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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218683/antimutagenic-activity-of-ethanol-extract-of-rhaphidophora-pinnata-l-f-schott-leaves-on-mice
#1
Masfria, Sumaiyah, Aminah Dalimunthe
Rhaphidophora pinnata is suggested to prevent or treat cancer of genetic mutations. In this study, antimutagenic activity of an ethanol extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata leaves was evaluated by using a bone marrow micronucleus assay on mice. Male mice (20-30 g) were treated for sevendays with an ethanol extract of Rhaphidophora pinnata leaves at a dose of 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg/day/orally, prior to exposure to cyclophosphamide (i.p. 30 mg/kg), 24 h after the end of the treatment. Antimutagenic activity was determined by the decrease of micronuclei (MN)...
February 17, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216169/cytogenotoxicological-defense-of-retinyl-palmitate-in-the-front-damage-of-antineoplastics
#2
Ricardo Melo de Carvalho, Rai Pablo de Sousa Aguiar, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Marcus Vinicius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Antonio Lima Braga, Josemar José da Silva Júnior, Leonardo da Rocha Sousa, Rosália Maria Tôrres de Lima, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Cancer, the multifactorial pathology and to date is the most lethal causes of death in the world. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and doxorubicin (DOX) are the individually or combindly used two anticancer drugs. The antineoplastic drugs-mediated genetic instability can be overcome by using antioxidants. The study evaluated the cytogenotoxic modulatory potentials of retinyl palmitate (RP) caused by CPA and DOX in Swiss mice. For this, adult Mus musculus of either sex were divided equally regarding to the gender. Toxicogenetic effects were induced by the intraperitoneal (i...
February 16, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215813/a-comparative-approach-using-biomarkers-in-feral-and-caged-neotropical-fish-implications-for-biomonitoring-freshwater-ecosystems-in-agricultural-areas
#3
Carlos Eduardo Delfino Vieira, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Liziara Costa Cabrera, Ednei Gilberto Primel, Gilberto Fillmann, Adalto Bianchini, Claudia Bueno Dos Reis Martinez
The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of biomarkers in feral and caged fish and the capacity of these biomarkers to discriminate contamination levels along a stream located in an agricultural area in Southern Brazil. Specimens of the Neotropical fish, Astyanax altiparanae, were confined for 168h in three lakes along the stream. Additionally, during the weeks of in situ exposure, wild specimens of this species were collected from the same sites. Biochemical biomarkers were analyzed, such as phase I biotransformation enzyme 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase, and we also determined hepatic and branchial levels of non-protein thiols (NPSH), oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in muscle and brain...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211323/evaluation-the-urban-atmospheric-conditions-in-different-cities-using-comet-and-micronuclei-assay-in-tradescantia-pallida
#4
Juliana Caroline Vivian Sposito, Bruno do Amaral Crispim, Amanda Izadora Romãn, Rosilda Mara Mussury, Joelson Gonçalves Pereira, Leonardo Oliveira Seno, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
In the present study, genotoxicity and mutagenicity were investigated in Tradescantia pallida exposed to vehicular traffic at different sites in a high-altitude tropical climate. During March, May, July, September, and November 2014, a comet assay and micronucleus bioassays were conducted on young inflorescences and leaves of T. pallida collected from twelve towns in the southern region of Mato Grosso do Sul with different amounts of vehicular traffic. Weather parameters (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) were measured and vehicles were counted to determine traffic levels in each town...
February 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195382/contribution-of-atm-and-atr-kinase-pathways-to-p53-mediated-response-in-etoposide-and-methyl-methanesulfonate-induced-dna-damage
#5
Bin Sun, Susan M Ross, Sean Rowley, Yeyejide Adeleye, Rebecca A Clewell
p53 is a key integrator of cellular response to DNA damage, supporting post-translational repair and driving transcription-mediated responses including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and repair. DNA damage sensing kinases recognize different types of DNA damage and initiate specific responses through various post-translational modifications of p53. This study evaluated chemical specificity of the p53 pathway response by manipulating p53 or its upstream kinases and assessing the effect on DNA damage and cellular responses to prototype chemicals: etoposide (ETP, topoisomerase II inhibitor) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, alkylating agent)...
February 14, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187758/photodynamic-therapy-combined-to-cisplatin-potentiates-cell-death-responses-of-cervical-cancer-cells
#6
Laura Marise de Freitas, Rodolfo Bortolozo Serafim, Juliana Ferreira de Sousa, Thaís Fernanda Moreira, Cláudia Tavares Dos Santos, Amanda Martins Baviera, Valeria Valente, Christiane Pienna Soares, Carla Raquel Fontana
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has proven to be a promising alternative to current cancer treatments, especially if combined with conventional approaches. The technique is based on the administration of a non-toxic photosensitizing agent to the patient with subsequent localized exposure to a light source of a specific wavelength, resulting in a cytotoxic response to oxidative damage. The present study intended to evaluate in vitro the type of induced death and the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of PDT alone and associated with cisplatin...
February 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186195/cenp-a-chromatin-disassembly-in-stressed-and-senescent-murine-cells
#7
Sabrine Hédouin, Giacomo Grillo, Ivana Ivkovic, Guillaume Velasco, Claire Francastel
Centromeres are chromosomal domains essential for genomic stability. We report here the remarkable transcriptional and epigenetic perturbations at murine centromeres in genotoxic stress conditions. A strong and selective transcriptional activation of centromeric repeats is detected within hours. This is followed by disorganization of centromeres with striking delocalization of nucleosomal CENP-A, the key determinant of centromere identity and function, in a mechanism requiring active transcription of centromeric repeats, the DNA Damage Response (DDR) effector ATM and chromatin remodelers/histone chaperones...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185655/oxidative-stress-and-genotoxicity-biomarker-responses-in-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-exposed-to-environmental-concentration-of-1-nitropyrene
#8
Eugene T Bacolod, Seiichi Uno, Shiela S Villamor, Jiro Koyama
The present study aimed to assess whether environmental 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) concentration will induce genotoxicity and oxidative damages in tilapia, lives in estuarine and brackish water. Tilapia were exposed to waterborne 1-NP. Cellular antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase and oxidative damage, i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein and DNA oxidation were used as biomarkers of oxidative stress, while the micronucleus test was used for evaluation of chromosomal damage and was used as an indication of genotoxicity...
February 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183058/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-investigation-of-the-genotoxic-potential-of-waters-from-rivers-under-the-influence-of-a-petroleum-refinery-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#9
Raquel Vaz Hara, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales
In recent years concern about the chemical composition of wastewater generated by the oil refining industry has increased, even after its treatment. These wastewaters contain substances that can harm both the entire aquatic ecosystem and the health of any exposed organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of the effluent generated by the largest Brazilian petroleum refinery, the effectiveness of the treatments used by the refinery, and whether its effluent can compromise the water quality of the river where it is discarded...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179341/cytogenetic-biomonitoring-in-buccal-mucosal-cells-from-municipal-solid-waste-collectors
#10
Mariana Carvalho Andrade, Jean Nunes Dos Santos, Patricia Ramos Cury, Ana Carolina Correa Flygare, Samuel Rangel Claudio, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima, Daniel Araki Ribeiro
Waste collectors collect, transport, and process the garbage produced by people living in the city. Nowadays, this activity requires special attention due to the environmental impact of garbage and its potential consequences on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of garbage collection on waste collectors. For this purpose, a total of 47 male waste collectors aged from 24 to 53 years were included in the experimental group. A total of 30 men matched by age were used as the control group...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178864/clastogenic-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-human-cultured-lymphocytes
#11
A Santovito, E Cannarsa, D Schleicherova, P Cervella
Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is ubiquitously present in the environment, mostly in aquatic environments, with consequent risks to the health of aquatic organisms and humans. In the present study, we analysed the cytogenetic effects of bisphenol A on human lymphocytes using in vitro chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei assays. Lymphocyte cultures were exposed to five different concentrations of BP-A (0.20, 0.10, 0...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177753/histone-h3-3-regulates-mitotic-progression-in-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts
#12
Aysegul Ors, Christophe Papin, Bertrand Favier, Yohan Roulland, Defne Dalkara, Mehmet Ozturk, ALi Hamiche, Stefan Dimitrov, Kiran Padmanabhan
H3.3 is a histone variant, which marks transcription start sites as well as telomeres and heterochromatic sites on the genome. H3.3 presence is thought to positively correlate with transcriptional status of its target genes. Using a conditional genetic strategy against H3.3B combined with short hairpin RNAs against H3.3A, we essentially depleted all H3.3 gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Following nearly complete loss of H3.3 in cells, our transcriptomic analyses show very little impact on global gene expression as well as on histone variant H2A...
February 1, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169251/levels-of-salivary-thiocyanate-and-its-relation-with-occurrence-of-micronuclei-using-exfoliative-cytology-in-smokers-and-nonsmokers
#13
Prachi Shrigopal Baldawa, Venkatesh V Kulkarni, Ajit V Koshy, Sabeer S Shaikh, Rucha Varu, Garima Srivastava
AIMS: To evaluate the levels of salivary thiocyanate and its relation with the occurrence of micronuclei (MN) using exfoliative cytology in smokers and nonsmokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients were divided into 3 groups: nonsmoker group 1 (control), smokers group 2, and smokers group 3. Their saliva was collected and analyzed for thiocyanate levels, and exfoliative cytology was evaluated for the presence of MN. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Fisher's exact test and ANOVA test were used...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150817/association-of-genomic-instability-with-hba1c-levels-and-medication-in-diabetic-patients
#14
Annemarie Grindel, Helmut Brath, Armen Nersesyan, Siegfried Knasmueller, Karl-Heinz Wagner
Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) is associated with increased cancer risk. Instability of the genetic material plays a key role in the aetiology of human cancer. This study aimed to analyse genomic instability with the micronucleus cytome assay in exfoliated buccal cells depending on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and medication in 146 female DM2 patients. The occurrence of micronuclei was significantly increased in DM2 patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, it was doubled in DM2 patients with HbA1c > 7...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144871/activity-of-the-endophytic-fungi-phlebia-sp-and-paecilomyces-formosus-in-decolourisation-and-the-reduction-of-reactive-dyes-cytotoxicity-in-fish-erythrocytes
#15
Lígia Maria Crubelati Bulla, Julio Cesar Polonio, Ana Luiza de Brito Portela-Castro, Vanessa Kava, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
The current study investigates the potential for discolouration and degradation of Reactive Blue 19 and Reactive Black 5 textile dyes by endophytic fungi Phlebia sp. and Paecilomyces formosus as well as the potential cytotoxicity of products or by-products generated by the treatments in fish erythrocytes. It was observed at 30 days that both endophytes showed biodegradation activity with 0.1 g mL(-1) of dyes. P. formosus showed highest extracellular and intracellular protein content levels after the 15th day, and Phlebia sp...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138185/cytogenetic-damage-in-the-buccal-cells-of-photocopying-workers-in-lahore-pakistan
#16
Houda Javed, Nadia Ghani
OBJECTIVE: To assess the genotoxic effects associated with workers in relation to the emissions at photocopying centres. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted at the Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan, from August to November 2015, and comprised photocopying operators and controls. Micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in exfoliated buccal cells were analysed. A structured questionnaire was designed and interviews were conducted face-to-face...
February 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137367/genomic-health-status-assessed-by-a-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-in-a-healthy-middle-aged-korean-population
#17
Nan Young Cho, Kyung Woon Kim, Kyoung Kon Kim
The aim of this study was to determine the typical incidence of micronuclei (MNi) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy middle-aged Koreans using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Non-smoking, low-risk alcohol-drinking healthy Korean men and women aged 30 to 59 years were recruited. Participants were divided into three groups according to age, i.e., 30 to 39, 40 to 49, and 50 to 59 years. Fifty participants were included in each age group, for a total of 300 participants. DNA damage was measured based on the number of binucleated (BN) cells with MNi, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), and nuclear buds (NBUDs) using the CBMN-Cyt assay...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137364/nucleoplasmic-bridges-as-a-biomarker-of-dna-damage-exposed-to-radon
#18
C Meenakshi, K Sivasubramanian, B Venkatraman
Radon is a naturally occurring radionuclide in the environment, during decay it emits high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha particles. When radon exposure is accompanied by smoking it has been reported that lung cancer risk is higher. Blood samples were collected after prior consent, 25 smokers and 25 non smokers (only males) exposed in vitro to radon gas with doses ranging between 0.3-12.6mGy Ionizing radiation is a strong clastogenic agent and a potent inducer of MN. Cytokinesis-Blocked Micro Nucleus (CBMN) assay has proven to be a reliable, thoroughly validated and standardised technique in the field of radiation biology...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137363/assessment-of-the-genotoxicity-of-the-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-imatinib-mesylate-in-cultured-fish-and-human-cells
#19
Matjaž Novak, Bojana Žegura, Jana Nunić, Goran Gajski, Marko Gerić, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Metka Filipič
The selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM) is a widely used anticancer drug. Recent studies showing that IM can induce DNA and chromosomal damage in crustaceans and higher plants prompted us to re-examine its potential genotoxicity. IM was not mutagenic in the Ames assay (Salmonella typhimurium). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in vitro in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver (ZFL), human hepatoma (HepG2), and human peripheral blood lymphocyte (HPBL) cells. Genotoxicity was determined with the comet assay and with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132579/genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-passive-smoking-and-urban-air-pollutants-in-buccal-mucosa-cells-of-children-enrolled-in-public-school
#20
Deborah Navit de Carvalho Cavalcante, Juliana Caroline Vivian Sposito, Bruno do Amaral Crispim, André Vieira do Nascimento, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
Nuclear abnormalities (micronuclei and meta-nuclear changes) have been used as biomarkers to identify cell damages. As children are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of pollution in relation to adults, assessing genetic damage caused by environmental influences is of great interest. As such, the objective was to determine metanuclear (karyolysis, pycnosis, karyorrhexis, binucleated cells, chromosome bridges, and micronuclei) in cells from the oral mucosa of children associated with the school environment, gender, exposure to cigarette smoke and vehicular traffic...
January 29, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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