for-new-smear-positive-drug-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-study-protocol-of-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Mengqiu Gao, Jingtao Gao, Jian Du, Yuhong Liu, Yao Zhang, Liping Ma, Fengling Mi, Liang Li, Shenjie Tang
BACKGROUND: Shortening the standard 6-month treatment for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (DS-PTB) would be a major improvement for TB case management and disease control. METHODS: We are conducting a randomized, open-label, controlled, non-inferiority trial involving patients with smear-positive, newly diagnosed DS-PTB cases nationwide to assess the efficacy and safety of two 4.5- month regimens in comparison to the standard 6-month WHO recommended regimen...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629238/us-trends-in-abortion-and-preterm-birth
#4
Elena Rita Magro Malosso, Gabriele Saccone, Biagio Simonetti, Massimo Squillante, Vincenzo Berghella
BACKGROUND: A recent large meta-analysis concluded that prior surgical abortion was an independent risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), while they found no significant correlation between PTB and medical abortion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of changes in US abortion rates and practices on US incidence of PTB rate. STUDY DESIGN: This was an epidemiologic analysis of legal abortion and PTB data in the USA from 2003-2012...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628646/the-impact-of-glycemic-status-on-radiological-manifestations-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-diabetic-patients
#5
Li-Kuo Huang, Hsueh-Han Wang, Yi-Chun Lai, Shi-Chuan Chang
SETTING: Diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and influence its radiological manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of glycemic status on radiological findings of PTB in diabetic patients. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2015, chest radiographs (CXRs) in consecutive 214 DM patients with culture-proved PTB and 123 available thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans were enrolled. An equal number of non-DM patients with similar demographics was included as the control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626423/ubiquitin-proteasome-collagen-cup-pathway-in-preterm-premature-rupture-of-fetal-membranes
#6
Xinliang Zhao, Xiaoyan Dong, Xiucui Luo, Jing Pan, Weina Ju, Meijiao Zhang, Peirong Wang, Mei Zhong, Yanhong Yu, W Ted Brown, Nanbert Zhong
Spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) occurs before 37 gestational weeks, with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) and spontaneous preterm labor (sPTL) as the predominant adverse outcomes. Previously, we identified altered expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and message RNAs (mRNAs) related to the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in human placentas following pregnancy loss and PTB. We therefore hypothesized that similar mechanisms might underlie PPROM. In the current study, nine pairs of ubiquitin-proteasome-collagen (CUP) pathway-related mRNAs and associated lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in PPROM and sPTL...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623556/characteristics-and-clinical-role-of-bronchoscopy-in-diagnosis-of-childhood-endobronchial-tuberculosis
#7
An-Xia Jiao, Lin Sun, Fang Liu, Xiao-Chun Rao, Yu-Yan Ma, Xi-Cheng Liu, Chen Shen, Bao-Ping Xu, A-Dong Shen, Kun-Ling Shen
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is the most frequent complication of primary pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children. The aim of the study was to analyze characteristics and clinical role of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of childhood EBTB. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study was undertaken in 157 children with EBTB undergone fl exible bronchoscopy (FB) between January 2006 and June 2014. RESULTS: The median age of the enrolled patients was 3...
June 15, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622475/racial-differences-in-the-association-between-maternal-antenatal-depression-and-preterm-birth-risk-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Collette N Ncube, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Amelia R Gavin
BACKGROUND: In the United States, racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth (PTB) are well documented, but explanations for why the disparity persists remain to be fully explored. We examined racial/ethnic differences in the association of maternal antenatal depression with PTB (<37 completed weeks of gestation) risk. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, participants (n = 2073) included non-Hispanic (NH) black, NH white, Asian, and Hispanic women who received prenatal care at a university obstetric clinic January 2004-March 2010, and delivered at the university's hospital...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620038/appl1-is-a-multifunctional-endosomal-signaling-adaptor-protein
#9
REVIEW
Nicole L Diggins, Donna J Webb
Endosomal adaptor proteins are important regulators of signaling pathways underlying many biological processes. These adaptors can integrate signals from multiple pathways via localization to specific endosomal compartments, as well as through multiple protein-protein interactions. One such adaptor protein that has been implicated in regulating signaling pathways is the adaptor protein containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1). APPL1 localizes to a subset of Rab5-positive endosomes through its Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs and PH domains, and it coordinates signaling pathways through its interaction with many signaling receptors and proteins through its PTB domain...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616288/decreased-expression-of-perforin-in-cd8-t-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-potential-value-as-a-marker-for-efficacy-of-treatment
#10
Hongbin Jiang, Huili Gong, Qing Zhang, Jin Gu, Li Liang, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cytolytic activity against mycobacteria tuberculosis (MTB) within the infected macrophage is a crucial step in the immunity against TB infection, as MTB is an intracellular bacterium. Cytotoxic molecules such as perforin and granzymes produced by cytolytic T cells directly participate in this process. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity function employing flow cytometry analysis of the level of expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), perforin and granzyme B in CD8(+) T cells from patients with active pulmonary TB (PTB), stable PTB and healthy controls, and explored whether MTB antigen (MTB Ag)-stimulated cytotoxic molecules would be useful for monitoring responses to anti-TB treatment...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612135/comparative-study-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-and-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-suspected-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#11
Anil Kumar Sah, Bishnu Joshi, Dhruba Kumar Khadka, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Anurag Adhikari, Subodh Kant Singh, Ganesh Rai, Geeta Shrestha Vaidya, Reema Rajbhandari, Basant Pant, Shiba Kumar Rai
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries. The objective of this study was to compare rapid diagnostics technique, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (GeneXpert) and Multiplex PCR assay (MPCR) targeting IS6110 segment and mpb64 gene for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in suspected PTB patients. A cross sectional study was carried among 105 sputum samples from suspected PTB patients to evaluate GeneXpert and Multiplex PCR who visited National Tuberculosis Center, Nepal...
June 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612095/maternal-fetal-vitamin-d-receptor-polymorphisms-significantly-associated-with-preterm-birth
#12
Talya Rosenfeld, Hagit Salem, Gheona Altarescu, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Aharon Tevet, Ruth Birk
PURPOSE: Preterm birth (PTB) is a complex trait with strong genetic background, whose etiology is not fully understood. It was recently suggested that pregnancy duration is affected by fetal genetic variation even more than by the maternal genome. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is involved in embryonic implantation and fertility. We studied the association between both maternal and neonatal vitamin D receptor (VDR) genetic variation and PTB. METHODS: Maternal and fetal (umbilical cord) DNA was isolated from Jewish Israeli idiopathic preterm newborns (24-36 weeks, n = 146) and control term newborns (>37 weeks, n = 229)...
June 13, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611374/efficacy-and-safety-of-mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-as-an-adjunct-therapy-in-category-ii-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-randomized-trial
#13
Surendra K Sharma, Kiran Katoch, Rohit Sarin, Raman Balambal, Nirmal Kumar Jain, Naresh Patel, Kolluri J R Murthy, Neeta Singla, P K Saha, Ashwani Khanna, Urvashi Singh, Sanjiv Kumar, A Sengupta, J N Banavaliker, D S Chauhan, Shailendra Sachan, Mohammad Wasim, Sanjay Tripathi, Nilesh Dutt, Nitin Jain, Nalin Joshi, Sita Ram Raju Penmesta, Sumanlatha Gaddam, Sanjay Gupta, Bakulesh Khamar, Bindu Dey, Dipendra K Mitra, Sunil K Arora, Sangeeta Bhaskar, Rajni Rani
Prolonged treatment of tuberculosis (TB) often leads to poor compliance, default and relapse, converting primary TB patients into category II TB (Cat IITB) cases, many of whom may convert to multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). We have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) as an adjunct to Anti-Tubercular Treatment (ATT) in Cat II pulmonary TB (PTB) patients in a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multicentric clinical trial. 890 sputum smear positive Cat II PTB patients were randomized to receive either six intra-dermal injections (2 + 4) of heat-killed MIP at a dose of 5 × 10(8) bacilli or placebo once in 2 weeks for 2 months...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610790/mir-30c-is-specifically-repressed-in-patients-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#14
Silvana V Spinelli, Rocío Del V Fernández, Luciana Zoff, Bettina Bongiovanni, Ariana Díaz, Luciano D'Attilio, Natalia Santucci, Tomás Alvarez, Marcela M Marchesini, Cristina Bogue, Maria L Bay, Oscar A Bottasso
Tuberculous pleurisy (PLTB) is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It often resolves without chemotherapy being hence considered a rather benign manifestation of the disease. Patients with PLTB mount an effective anti-mycobacterial response, unlike those with active pulmonary TB (pTB) that were shown to present an imbalance in plasma immune and endocrine mediators. In this work, we explored whether expression of the active isoform of the glucocorticoid receptor (hGRα) in the context of the inflammatory-anti-inflammatory responses of TB patients may be associated to microRNA levels...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605426/biomarkers-of-cerebral-injury-and-inflammation-in-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#15
Ursula K Rohlwink, Katya Mauff, Katalin A Wilkinson, Nico Enslin, Emmanuel Wegoye, Robert J Wilkinson, Anthony A Figaji
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to death or disability in half the affected individuals. Tools to assess severity and predict outcome are lacking. Neuro-specific biomarkers could serve as markers of the severity and evolution of brain injury, but have not been widely explored in TBM. We examined biomarkers of neurological injury (neuromarkers) and inflammation in pediatric TBM and their association with outcome. Methods: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with TBM and hydrocephalus taken on admission and over 3 weeks were analysed for neuromarkers S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and multiple inflammatory markers...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598419/genome-wide-approach-identifies-a-novel-gene-maternal-pre-pregnancy-bmi-interaction-on-preterm-birth
#16
Xiumei Hong, Ke Hao, Hongkai Ji, Shouneng Peng, Ben Sherwood, Antonio Di Narzo, Hui-Ju Tsai, Xin Liu, Irina Burd, Guoying Wang, Yuelong Ji, Deanna Caruso, Guangyun Mao, Tami R Bartell, Zhongyang Zhang, Colleen Pearson, Linda Heffner, Sandra Cerda, Terri H Beaty, M Daniele Fallin, Aviva Lee-Parritz, Barry Zuckerman, Daniel E Weeks, Xiaobin Wang
Preterm birth (PTB) contributes significantly to infant mortality and morbidity with lifelong impact. Few robust genetic factors of PTB have been identified. Such 'missing heritability' may be partly due to gene × environment interactions (G × E), which is largely unexplored. Here we conduct genome-wide G × E analyses of PTB in 1,733 African-American women (698 mothers of PTB; 1,035 of term birth) from the Boston Birth Cohort. We show that maternal COL24A1 variants have a significant genome-wide interaction with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity on PTB risk, with rs11161721 (PG × E=1...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596604/mir-143-and-mir-145-disrupt-the-cervical-epithelial-barrier-through-dysregulation-of-cell-adhesion-apoptosis-and-proliferation
#17
Lauren Anton, Ann DeVine, Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Amy G Brown, Michal A Elovitz
Molecular mechanisms regulating preterm birth (PTB)-associated cervical remodeling remain unclear. Prior work demonstrated an altered miRNA profile, with significant increases in miR-143 and miR-145, in cervical cells of women destined to have a PTB. The study objective was to determine the effect of miR-143 and miR-145 on the cervical epithelial barrier and to elucidate the mechanisms by which these miRNAs modify cervical epithelial cell function. Ectocervical and endocervical cells transfected with miR-negative control, miR-143 or miR-145 were used in cell permeability and flow cytometry assays for apoptosis and proliferation...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591854/correction-factors-for-attenuation-and-scattering-of-the-wall-of-a-cylindrical-ionization-chamber-in-the-6-7-mev-high-energy-photon-reference-field
#18
M Kowatari, H Zutz, O Hupe
In high-energy photon reference fields the value of the air kerma rate is determined by using ionization chambers (ICs). From the charge collected inside the IC the dose can be calculated using a set of calibration and correction factors according to ISO 4037-2. A crucial parameter is the correction for the attenuation and scattering of the primary radiation due to the chamber wall. This parameter can be determined using Monte Carlo calculations. The evaluation of the factor was performed for a commercially available IC of the type Victoreen 550-3 under different build-up conditions...
June 7, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589477/the-impact-of-postpartum-cervical-tear-on-the-occurrence-of-preterm-birth-in-subsequent-pregnancy
#19
Noah Zafran, Eden Gerszman, Gali Garmi, Sivan Zuaretz-Easton, Raed Salim
PURPOSE: To examine the occurrence of subsequent preterm birth (PTB) among women who experienced a cervical tear during prior delivery. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted at a single teaching hospital on data from January 1994 to March 2014. The study group included all women who had a cervical tear detected at uterine and cervical examination, performed due to early postpartum hemorrhage. The control group consisted of women who delivered vaginally, experienced an early postpartum hemorrhage, and had an intact cervix at uterine and cervical examination...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588156/clinical-presentation-of-adult-pulmonary-tuberculosis-ptb-a-study-of-103-cases-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#20
T K Barman, S Roy, M A Hossain, G R Bhuiyan, S Abedin
Tuberculosis, one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans, is a major cause of death worldwide. The disease, which is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, usually affects the lungs, although other organs are involved in up to one-third of causes. If properly treated, tuberculosis caused by drug-susceptible strains is curable in virtually all cases. If untreated, the disease may be fatal within five years in 50-65% of cases. Transmission usually takes place through the airborne spread of droplet nuclei produced by patients with infectious pulmonary tuberculosis...
April 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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