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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531132/effects-of-%C3%AE-carotene-and-its-cleavage-products-in-primary-pneumocyte-type-ii-cells
#1
Cornelia Haider, Franziska Ferk, Ekramije Bojaxhi, Giuseppe Martano, Hanno Stutz, Nikolaus Bresgen, Siegfried Knasmüller, Avdulla Alija, Peter M Eckl
β-Carotene has been shown to increase the risk of developing lung cancer in smokers and asbestos workers in two large scale trails, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) and the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Trial (ATBC). Based on this observation, it was proposed that genotoxic oxidative breakdown products may cause this effect. In support of this assumption, increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and chromosomal aberrations were found in primary hepatocyte cultures treated with a mixture of cleavage products (CPs) and the major product apo-8'carotenal...
May 21, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524814/genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-effects-in-exfoliated-buccal-and-nasal-cells-of-chromium-and-cobalt-exposed-electroplaters
#2
Georg Wultsch, Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Miroslav Mišík, Tahereh Setayesh, Monika Waldherr, Pavel Vodicka, Ludmila Vodickova, Siegfried Knasmüller
Results of a number of studies indicate that electroplaters have increased cancer risks as a consequence of exposure to genotoxic metals such as chromium (VI) and nickel. These effects may be due to induction of damage of the genetic material which plays a key role in the etiology of cancer, and it was found that workers in galvanization factories exhibited increased levels of DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic stability in workers of a bright plating factory who are exposed to chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515485/e-cigarettes-induce-toxicological-effects-that-can-raise-the-cancer-risk
#3
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annamaria Buschini, Mirca Lazzaretti, Laura Marchi, Vladimiro Cardenia, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Maura Lodovici, Caterina Cipriani, Antonello Lorenzini, Eleonora Croco, Silvia Marchionni, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria Della Croce, Andrea Vornoli, Annamaria Colacci, Monica Vaccari, Andrea Sapone, Moreno Paolini
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511592/cytotoxicity-mutagenicity-and-antimutagenicity-of-the-gentisic-acid-on-htc-cells
#4
Flavia Maria Lima Cavalcante, Igor Vivian Almeida, Elisângela Düsman, Mário Sérgio Mantovani, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
Gentisic acid (GA) exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic activities. This substance can be found in citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and peas. Considering that there are few studies in the literature on the toxicity of GA, the present work aimed to investigate its cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities on HTC cells. GA was diluted in culture medium at the final concentration of 0.08, 0.16, 0.8, 1.6, and 8 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue exclusion method, with methyl methanesulfonate and doxorubicin as positive controls, respectively...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511133/phorate-induced-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-differential-expression-of-p53-apaf-1-and-cat-genes-in-fish-channa-punctatus-bloch-1793
#5
Arun Ratn, Yashika Awasthi, Manoj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Renu Tripathi, Sunil P Trivedi
The present study was conducted to assess the in-vivo activities of certain molecular biomarkers under the impact of phorate exposure. Fish, Channa punctatus (35 ± 3.0 g; 14.5 ± 1.0 cm; Actinopterygii) were subjected to semi-static conditions having 5% (0.0375 mg/L for T1 group) and 10% of 96 h-LC50 (0.075 mg/L for T2 group) of phorate exposure for 15 and 30 d. The oxidative stress was assessed in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. DNA damage was measured as induction of micronuclei (MN) and consequent differential expression of apoptotic genes-tumor suppressor (p53), apoptotic peptidase activating factor-1 (apaf-1) and catalase (cat) in liver and kidney, two major sites of biotransformation in fish, were quantified...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490961/radiofrequency-radiations-induced-genotoxic-and-carcinogenic-effects-on-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-root-tip-cells
#6
Sadaf Tabasum Qureshi, Sajjad Ahmed Memon, Abdul Rasool Abassi, Mahboob Ali Sial, Farooque Ali Bughio
Present study was under taken to predict the possible DNA damages (genotoxicity) and carcinogenicity caused by radiofrequency radiations (RF) to living tissue. Dry seeds of chickpea were treated with GSM cell phone (900 MHz) and laptop (3.31 GHz) as RF source for 24 and 48 h. Untreated seeds were used as (0 h) negative control and Gamma rays (250 Gray) as positive control. Plant chromosomal aberration assay was used as genotoxicity marker. All the treatment of RF inhibits seed germination percentage. 48 h laptop treatment has the most negative effect as compared to untreated control...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486163/morphology-morphogenesis-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-pleurotricha-oligocirrata-nov-spec-ciliophora-spirotrichea-stylonychinae
#7
Mi-Hyun Park, Ji Hye Moon, Ki Nam Kim, Jae-Ho Jung
Pleurotricha oligocirrata nov. spec. was discovered in samples collected from a freshwater wetland in Korea and is described here based on its morphology, morphogenesis, and the nucleotide sequence of its nuclear small subunit ribosomal rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. In its genus, P. oligocirrata is the only species that possesses one right marginal cirral row. The morphology of P. oligocirrata is as follows: body size 98-148×47-72μm in protargol preparations, colourless and rigid body; contractile vacuole anterior of mid-body near left margin; cortical granules lacking; two macronuclear nodules with two micronuclei; undulating membranes in Oxytricha pattern; 50-62 adoral membranelles, 23-27 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri, one left and one right marginal cirral row; six or seven dorsal kineties, including dorsomarginal rows, with three caudal cirri...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486144/impacts-of-uvb-radiation-on-food-consumption-of-forest-specialist-tadpoles
#8
James Eduardo Lago Londero, Caroline Peripolli Dos Santos, Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, André Passaglia Schuch
Solar ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) is an important environmental stressor for amphibian populations due to its genotoxicity, especially in early developmental stages. Nonetheless, there is an absence of works focused on the UVB effects on tadpoles' food consumption efficiency. In this work, we investigated the effects of the exposure to a low environmental-simulated dose of UVB radiation on food consumption of tadpoles of the forest specialist Hypsiboas curupi [Hylidae, Anura] species. After UVB treatment tadpoles were divided and exposed to a visible light source or kept in the dark, in order to indirectly evaluate the efficiency of DNA repair performed by photolyases and nucleotide excision repair (NER), respectively...
May 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472753/chemical-toxicity-and-radioactivity-of-depleted-uranium-the-evidence-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#9
REVIEW
Adna Asic, Amina Kurtovic-Kozaric, Larisa Besic, Lejla Mehinovic, Azra Hasic, Mirza Kozaric, Mirsada Hukic, Damir Marjanovic
The main aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the current state of knowledge on chemical toxicity and radioactivity of depleted uranium (DU) and their effect on living systems and cell lines. This was done by presenting a summary of previous investigations conducted on different mammalian body systems and cell cultures in terms of potential changes caused by either chemical toxicity or radioactivity of DU. In addition, the authors aimed to point out the limitations of those studies and possible future directions...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472308/the-oecd-s-micronucleus-test-guideline-for-single-exposure-to-an-agent-and-the-genotox-kinetic-alternative
#10
Pedro Morales-Ramírez, Teresita Vallarino-Kelly, Virginia Leticia Cruz-Vallejo
The 'Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals' aims to identify whether a chemical is a genotoxic hazard, and these guidelines 'are periodically reviewed in the light of scientific progress, changing regulatory needs and animal welfare considerations'. OECD published a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test guideline for testing chemicals (1) that proposes: 'Animals are treated with the test chemical once…Samples of peripheral blood are taken at least twice (from the same group of animals), starting not earlier than 36 h after treatment, with appropriate intervals following the first sample, but not extending beyond 72 h'...
May 4, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464991/induction-of-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-damage-following-exposure-of-v79-cells-to-cadmium-chloride
#11
Jillian Gobrecht, Claire McDyre, James Comotto, Mindy Reynolds
Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal with many industrial and commercial uses resulting in widespread environmental pollution. Exposure to cadmium occurs occupationally, through tainted food, tobacco leaves, and the environment. Cadmium exposure has been linked to neurological and respiratory problems and cancer. Past studies have examined cytotoxicity, DNA damage, micronuclei formation, or mutagenesis individually, but no study has examined these endpoints together and correlated them with intracellular cadmium concentrations...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461331/sirtuin-2-mutations-in-human-cancers-impair-its-function-in-genome-maintenance
#12
PamelaSara E Head, Hui Zhang, Amanda J Bastien, Allyson E Koyen, Allison E Withers, Waaqo B Daddacha, Xiaodong Cheng, David S Yu
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a sirtuin family deacetylase, which maintains genome integrity and prevents tumorigenesis. While Sirt2 deficiency in mice leads to tumorigenesis, the functional significance of somatic SIRT2 mutations in human tumors is unclear. Using structural insight combined with bioinformatic and functional analyses, we show that naturally occurring cancer-associated SIRT2 mutations at evolutionarily conserved sites disrupt its deacetylation of DNA-damage response proteins by impairing SIRT2 catalytic activity or protein levels but not its localization or binding with substrate...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460157/wancura-et%C3%A2-al-nuclear-features-of-blepharisma-americanum-nuclear-features-of-the-heterotrich-ciliate-blepharisma-americanum-genomic-amplification-life-cycle-and-nuclear-inclusion
#13
Megan M Wancura, Ying Yan, Laura A Katz, Xyrus X Maurer-Alcalá
Blepharisma americanum, a member of the understudied ciliate class Heterotrichea, has a moniliform somatic macronucleus that resembles beads on a string. B. americanum is distinguishable by its pink coloration derived from the autofluorescent pigment blepharismin and tends to have a single somatic macronucleus with 3-6 nodes and multiple germline micronuclei. We used fluorescence confocal microscopy to explore the DNA content and amplification between the somatic and germline nuclei of B. americanum through its life cycle...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456919/genotoxic-risk-assessment-in-professionals-working-hairdressers-area-using-buccal-micronucleus-assay-in-ayd%C3%A4-n-city-turkey
#14
Özlem Sultan Aslantürk, Tülay Aşkin Çelik
The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxic risk of professional hairdressers in Aydın City, Turkey, through investigating the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells. All the hairdresser working hairdresser area were included in the genotoxic risk group (GRG = 20) in Aydın City, Turkey. The control group (CG = 20) comprised healthy individuals matching the gender and age of the GRG. Buccal mucosal scraping from all the 40 subjects of GRG (10 women and 10 men) and CG (10 women and 10 men) was stained with Giemsa stain and observed under light microscope (×40) for the presence of micronuclei (M 10 N) and karyolysis, pyknosis, condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis, nuclear bud, and binucleates in the exfoliated epithelial cells...
April 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449966/environmental-concentrations-of-cocaine-and-its-main-metabolites-modulated-antioxidant-response-and-caused-cyto-genotoxic-effects-in-zebrafish-embryo-cells
#15
Marco Parolini, Anna Ghilardi, Camilla Della Torre, Stefano Magni, Laura Prosperi, Matteo Calvagno, Luca Del Giacco, Andrea Binelli
Illicit drugs have been recently identified as a serious environmental problem because of the growing evidence regarding their occurrence in aquatic environment and potential toxicity towards non-target organisms. Among them, cocaine (COC) and its main metabolites, namely benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), are commonly measured in freshwaters worldwide at levels that might cause diverse sub-lethal effects to aquatic organisms. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the potential adverse effects induced by the exposure to environmental concentrations (0...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446146/flow-cytometry-sorting-of-nuclei-enables-the-first-global-characterization-of-paramecium-germline-dna-and-transposable-elements
#16
Frédéric Guérin, Olivier Arnaiz, Nicole Boggetto, Cyril Denby Wilkes, Eric Meyer, Linda Sperling, Sandra Duharcourt
BACKGROUND: DNA elimination is developmentally programmed in a wide variety of eukaryotes, including unicellular ciliates, and leads to the generation of distinct germline and somatic genomes. The ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia harbors two types of nuclei with different functions and genome structures. The transcriptionally inactive micronucleus contains the complete germline genome, while the somatic macronucleus contains a reduced genome streamlined for gene expression. During development of the somatic macronucleus, the germline genome undergoes massive and reproducible DNA elimination events...
April 26, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444994/induction-of-micronuclei-and-cell-cycle-arrest-by-some-tri-and-tetrachlorobiphenyls-in-mammalian-cells-deficient-in-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes
#17
Haiyan Wang, Liwen Wei, Yifan Wu, Hansi Jia, Hao Jiang, Yungang Liu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with continued public health concerns. The lower chlorinated biphenyls are supposed to be mutagenic following metabolic activation. However, in a preliminary study, we recently observed induction of micronuclei by several PCBs in a subclone of Chinese hamster V79 cell line, V79-Mz, which is deficient in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities. In this study, metabolism-free genotoxicity of PCBs was investigated, using 10 tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls, in V79, V79-Mz, and human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines...
May 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443688/use-of-c-banding-for-identifying-radiation-induced-micronuclei
#18
S C de Lima, A Amaral, T de Salazar E Fernandes
Differentiation of micronuclei (MN) caused by ionizing radiation from those caused by chemicals is a crucial step for managing treatment of individuals exposed to radiation. MN in binucleated lymphocytes in peripheral blood are widely used as biomarkers for estimating dose of radiation, but they are not specific for ionizing radiation. MN induced by ionizing radiation originate predominantly as a result of chromosome breaks (clastogenic action), whereas MN caused by chemical agents are derived from the loss of entire chromosomes (aneugenic action)...
April 26, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441888/doxorubicin-induced-female-reproductive-toxicity-an-assessment-of-ovarian-follicular-apoptosis-cyclicity-and-reproductive-tissue-histology-in-wistar-rats
#19
Kumari Nishi, Vinoth Prasanna Gunasekaran, Jaganath Arunachalam, Mathan Ganeshan
Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for various cancers, particularly for the female breast cancer patients. Although the rate of young female cancer patients is increasing every year, conversely the lack of knowledge of adverse effects of doxorubicin on female reproductive system insisted us to assess the toxic effects of doxorubicin on the female reproductive tissue histoarchitecture, cyclicity, and mammary glands in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two groups depending on the treatment period, i...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440063/micronuclei-and-nuclear-buds-highlighting-overlooked-indicators-of-chromosomal-damage-in-thyroid-aspiration-smears
#20
Tuba Dilay Kokenek-Unal, Ipek Coban
BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the diagnostic utility of micronuclei (MN) and nuclear buds (NBs) in aspiration smears of the well-differentiated epithelial lesions of thyroid. METHODS: One hundred five cases composed of 34 follicular nodular disease (FND), 31 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and 40 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were compiled retrospectively. May- Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) stained smears of each case were selected to count cells with nuclear protrusions (NPs) per 1000 cells...
April 24, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
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