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Kun Liu, Yihao Li, Xuena Chen, Lijuan Li, Kai Liu, Heping Zhao, Yingdian Wang, Shengcheng Han
The phytohormones brassinosteroid (BR), auxin, and gibberellin (GA) regulate photomorphogenesis-related hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis via the cooperative interaction of BZR-ARF-PIF/DELLA (BAP/D) transcription factors/regulators. Moreover, ethylene activates the PIF3 or ERF1 pathway through EIN3/EIL1 to balance hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis seedlings. However, how ethylene is coordinated with other phytohormones to ensure light-regulated hypocotyl growth remains elusive. Here, we found that hypocotyl cell elongation is regulated by a connection among ethylene, auxin, and BR signalling, which is mediated by interactions among ERF72, ARF6, and BZR1...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Miyuki Kusajima, Shuhei Shima, Moeka Fujita, Kiwamu Minamisawa, Fang-Sik Che, Hiromoto Yamakawa, Hideo Nakashita
A bacterial endophyte Azospirillum sp. B510 induces systemic disease resistance in the host without accompanying defense-related gene expression. To elucidate molecular mechanism of this induced systemic resistance (ISR), involvement of ethylene (ET) was examined using OsEIN2-knockdown mutant rice. Rice blast inoculation assay and gene expression analysis indicated that ET signaling is required for endophyte-mediated ISR in rice. ABBREVIATIONS: ACC: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; EIN2: ethylene-insensitive protein 2; ET: ethylene; ISR: induced systemic resistance; JA: jasmonic acid; RNAi: RNA interference; SA: salicylic acid; SAR: systemic acquired resistance...
May 30, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
You-Ping Xu, Lin-Hui Lv, Ya-Jing Xu, Juan Yang, Jia-Yi Cao, Xin-Zhong Cai
It has been reported in several pathosystems that disease resistance can vary in leaves at different stages. However, how general this leaf stage-associated resistance is, and the molecular mechanism(s) underlying it, remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of leaf stage on basal resistance, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and nonhost resistance, using eight pathosystems involving the hosts Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, and N. benthamiana and the pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Pseudomonas syringae pv...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Jeongsik Kim, Su Jin Park, Il Hwan Lee, Hyosub Chu, Christopher A Penfold, Jin Hee Kim, Vicky Buchanan-Wollaston, Hong Gil Nam, Hye Ryun Woo, Pyung Ok Lim
Leaf senescence involves degenerative but active biological processes that require balanced regulation of pro- and anti-senescing activities. Ethylene and cytokinin are major antagonistic regulatory hormones that control the timing and progression rate of leaf senescence. To identify the roles of these hormones in the regulation of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis, global gene expression profiles in detached leaves of the wild type, an ethylene-insensitive mutant (ein2/ore3), and a constitutive cytokinin response mutant (ahk3/ore12) were investigated during dark-induced leaf senescence...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Raquel Salvador-Guirao, Yue-Ie Hsing, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs acting as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, most miRNAs are generated from independent transcriptional units, and only a few polycistronic miRNAs have been described. miR166 is a conserved miRNA in plants targeting the HD-ZIP III transcription factor genes. Here, we show that a polycistronic miRNA comprising two miR166 family members, miR166k and miR166h, functions as a positive regulator of rice immunity. Rice plants with activated MIR166k-166h expression showed enhanced resistance to infection by the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Fusarium fujikuroi , the causal agents of the rice blast and bakanae disease, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Abdul Wakeel, Imran Ali, Sakila Upreti, Aziz Ullah, Bohan Liu, Ali Raza Khan, Linli Huang, Minjie Wu, Yinbo Gan
The hexavalent form of chromium [Cr(VI)], causes a major reduction in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The root is the first plant organ that interacts with Cr(VI) toxicity, which inhibits primary root elongation, but the underlying mechanisms of this inhibition remain elusive. In the current study, we investigate the possibility that Cr(VI) reduces primary root growth of Arabidopsis by modulating the cell cycle-related genes and that ethylene signaling contributes to this process. We show that Cr(VI) mediated inhibition of primary root elongation was alleviated by the ethylene perception and biosynthesis antagonists silver (Ag) and cobalt (Co) respectively...
March 2, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Dalibor Milić, Markus Dick, Daniel Mulnaes, Christopher Pfleger, Anna Kinnen, Holger Gohlke, Georg Groth
Synthetic peptides derived from ethylene-insensitive protein 2 (EIN2), a central regulator of ethylene signalling, were recently shown to delay fruit ripening by interrupting protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signalling pathway. Here, we show that the inhibitory peptide NOP-1 binds to the GAF domain of ETR1 - the prototype of the plant ethylene receptor family. Site-directed mutagenesis and computational studies reveal the peptide interaction site and a plausible molecular mechanism for the ripening inhibition...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Biao Ma, Yang Zhou, Hui Chen, Si-Jie He, Yi-Hua Huang, He Zhao, Xiang Lu, Wan-Ke Zhang, Jin-Huan Pang, Shou-Yi Chen, Jin-Song Zhang
The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. EIN2 is the central regulator of ethylene signaling, and its turnover is crucial for triggering ethylene responses. Here, we identified a stabilizer of OsEIN2 through analysis of the rice ethylene-response mutant mhz3. Loss-of-function mutations lead to ethylene insensitivity in etiolated rice seedlings. MHZ3 encodes a previously uncharacterized membrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ethylene induces MHZ3 gene and protein expression...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yanling Wang, Wenxiong Zou, Yan Xiao, Lina Cheng, Yudong Liu, Song Gao, Zihang Shi, Yun Jiang, Mingfang Qi, Tao Xu, Tianlai Li
Ethylene perception is regulated by receptors, and the downstream protein CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 is a key suppressor of ethylene signalling. The non-conserved tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) microRNA1917 (Sly-miR1917) mediates degradation of SlCTR4 splice variants (SlCTR4sv) but the molecular details of this pathway remain unknown. Sly-miR1917 and the targeted SlCTR4sv are ubiquitously expressed in all tomato organs. Overexpression of Sly-miR1917 enhances ethylene responses, including the triple response in etiolated seedlings, in the absence of ethylene, as well as epinastic petiole growth, accelerated pedicel abscission, and fruit ripening...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Fan Zhang, Likai Wang, Eun Esther Ko, Kevin Shao, Hong Qiao
Ethylene plays pleiotropic roles in plant growth, plant development, and stress responses. Although the effects of ethylene on plants are well documented, little is known about molecular-level events that result in transcriptional repression during the ethylene response. In this study, we found that two histone deacetylases, SRT1 and SRT2, interact with ENAP1, which associates with EIN2 in the nucleus. Genetic and transcriptome analyses revealed that SRT1 and SRT2 are required for negative regulation of certain ethylene-responsive genes...
January 2018: Plant Cell
Dugald Reid, Huijun Liu, Simon Kelly, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Terry Mun, Stig U Andersen, Guilhem Desbrosses, Jens Stougaard
Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene production increased as early as 6 hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription factors including CYCLOPS, NIN, and ERN1 were not required for this response...
February 2018: Plant Physiology
Haifei Chen, Quan Zhang, Hongmei Cai, Fangsen Xu
pH is an important factor regulating plant growth. Here, we found that rice was better adapted to low pH than alkaline conditions, as its growth was severely inhibited at high pH, with shorter root length and an extreme biomass reduction. Under alkaline stress, the expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis enzymes in rice roots was strongly induced by high pH and exogenous ethylene precursor ACC and ethylene overproduction in etol1-1 mutant aggravated the alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of rice growth, especially for the root elongation with decreased cell length in root apical regions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shune Wang, Ying Zheng, Chun Gu, Chan He, Mengying Yang, Xin Zhang, Jianhua Guo, Hongwei Zhao, Dongdong Niu
Bacillus cereus AR156 (AR156) is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium capable of inducing systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that, when applied to Arabidopsis leaves, AR156 acted similarly to flg22, a typical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), in initiating PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). AR156-elicited PTI responses included phosphorylation of MPK3 and MPK6, induction of the expression of defense-related genes PR1, FRK1, WRKY22, and WRKY29, production of reactive oxygen species, and callose deposition...
March 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Mareike Kessenbrock, Simone M Klein, Lena Müller, Mauricio Hunsche, Georg Noga, Georg Groth
Ethylene signaling is decisive for many plant developmental processes. Among these, control of senescence, abscission and fruit ripening are of fundamental relevance for global agriculture. Consequently, detailed knowledge of the signaling network along with the molecular processes of signal perception and transfer are expected to have high impact on future food production and agriculture. Recent advances in ethylene research have demonstrated that signaling of the plant hormone critically depends on the interaction of the ethylene receptor family with the NRAMP-like membrane protein ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2) at the ER membrane, phosphorylation-dependent proteolytic processing of ER-localized EIN2 and subsequent translocation of the cleaved EIN2 C-terminal polypeptide (EIN2-CEND) to the nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tamara Pecenková, Martin Janda, Jitka Ortmannová, Vladimíra Hajná, Zuzana Stehlíková, Viktor Žárský
Background and Aims: Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Methods: Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
Xiaoqing Li, Lin Chen, Brian G Forde, William J Davies
Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) is known to either stimulate or inhibit root growth, depending on its concentration. In this study, the roles of ethylene and auxin in this biphasic effect of ABA on root elongation were investigated using chemical inhibitors and mutants. Inhibitors of ethylene perception and biosynthesis and an auxin influx inhibitor were all found to block the inhibitory effect of high ABA concentrations, but not the stimulatory effect of low ABA concentrations. In addition, three ethylene-insensitive mutants (etr1-1, ein2-1, and ein3-1), two auxin influx mutants (aux1-7, aux1-T) and an auxin-insensitive mutant (iaa7/axr2-1) were all insensitive to the inhibitory effect of high ABA concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fan Zhang, Likai Wang, Bin Qi, Bo Zhao, Eun Esther Ko, Nathaniel D Riggan, Kevin Chin, Hong Qiao
Ethylene gas is essential for developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Although the membrane-bound protein EIN2 is critical for ethylene signaling, the mechanism by which the ethylene signal is transduced remains largely unknown. Here we show the levels of H3K14Ac and H3K23Ac are correlated with the levels of EIN2 protein and demonstrate EIN2 C terminus (EIN2-C) is sufficient to rescue the levels of H3K14/23Ac of ein2-5 at the target loci, using CRISPR/dCas9-EIN2-C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) and ChIP-reChIP-seq analyses revealed that EIN2-C associates with histone partially through an interaction with EIN2 nuclear-associated protein1 (ENAP1), which preferentially binds to the genome regions that are associated with actively expressed genes both with and without ethylene treatments...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
József Fodor, Evelin Kámán-Tóth, Tamás Dankó, Ildikó Schwarczinger, Zoltán Bozsó, Miklós Pogány
Nicotiana benthamiana is a valuable model organism in plant biology research. This report describes its extended applicability in the field of molecular plant pathology by introducing a nonbiotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora nicotianae that can be conveniently used under laboratory conditions, consistently induces a necrotic leaf spot disease on Nicotiana benthamiana, and is specialized on solanaceous plants. Our inoculation studies showed that C. nicotianae more effectively colonizes N. benthamiana than its conventional host, N...
January 2018: Phytopathology
Kusum Rana, Chhaya Atri, Mehak Gupta, Javed Akhatar, Prabhjodh S Sandhu, Nitin Kumar, Ravinder Jaswal, Martin J Barbetti, Surinder S Banga
Sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) is a major disease of Brassica oilseeds. As suitable donors to develop resistant cultivars are not available in crop Brassicas, we introgressed resistance from a wild Brassicaceae species, B. fruticulosa. We produced 206 B. juncea-B. fruticulosa introgression lines (ILs). These were assessed for pollen grain fertility, genome size variations and resistance responses to Sclerotinia following stem inoculations under disease-conducive conditions. Of these, 115 ILs showing normal fertility and genome size were selected for cytogenetic characterization using florescent genomic in situ hybridization (Fl-GISH)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Likai Wang, Fan Zhang, Siddharth Rode, Kevin K Chin, Eun Esther Ko, Jonghwan Kim, Vishwanath R Iyer, Hong Qiao
BACKGROUND: Histone acetylation and deacetylation are essential for gene regulation and have been implicated in the regulation of plant hormone responses. Many studies have indicated the role of histone acetylation in ethylene signaling; however, few studies have investigated how ethylene signaling regulates the genomic landscape of chromatin states. Recently, we found that ethylene can specifically elevate histone H3K14 acetylation and the non-canonical histone H3K23 acetylation in etiolated seedlings and the gene activation is positively associated with the elevation of H3K14Ac and H3K23Ac in response to ethylene...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
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