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Qiyue Xia, Hongxia Li, Ying Liu, Kai Xiao
Despite the increasing biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), their toxicological effects need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of commercially available AuNPs with varying size (5 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm) were assessed using a battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. In the comet assay, 20 nm and 50 nm AuNPs did not induce obvious DNA damage in HepG2 cells at the tested concentrations, whereas 5 nm NPs induced a dose-dependent increment in DNA damage after 24 h exposure...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Natália Helen Ferreira, Kelly Jacqueline Barbosa de Andrade, Luís Fernando Leandro, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Suzana Amorim Mendes, Lucas Silva Cintra, Ana Helena Januário, Denise Crispim Tavares
The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Schefflera vinosa (SV), a plant with schistosomicidal activity, as well as its influence on DNA damage induced by different mutagens, methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in V79 cells and Swiss mice. Schefflera vinosa extract produced cytotoxicity at concentrations of 312.5 µg/ml or higher using the XTT cell proliferation assay kit. Treatment of V79 cell cultures with the highest SV concentration tested (150 µg/ml) significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei (MN) compared to controls...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Lucía N Biruk, Juan Moretton, Alicia Fabrizio de Iorio, Cristian Weigandt, Jimena Etcheverry, Javier Filippetto, Anahí Magdaleno
The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of chemical extraction associated with the detection of toxicity and genotoxicity in sediment sample extracts. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), together with a battery of four bioassays, was performed in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of inorganic and organic toxicants. The extracts were carried out using two inorganic solvents, two organic solvents and two extraction methodologies, making a total of five extracts...
October 17, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Meysam Khosravifarsani, Ali Shabestani Monfared, Sajad Borzoueisileh
INTRODUCTION: Radiosensitivity is an inherent trait, associated with a raised reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. In radiotherapy and radiation protection fields, individualization of the patient's treatment is one of the main topics. With the goal of determining biomarkers capable of anticipating normal tissue side reactions, we studied the association between the Rh factor and radiosensitivity. METHODS: This experimental study was carried out from January to June 2014 among 50 normal responders with A blood group (25Rh+ and 25Rh-) between the ages of 22 and 23 in Babol, Iran...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Srilekha Namala, Vijay Srinivas Guduru, Anuradha Ananthaneni, Sabitha Devi, Puneeth Horrati Kuberappa, Urmila Udayashankar
BACKGROUND: Micronuclei (MN) in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading...
July 2016: Journal of Cytology
Jingyi Dong, Xiaoteng Lu, Chen Shao, Jie Huang, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid
The morphology and morphogenesis of a new saline soil hypotrich, Lamtostyla salina n. sp., collected from Longfeng Wetland in Daqing, north China, were studied based on live observations and protargol stained specimens. The new species is characterized as follows: body very flexible but not contractile, lanceolate with anterior end broadly rounded, widest at about 1/3 of body length, posterior end narrowly rounded; cortical granules colourless and scattered; amphisiellid median cirral row ends ahead of mid-body, composed of 5-13 cirri; 4-20 frontoventral cirri arranged in 2-4 rows; three frontal, one buccal and 2-6 transverse cirri; usually one left and one right marginal row, composed of 17-51 and 20-51 cirri respectively; usually two dorsal kineties; two macronuclear nodules and two micronuclei...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Leanne Stannard, Shareen H Doak, Ann Doherty, Gareth J Jenkins
Humans are exposed to carcinogens through air, water, food and tobacco smoke. Nickel chloride (NiCl2 ) is a toxic and carcinogenic environmental and occupational pollutant, which was previously classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen, and thought to not directly alter the DNA. Non-genotoxic carcinogens like NiCl2 are difficult to detect in vitro, hence a heavy reliance on animal studies exists. NiCl2 has previously been classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen (NGTC); however, after studying the effect of NiCl2 on many mechanistic endpoints, it has become clear that NiCl2 behaves more like a genotoxic carcinogen...
October 17, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Dakai Bian, Jason C Tsui, Mikhail Repin, Guy Garty, Helen Turner, Y Lawrence Yao, David J Brenner
Due to the need of high-speed and efficient biodosimetric assays for triage and therapy in the event of radiological or nuclear attack, a robotically based automated biodosimetry tool (RABiT) has been developed over the past few years. Adapting the micronucleus assay from filter plates to V-shaped plates presented challenges in the liquid handling, namely, cell splashing out of the V-shaped well plate during the cell harvesting, poor cell distribution on the bottom of the image plate during the dispensing, and cell loss from the image plate during the aspiration in the liquid handling process...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Devices
Mojgan Najafzadeh, Charmaine Normington, Badie K Jacob, Mohammad Isreb, Rajendran C Gopalan, Diana Anderson
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e., bulk (B) or nano-suspension (N) of aspirin (ASP) or ibuprofen (IBU) up to 500 μg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 μg/ml in the micronucleus assay...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Luís Fernando Amato-Lourenco, Debora Jã A Lobo, Eliane T Guimarães, Tiana Carla Lopes Moreira, Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira, Mitiko Saiki, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Thais Mauad
Urban gardening is a growing global phenomenon with a positive impact on society. Despite several associated benefits, growing vegetables in urban gardens that are localized in highly polluted areas poses questions about the safety of the produced food. Therefore, the identification of risk factors that result in possible deleterious effects to human health is important for realizing all of the benefits to society. We evaluated the use of two biomonitoring methods in ten urban gardens of Sao Paulo city and one control site: the micronuclei frequencies for early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt...
October 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sabzar Ahmad Dar, Abdul Rehman Yousuf, Masood-Ul-Hassan Balkhi, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Mudasir Tantry, Farooz Ahmad Bhat
CONTEXT: Medicinal plants continue to act as a repository for novel drug leads with novel mechanisms of action. Podophyllum hexandrum Royale (Berberideceae) treats diverse conditions in folk medicine. OBJECTIVE: The antimutagenic potential of P. hexandrum was evaluated against endosulfan-induced clastogenicity in a piscine model by cytogenetic endpoints. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Podophyllum hexandrum rhizomes were subjected to successive solvent extraction...
October 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yoo Hong Min, Wootae Kim, Ja-Eun Kim
Mitotic progression is crucial for the maintenance of chromosomal stability. A proper progression is ensured by the activities of multiple kinases. One of these enzymes, the serine/threonine kinase Aurora A, is required for proper mitosis through the regulation of centrosome and spindle assembly. In this study, we functionally characterized a newly developed Aurora kinase A inhibitor, TC-A2317. In human lung cancer cells, TC-A2317 slowed proliferation by causing aberrant formation of centrosome and microtubule spindles and prolonging the duration of mitosis...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Yongjun Liu, Jing Liu, Aining Zhang, Zhe Liu
The removal effects of main toxic organic pollutants in semi-coking wastewater by combined treatment process were investigated, while the genotoxicity relevance of wastewater from different treatment units were monitored by using Vicia faba bioassays. Results showed that 37 kinds of toxic organic pollutants were detected in the crude sewage, most of them were removed by physicochemical pretreatment, and the total concentration of organic pollutants decreased from 4826 mg L(-1) to 546 mg L(-1). After pretreatment, benzenes, phenols, quinolines and indoles in the wastewater were mainly removed by anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation, but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were removed mainly by advanced treatment, total concentration of toxic organic pollutants was lower than 0...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Alexandre Endres Marcon, Julio Alejandro Navoni, Marcos Felipe de Oliveira Galvão, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares Garcia, Viviane Souza do Amaral, Reinaldo Antônio Petta, Thomas Ferreira da Costa Campos, Renata Panosso, Antônio Luiz Quinelato, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros
Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay...
October 2, 2016: Chemosphere
Henriqueta Louro, Mariana Pinhão, Joana Santos, Ana Tavares, Nádia Vital, Maria João Silva
To contribute with scientific evidence to the grouping strategy for the safety assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), this work describes the investigation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of four benchmark MWCNTs in relation to their physicochemical characteristics, using two types of human respiratory cells. The cytotoxic effects were analysed using the clonogenic assay and replication index determination. A 48h-exposure of cells revealed that NM-401 was the only cytotoxic MWCNT in both cell lines, but after 8-days exposure, the clonogenic assay in A549 cells showed cytotoxic effects for all the tested MWCNTs...
October 1, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Jie Fu, Mengmeng Jiang, Meng Zhang, Jing Zhang, Yu Wang, Shensi Xiang, Xiaojie Xu, Qinong Ye, Haifeng Song
The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is an important factor in tumor radiation therapy because it may increase the probability of normal cellular injury and the likelihood of secondary cancers after radiotherapy. Here, we identified the role of miR-495 in alleviating RIBEs during radiotherapy. Luciferase reporter assay results confirmed that miR-495 regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by targeting the Sp1 3'-untranslated region. Consequently, after radiation, tumor cells expressed less eNOS and Sp1 than controls...
October 3, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Jia You, Jia Liu, Yantao Bao, Liqun Wang, Yang Yu, Lei Wang, Di Wu, Chang Liu, Nan Wang, Fei Wang, Falin Wang, Lu Xu, Xing Tian, Hongbin Liang, Yating Gao, Rongwei Guan, Jing Bai, Xiangning Meng, Wenjing Sun, Xin-Yuan Guan, Chunyu Zhang, Songbin Fu, Yan Jin
Previous studies have shown that the oncogene SEI1 is highly expressed in ovarian carcinomas, and promoting genomic instability. However, the molecular mechanism of SEI1 in promoting genomic instability remains unclear. We observed SEI1 overexpression in 30 of 46 cases of ovarian cancer compared to non-tumor tissues and the overexpression of SEI1 was positively associated with the tumor FIGO stage. Our functional studies revealed that overexpression of SEI1 could induce genomic instability and increased DNA strand breaks...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Letters
Nandana Das, Allan Giri, Sayan Chakraborty, Pritha Bhattacharjee
Long term consumption of arsenic contaminated water causes a number of dermatological and non-dermatological health problems and cancer. In a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) on Bangladesh population, a significant association of asingle nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the C10orf32 region (rs 9527; G>A) with urinary metabolites and arsenic induced skin lesions was reported. This study aims to evaluate the association of the C10orf32 G to A polymorphism (rs9527), concerned with As3MT read-through transcription, with the development of arsenic induced skin lesions in the arsenic exposed individuals of West Bengal, India...
October 2016: Mutation Research
Mohsen Cheki, Alireza Shirazi, Aziz Mahmoudzadeh, Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the radioprotective effect of metformin was investigated against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Human lymphocytes were treated with metformin at concentrations 10 and 50μM for 2h and irradiated with 6MV X-rays. The radiation antagonistic potential of metformin was assessed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiaozolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide] assay, chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis, cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay, and flow cytometry...
October 2016: Mutation Research
Arnoldo A M Quero, Daniela M Ferré, Agustín Zarco, Pablo F Cuervo, Nora B M Gorla
Birds have the potential to be considered valuable bioindicators of the quality of ecosystems and the environmental impact of pollutants. The aims of this study were to determine the micronuclei frequency and other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes by analyzing a wild bird community from central Monte desert (Argentina) and to clarify if there were any differences among certain species. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities were determined in 73 wild birds belonging to 17 species and two orders (Passeriformes and Columbiformes)...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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