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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350445/structural-changes-in-an-anion-channelrhodopsin-formation-of-the-k-and-l-intermediates-at-80-k
#1
Adrian Yi, Hai Li, Natalia V Mamaeva, Roberto F de Cordoba, Johan Lugtenburg, Willem J DeGrip, John L Spudich, Kenneth J Rothschild
A recently discovered natural family of light-gated anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) from cryptophyte algae provides an effective means of optogenetically silencing neurons. The most extensively studied ACR is from Guillardia theta (GtACR1). Earlier studies of GtACR1 have established a correlation between formation of a blue-shifted L-like intermediate and the anion channel "open" state. To study structural changes of GtACR1 in the K and L intermediates of the photocycle, a combination of low-temperature FTIR and UV-visible absorption difference spectroscopy was used along with stable-isotope retinal labeling and site-directed mutagenesis...
March 28, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345720/partitioning-of-2-phenylethanol-and-limonene-cosurfactants-in-c12e4
#2
Iain McKenzie, Robert Scheuermann, Ian Tucker
Avoided level-crossing muon spin resonance (ALC-μSR) has been used to study the dynamics and local environment of spin probes formed by muonium (Mu) addition to 2-phenylethanol (PEA) and limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene) in an aqueous dispersion of the nonionic surfactant C12E4 (tetra(ethylene glycol) n-dodecyl ether). The spin probes derived from both cosurfactants reside within the micelles in the L1 phase and the bilayers in the Lα phase rather than in the aqueous region. The local polarity measured by the different isomers of the Mu adducts of PEA suggests there is a water gradient within the micelles and bilayers...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345695/anion-dependent-self-assembly-of-copper-coordination-polymers-based-on-pyrazole-3-5-dicarboxylate-and-1-2-di-4-pyridyl-ethylene
#3
Fatima Klongdee, Jaursup Boonmak, Sujittra Youngme
By utilizing a pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid (H3pzdc) and flexible 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene (dpe) with various copper(ii) salts under the same solvothermal synthetic conditions, six novel coordination polymers, namely, {[Cu2(pzdc)(dpe)2]X}n (X = NO3(-) (1), ClO4(-) (2), BF4(-) (3), SCN(-) (4)), {[Cu(ii)4Cu(i)4(pzdc)4(dpe)6](H2O)4}2n (5), and {[Cu5(HPO4)2 (pzdc)2(dpe)3](H2O)5}n (6) were obtained. The structural diversity of compounds 1-6 depends on the starting Cu(ii) salts. Compounds 1-4 are isostructural and exhibit a 3D porous cationic pillar-layered coordination framework with lattice monoanions incorporated into the channels of the framework...
March 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344560/nitric-oxide-has-a-concentration-dependent-effect-on-the-cell-cycle-acting-via-ein2-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-cultured-cells
#4
Galina V Novikova, Luis A J Mur, Alexander V Nosov, Artem A Fomenkov, Kirill S Mironov, Anna S Mamaeva, Evgeny S Shilov, Victor Y Rakitin, Michael A Hall
Ethylene is known to influence the cell cycle (CC) via poorly characterized roles whilst nitric oxide (NO) has well-established roles in the animal CC but analogous role(s) have not been reported for plants. As NO and ethylene signaling events often interact we examined their role in CC in cultured cells derived from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col-0) plants and from ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1 plants. Both NO and ethylene were produced mainly during the first 5 days of the sub-cultivation period corresponding to the period of active cell division...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344477/development-and-characterization-of-methoxy-poly-ethylene-oxide-block-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-peo-b-pcl-micelles-as-vehicles-for-the-solubilization-and-delivery-of-tacrolimus
#5
Raisuddin Ali, Abubakar Farah, Ziyad Binkhathlan
Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant; however, it suffers from several problems such as poor water solubility (4-12 μg/mL), low and variable oral bioavailability in patients, and narrow therapeutic window that could not be solved by the currently available i.v. formulation (Prograf®). Moreover, Prograf® contains HCO-60 (PEGylated castor oil) as a surfactant, which is reported to cause several side effects including hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of PEO-b-PCL polymeric micelles as alternative vehicles for the solubilization and delivery of tacrolimus...
February 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344174/core-shell-eudragit-poly-ethylene-oxide-fibers-for-site-specific-release
#6
Dong Jia, Yanshan Gao, Gareth R Williams
Electrospinning was used to prepare core/shell fibers containing the active pharmaceutical ingredients indomethacin (IMC) or mebeverine hydrochloride (MB-HCl). The shell of the fibers was fabricated from the pH sensitive Eudragit S100 polymer, while the drug-loaded core was based on the mucoadhesive polyethylene oxide (PEO). Three different drug loadings (from 9-23% w/w of the core mass) were prepared, and for MB-HCl two different molecular weights of PEO were explored. The resultant fibers generally comprise smooth cylinders, although in some cases defects such as surface particles or flattened or merged fibers were visible...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344017/intranasal-delivery-of-n-terminal-modified-leptin-pluronic-conjugate-for-treatment-of-obesity
#7
Dongfen Yuan, Xiang Yi, Yuling Zhao, Chi-Duen Poon, Kristin M Bullock, Kim M Hansen, Therese S Salameh, Susan A Farr, William A Banks, Alexander V Kabanov
Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is delivered via a specific transport system across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the brain where it acts on the hypothalamus receptors to control appetite and thermogenesis. Peripheral resistance to leptin due to its impaired brain delivery prevents therapeutic use of leptin in overweight and moderately obese patients. To address this problem, we modified the N-terminal amine of leptin with Pluronic P85 (LepNP85) and administered this conjugate intranasally using the nose-to-brain (INB) route to bypass the BBB...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343346/molecularly-imprinted-polymer-prepared-with-polyhedral-oligomeric-silsesquioxane-through-reversible-addition-fragmentation-chain-transfer-polymerization
#8
Shu-Ping Gao, Xue Zhang, Li-Shun Zhang, Yan-Ping Huang, Zhao-Sheng Liu
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was utilized to prepare imprinted polymer through reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) successfully. The imprinted polymer was made with a mixture of RAFT agent, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP), POSS monomer [PSS-(1-propylmethacrylate)-heptaisobutyl substituted, MA 0702], and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA), with ketoprofen (KET) as template. The influence of polymerization variables, the amount of RAFT agent and POSS monomer, the ratio of KET to 4-VP, and the ratio of 4-VP to EDMA, were investigated on the retention factor and imprinting effect...
March 25, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343119/synergistically-enhanced-stability-of-laccase-immobilized-on-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-with-water-soluble-polymers
#9
M N M Cunha, H P Felgueiras, I Gouveia, A Zille
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by citrate reduction method in the presence of polymers, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan, used as stabilizing agents, and an oxidoreductase enzyme, laccase (Lac), with the goal of expanding the NPs antimicrobial action. AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrometry, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. As protecting agents, PEG and PVA promoted the formation of spherical uniformly-shaped, small-sized, monodispersed AgNPs (≈20nm)...
March 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342057/preparation-of-drug-loaded-plga-peg-nanoparticles-by-membrane-assisted-nanoprecipitation
#10
Airama Albisa, Emma Piacentini, Victor Sebastian, Manuel Arruebo, Jesus Santamaria, Lidietta Giorno
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to develop a scalable continuous system suitable for the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles using membrane-assisted nanoprecipitation. One of the hurdles to overcome in the use of nanostructured materials as drug delivery vectors is their availability at industrial scale. Innovation in process technology is required to translate laboratory production into mass production while preserving their desired nanoscale characteristics. METHODS: Membrane-assisted nanoprecipitation has been used for the production of Poly[(D,L lactide-co-glycolide)-co-poly ethylene glycol] diblock) (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles using a pulsed back-and-forward flow arrangement...
March 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342024/towards-optimization-of-odonto-osteogenic-bioengineering-in-vitro-comparison-of-simvastatin-sodium-fluoride-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone
#11
Vahid Zijah, Roya Salehi, Marziyeh Aghazadeh, Mohammad Samiei, Effat Alizadeh, Soodabeh Davaran
Tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for dental problems in recent years. One of the policies in tissue engineering is to use both scaffolds and additive factors for enhancing cell responses. This study aims to evaluate and compare the effect of three types of biofactors on poly-caprolactone-poly-ethylene glycol-poly caprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) nanofibrous scaffold on human dental pulp stem cell (hDPSCs) engineering. The PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer was synthesized with ring opening polymerization method, and its nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning method...
March 25, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341156/long-range-interactions-between-protein-coated-particles-and-poegma-brush-layers-in-a-serum-environment
#12
Zhaohui Wang, Yafei Luan, Tiansheng Gan, Xiangjun Gong, Hong Chen, To Ngai
Hydrophilic poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate] (POEGMA) brush layers with different thickness and graft densities were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to construct a model surface to examine protein-surface interactions in a serum environment. The thickness of the POEGMA brush layers could be well controlled by the polymerization time and density of the immobilized initiators. The interactions between these brush-modified surfaces and the protein-coated polystyrene (PS) particles in newborn calf serum (NBCS) environment were then measured by total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM)...
February 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340965/identification-and-quantification-of-microplastics-using-nile-red-staining
#13
Won Joon Shim, Young Kyoung Song, Sang Hee Hong, Mi Jang
We investigated the applicability of Nile Red (NR), a fluorescent dye, for microplastic analysis, and determined the optimal staining conditions. Five mg/L NR solution in n-hexane effectively stained plastics, and they were easily recognized in green fluorescence. The NR staining method was successfully applied to micro-sized polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyurethane, and poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate), except for polyvinylchloride, polyamide and polyester. The recovery rate of polyethylene (100-300μm) spiked to pretreated natural sand was 98% in the NR stating method, which was not significantly (p<0...
December 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339188/preparation-and-characterization-of-parent-phenylphosphinidene-and-its-oxidation-to-phenyldioxophosphorane-the-elusive-phospho-rous-analogue-of-nitrobenzene
#14
Artur Mardyukov, Dominik Niedek, Peter R Schreiner
Triplet phenylphosphinidene was prepared by light-induced elimination of ethylene from the corresponding phenylphosphirane and was characterized by IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy together with matching of its spectral data with density functional theory (DFT) computations. The photolysis of phenylphosphirane in 3P-O2 doped matrices enabled the spectroscopic identification of a hitherto unknown phenyldioxophosphorane, the long elusive phosphorous analogue of nitrobenzene.
March 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338755/red-blotch-disease-alters-grape-berry-development-and-metabolism-by-interfering-with-the-transcriptional-and-hormonal-regulation-of-ripening
#15
Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Helene Hopfer, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Zirou Ye, Rosa M Rivero, Alfonso Albacete, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea, Renata Koyama, Michael M Anderson, Rhonda J Smith, Susan E Ebeler, Dario Cantu
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a major threat to the wine industry in the USA. GRBaV infections (aka red blotch disease) compromise crop yield and berry chemical composition, affecting the flavor and aroma properties of must and wine. In this study, we combined genome-wide transcriptional profiling with targeted metabolite analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the impact of the disease on red-skinned berry ripening and metabolism. Using naturally infected berries collected from two vineyards, we were able to identify consistent berry responses to GRBaV across different environmental and cultural conditions...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338323/shape-dependent-radiosensitization-effect-of-gold-nanostructures-in-cancer-radiotherapy-comparison-of-gold-nanoparticles-nanospikes-and-nanorods
#16
Ningning Ma, Fu-Gen Wu, Xiaodong Zhang, Yao-Wen Jiang, Hao-Ran Jia, Hong-Yin Wang, Yan-Hong Li, Peidang Liu, Ning Gu, Zhan Chen
The shape effect of gold (Au) nanomaterials on the efficiency of cancer radiotherapy has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, Au nanomaterials with different shapes but similar average size (~50 nm) including gold nanoparticles (GNPs), gold nanospikes (GNSs), and gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized and functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules. Although all these Au nanostructures were coated with the same PEG molecules, their cellular uptake behavior differed significantly. The GNPs showed the highest cellular responses compared to the GNSs and the GNRs (based on the same gold mass) after incubation with KB cancer cells for 24 h...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338321/thiol-reactive-star-polymers-display-enhanced-association-with-distinct-human-blood-components
#17
Joshua Julian Glass, Yang Li, Robert De Rose, Angus P R Johnston, Ewa I Czuba, Song Yang Khor, John F Quinn, Michael R Whittaker, Thomas P Davis, Stephen J Kent
Directing nanoparticles to specific cell types using non-antibody based methods is of increasing interest. Thiol-reactive nanoparticles can enhance the efficiency of cargo delivery into specific cells through interactions with cell surface proteins. However, studies to date using this technique have been largely limited to immortalized cell lines or rodents and the utility of this technology on primary human cells is unknown. Herein, we used RAFT polymerization to prepare pyridyl disulphide (PDS)-functionalized star polymers with a methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) brush corona and a fluorescently-labelled crosslinked core using an arm-first method...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337839/poly-ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylates-with-cleavable-ketal-sites-precursors-for-cleavable-peg-hydrogels
#18
Hannah Pohlit, Daniel Leibig, Holger Frey
The authors introduce poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based macromonomers containing acid-labile ketal moieties as well as terminal methacrylate units that are amenable to radical polymerization. The synthesis of PEGs of different molecular weights (ranging from 2000 to 13 000 g mol(-1) with polydispersities <1.15) with a central ketal unit (PEG-ketal-diol) and their conversion to PEG-ketal-dimethacrylates (PEG-ketal-DMA) is introduced. Degradation rates of both PEG-ketal-diols and PEG-ketal-DMA are investigated by in situ (1) H NMR kinetic studies in deuterated phosphate buffer...
March 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337785/transcriptomic-and-metabolic-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-chilling-injury-in-peach-fruit
#19
Ke Wang, Xue-Ren Yin, Bo Zhang, Don Grierson, Chang-Jie Xu, Kun-Song Chen
Low temperature conditioning (LTC) alleviates peach fruit chilling injury but the underlying molecular basis is poorly understood. Here, changes in transcriptome, ethylene production, flesh softening, internal browning, and membrane lipids were compared in fruit maintained in constant 0 °C and LTC (pre-storage at 8 °C for 5 days before storage at 0 °C). LTC resulted in a higher rate of ethylene production and a more rapid flesh softening as a result of higher expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes and a series of cell wall hydrolases...
March 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337518/both-atrbohd-and-atrbohf-are-essential-for-mediating-responses-to-oxygen-deficiency-in-arabidopsis
#20
Bo Liu, Lirong Sun, Liya Ma, Fu-Shun Hao
Both AtrbohD and AtrbohF promote the increases in activities of ADH, PDC, LDH, and Ca(2+) levels, and induce the expression of multiple hypoxia response genes, thus improving Arabidopsis adaptation to oxygen deficiency. NADPH oxidase AtrbohD and AtrbohF cooperatively play key roles in regulation of growth and stress signaling in Arabidopsis. However, reports on AtrbohD and AtrbohF functioning together in hypoxia signaling are scarce, and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that the double null mutant atrbohD/F is more sensitive to oxygen deprivation compared with wild type (WT) and the single mutant atrbohD and atrbohF...
March 23, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
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