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Jan David, Zacharias Steinmetz, Jiri Kucerik, Gabriele Ellen Schaumann
The use of plastic materials in daily life, industry, and agriculture can cause soil pollution with plastic fragments down to the micrometer scale, i.e. microplastics. Quantitative assessment of microplastics in soil samples is so far limited. Until now, microplastics' analyses in soil require laborious sample cleanup and are mostly restricted to qualitative assessments. In this study, we applied thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) in order to develop a method for the direct quantitative analysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) without further sample pretreatment...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Muhammad Hasan, Alice E R Fayter, Matthew I Gibson
All modern molecular biology and microbiology is underpinned not only by the tools to handle and manipulate microorganisms, but also those to store, bank and transport them. Glycerol is the current gold-standard cryoprotectant but it is intrinsically toxic to most micro-organisms: only a fraction of cells survive freezing and the presence of glycerol can impact down-stream applications and assays. Extremophile organisms survive repeated freeze/thaw cycles by producing antifreeze proteins which are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors...
June 22, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Mutsumi Takahashi, Yogetsu Bando
AIM: Mouthguards can reduce the risk of sports-related injuries, but the sheet material and thickness have a large effect on their efficacy and safety. The aim of this study to investigate the thickness of molded mouthguards when the model position on the forming table was changed stepwise in the anteroposterior direction for different sheet thicknesses and materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethylene vinyl acetate sheets and olefin copolymer sheets with 4.0- or 2...
June 22, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Edgar Uhl, Stefan Thumser, Peter Mayer, Henry Dube
Molecular motors undergo directional motions upon external energy input. A profound challenge is the defined transfer of directional motor motions to remote entities at the molecular scale. In this work we present a molecular setup allowing to transfer the directional rotation of a light powered motor unit unto a remote biaryl axis via an ethylene-glycol chain link. Using a combination of X-ray crystallographic analysis, ECD and NMR experiments, as well as a comprehensive theoretical assessment we provide evidence for the coupled stepwise directional motions of both molecular units...
June 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Qunqun Bao, Ping Hu, Yingying Xu, Tiansheng Cheng, Chenyang Wei, Limin Pan, Jianlin Shi
Cerebral vasculature and neuronal networks will be largely destroyed due to the oxidative damages by over-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stroke, accompanied by the symptoms of ischemic injury and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Ceria nanoparticles, acting as an effective and recyclable ROS scavenger, have been showing high effectiveness in neuroprotection. However, the brain access of nanoparticles can only be achieved by targeting the damaged area of BBB, leading to the disrupted BBB unprotected and turbulence of microenvironment in brain...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Neda Ghafori Nia, Azadeh Azadbakht
A composite was prepared from PtSn nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (PtSnNP/CNTs) and applied to the electrochemical determination of myoglobin (Mb). An Mb-aptamer was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and hexcyanoferrate was used as an electrochemical probe. The PtSnNP/CNTs were synthesized by a microwave-aided ethylene glycol reduction method. Detection is based on electron transfer inhibition that is caused by the folding and conformational change of the Mb-aptamer in the presence of Mb. The amperometric signal for hexacyanoferrate, best measured at 0...
June 21, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Xiaoting Xue, Rui Lu, Yi Li, Qing Wang, Jiansheng Li, Lianjun Wang
The detection and adsorption of nitroaromatic compounds such as 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) is of great importance, but the selective detection of trace DNT in water remains a challenge. Here, we report molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning using DNT as a template molecule and poly(allylamine) as a functional macromer. The physical and chemical properties of the nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the DNT adsorption and selectivity properties were also studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
June 22, 2018: Analyst
Li Sun, Rui-Yun Guo, Xiao-Dong Yang, Shuai Ma, Jie Zhang
A multiply photoactive compound has been developed based on quaternized 1,2-bis(4'-pyridyl)ethylene, which exhibits a hierarchical photoreaction by controlling light intensity. Weak ultraviolet light can effectively promote the cycloaddition reaction with fluorescence enhancement, while stronger ultraviolet light can stimulate a complex response of cycloaddition and electron-transfer which shows turn-off luminescence and coloration. Photofacilitated bleaching of the colored products has been observed for the first time in the pyridinium family...
June 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jin Zhou, Xiaoning Yang, Wei Liu, Chunlan Wang, Yuan Shen, Fengzhi Zhang, Huimin Zhu, Hongji Sun, Jiayun Chen, Johnny Lam, Antonios G Mikos, Changyong Wang
After myocardial infarction (MI), the scar tissue contributes to ventricular dysfunction by electrically uncoupling viable cardiomyocytes in the infarct region. Injection of a conductive hydrogel could not only provide mechanical support to the infarcted region, but also synchronize contraction and restore ventricular function by electrically connecting isolated cardiomyocytes to intact tissue. Methods: We created a conductive hydrogel by introducing graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles into oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogels...
2018: Theranostics
Farnaz Behroozi, Mohammad-Jafar Abdkhodaie, Hamid Sadeghi Abandansari, Leila Satarian, Mohammad Molazem, Khuloud T Al-Jamal, Hossein Baharvand
The oxidation-reduction (redox)-responsive micelle system is based on a diselenide-containing triblock copolymer, poly(ε-caprolactone)-bis(diselenide-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(ethylene glycol)-folate) [PCL-(SeSe-mPEG/PEG-FA)2 ]. This has helped in the development of tumor-targeted delivery for hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The diselenide bond, as a redox-sensitive linkage, was designed in such a manner that it is located at the hydrophilic-hydrophobic hinge to allow complete collapse of the micelle and thus efficient drug release in redox environments...
June 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Andreas V Copan, Alexander Yu Sokolov
We present a linear-response formulation of density cumulant theory (DCT) that provides a balanced and accurate description of many electronic states simultaneously. In the original DCT formulation, only information about a single electronic state (usually, the ground state) is obtained. We discuss the derivation of linear-response DCT, present its implementation for the ODC-12 method (LR-ODC-12), and benchmark its performance for excitation energies in small molecules (N2 , CO, HCN, HNC, C2 H2 , and H2 CO), as well as challenging excited states in ethylene, butadiene, and hexatriene...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Alisdair R Fernie, Saleh Alseekh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: New Phytologist
Martin Schmidt, Alina Romanovska, Youssef Wolf, Thanh-Duong Nguyen, Anna Krupp, Hannah Lea Tumbrink, Jonas Lategahn, Jan Volmer, Daniel Rauh, Stephen Luetz, Christian Krumm, Joerg C Tiller
The influence on the resistance formation of polymers attached to antibiotics is rarely investigated. In this study, ciprofloxacin (CIP) was conjugated to poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)s with an ethylene diamine end group (Me-PMOx28-EDA) via two different spacers (CIP modified with α,α´-dichloro-p-xylene - xCIP, CIP modified with chloroacetyl chloride - eCIP). The antibacterial activity of the conjugates against a number of bacterial strains shows a great dependence on the nature of the spacer. The Me-PMOx39-EDA-eCIP, containing a potentially cleavable linker, does not exhibit a molecular weight dependence on antibacterial activity in contrast to Me-PMOx27-EDA-xCIP...
June 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Koji Morita, Makoto Koizumi
2'-O,4'-C-Ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA) is a sugar-modified oligonucleotide with an ethylene bridge between the 2'-oxygen and 4'-carbon of ribose. ENA not only has as high binding affinity to complementary RNA as conventional bridged/locked nucleic acid, but also has much higher nuclease resistance in plasma, which makes it a promising candidate for antisense therapeutics. This unit presents detailed protocols for the synthesis and characterization of ENA nucleosides and oligonucleotides. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
James Sherwood
The popular solvent 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, also known as ethylene dichloride) was recently subject to regulatory controls in the European Union that will severely limit its commercial use.
June 21, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Haichao Duan, Yu Yang, Jianhua Lü, Changli Lü
Well-dispersed ultrafine palladium nanoparticles supported by reduced graphene oxide functionalized with catechol-terminated thermo-responsive block copolymer (PdNPs@BPrGO) were successfully constructed for highly efficient heterogeneous catalytic reduction. We first synthesized a novel temperature-responsive episulfide-containing double-hydrophilic diblock copolymer, poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-co-2,3-epithiopropyl methacrylate)-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (P(PEGMA-co-ETMA)-b-PNIPAM), through a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization utilizing a chain-transfer agent with a catechol unit as the end group...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Shi-Jin Chen, Dong Chen, Yu-Fang Shi, Jun Liu, Song Han, Wei Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of tetramethylpyrazine(TMP) nitrone in proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). METHODS: We separated and cultivated the original generation of NSCs from cerebral cortex of 14 days rat embryo, and the phenotype characteristics of the third-generation NSCs was tested by immunofluorescence. The experiment was divided into control group, β-mercaptoethanol positive control group, tetramethylpyrazine nitrone group and tetramethylpyrazine nitrone + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid(EGTA) group ( n =4)...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
C S Chang, C Y Yang, H Y Hsiao, L Chen, I M Chu, M H Cheng, C H Tsao
Tissue engineering has the potential to overcome the limitations of tracheal reconstruction. To tissue-engineer a tracheal cartilage, auricular chondrocytes were encapsulated in a photocurable poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG/PCL) hydrogel. Chondrogenic genes, including Sox9, Acan and Col2a1, were up-regulated in auricular chondrocytes after 2 weeks of in vitro cultivation in the PEG/PCL hydrogel. Co-cultivation of 70 % auricular chondrocytes and 30 % bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) accelerated the chondrogenic genes' expression in the PEG/PCL hydrogel...
June 21, 2018: European Cells & Materials
Lina Castano-Duque, Anjel Helms, Jared Gregory Ali, Dawn S Luthe
In this study we examined global changes in protein expression in both roots and leaves of maize plants attacked by the root herbivore, Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). The changes in protein expression Are indicative of metabolic changes during WCR feeding that enable the plant to defend itself. This is one of the first studies to look above- and below-ground at global protein expression patterns of maize plants grown in soil and infested with a root herbivore. We used advanced proteomic and network analyses to identify metabolic pathways that contribute to global defenses deployed by the insect resistant maize genotype, Mp708, infested with WCR...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Monasadat Talarimoghari, Gerhard Baaken, Ralf Hanselmann, Jan C Behrends
We use two pore-forming proteins, alpha-hemolysin and aerolysin, to compare the polymer size-dependence of ionic current block by two types of ethyleneglycol polymers: 1) linear and 2) 3-arm star poly(ethylene glycol), both applied as a polydisperse mixture of average mass 1kDa under high salt conditions. The results demonstrate that monomer size sensitivity, as known for linear PEGs, is conserved for the star polymers with only subtle differences in the dependence of the residual conductance on monomer number...
June 18, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
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