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D Bazyka, S C Finch, I M Ilienko, O Lyaskivska, I Dyagil, N Trotsiuk, N Gudzenko, V V Chumak, K M Walsh, J Wiemels, M P Little, L B Zablotska
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen. Chromosome aberrations, and in particular micronuclei represent an early biological predictor of cancer risk. There are well-documented associations of micronuclei with ionizing radiation dose in some radiation-exposed groups, although not all. That associations are not seen in all radiation-exposed groups may be because cells with micronuclei will not generally pass through mitosis, so that radiation-induced micronuclei decay, generally within a few years after exposure...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Emran Habibi, Mona Modanloo
Aim Rosa damascene Mill. belongs to the family of Roseaceae and its essential oil is produced in large amounts in Iran. The wide application of rose oil has raised questions about potential adverse health effects. We have investigated cytotoxic activity and genotoxic effects of Rosa oil from Kashan, Iran. Methods The cytotoxic effect and IC50 of the essential oil on the cell lines was studied followed by MTT assay. In this assay mitochondrial oxidoreductase enzymes with reducing the tetrazolium dye MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reflect the number of viable cells...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
J Dai, L Z Leng, C F Lu, F Gong, S P Zhang, W Zheng, G X Lu, G Lin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause of repeated multipronucleus (MPN) formation in zygotes in a patient after both in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). METHOD: This is a case study. A patient had unexplained primary infertility with recurring total MPN zygotes after IVF and ICSI cycles. Time-lapse monitoring of pronucleus formation was carried out. Embryos developed from MPN zygotes were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Ali Zekri, Yashar Mesbahi, Samad Ghanizadeh-Vesali, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Seyed H Ghaffari
Aurora-B kinase overexpression plays important roles in the malignant progression of prostate cancer (PCa). AZD1152-HQPA, as an inhibitor of Aurora-B, has recently emerged as a promising agent for cancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AZD1152-HQPA on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial function in PCa. We used AZD1152-HQPA (Barasertib), a highly potent and selective inhibitor of Aurora-B kinase. The effects of AZD1152-HQPA on cell viability, DNA content, cell morphology, and ROS production were studied in the androgen-independent PC-3 PCa cell line...
June 21, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
Favio E Pollo, Pablo R Grenat, Zulma A Salinas, Manuel A Otero, Nancy E Salas, Adolfo L Martino
Little attention has been paid to the impact of wastewater generated by mining activities on fluoride. In this study, we evaluated the hematology responses of common South American toad Rhinella arenarum inhabiting natural and artificial environments associated with a fluorite mine from central Argentina. We analyzed three sampling stations associated with the fluorite mine: (I) Los Cerros Negros stream (CN), which runs on granitic rock with a high fluorite content; (II) Los Vallecitos stream (LV), which runs on metamorphic rock with low fluorite content; and (III) artificial decantation ponds (DP) containing sediments produced by fluorite flotation process...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sung-Ha Hong, Endre J Szili, Michael Fenech, Nishtha Gaur, Robert D Short
Despite growing interest in the application of atmospheric plasma jets as medical treatment strategies, there has been comparatively little research on the potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of plasma jet treatment. In this study, we have employed the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay with WIL2-NS B lymphoblastoid cells to test the potential genotoxicity, as well as the cytotoxicity, of toxic species generated in cell culture media by an argon (Ar) plasma jet. Elevated levels of cell death (necrosis) and occurrence of chromosomal damage (micronuclei MN, nculeoplasmic bridge NPBs and nuclear bus, Nbuds) were observed when cells were exposed to plasma jet-treated media...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bandula Prasanna Galhena, S S R Samarakoon, Myrtle Ira Thabrew, Solomon F D Paul, Venkatachalam Perumal, Chinnadurai Mani
This study was carried out to determine the chemoprotective potential of a polyherbal aqueous decoction comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) against bleomycin induced cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were exposed to bleomycin at a dose of 40 µg/mL for 2 hrs in the presence or absence of different doses of the decoction (100, 300, and 600 µg/mL). Modulatory effect of the decoction on bleomycin induced cytogenetic damage was evaluated by (a) degree of chromosomal aberrations (CA), (b) formation of micronuclei (MN), and (c) induction of γH2AX foci in lymphocytes exposed to bleomycin...
2017: BioMed Research International
Katherine E Chapman, George R Hoffmann, Shareen H Doak, Gareth J S Jenkins
Hormesis is defined as a biphasic dose-response where biological effects of low doses of a stressor demonstrate the opposite effect to high-dose effects of the same stressor. Hormetic, or J-shaped, dose-response relationships are relatively rarely observed in toxicology, resulting in a limited understanding and even some skepticism of the concept. Low dose-response studies for genotoxicity endpoints have been performed at Swansea University for over a decade. However, no statistically significant decreases below control genotoxicity levels have been detected until recently...
July 2017: Mutation Research
Srinivas Chinde, Paramjit Grover
Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles (NPs) are being used in various applications. However, the health consequences of WO3 NPs exposure have not been explored extensively. Hence, the goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of WO3 NPs and their microparticles (MPs) after 28days repeated oral administration in Wistar rats. The particles were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET), X- ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES)...
July 2017: Mutation Research
Mariana Morozesk, Marina Marques Bonomo, Iara da Costa Souza, Lívia Dorsch Rocha, Ian Drumond Duarte, Ian Oliveira Martins, Leonardo Barros Dobbss, Maria Tereza Weitzel Dias Carneiro, Marisa Narciso Fernandes, Silvia Tamie Matsumoto
Biological process treatment of landfill leachate produces a significant amount of sludge, characterized by high levels of organic matter from which humic acids are known to activate several enzymes of energy metabolism, stimulating plant growth. This study aimed to characterize humic acids extracted from landfill sludge and assess the effects on plants exposed to different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mM C L(-1)) by chemical and biological analysis, to elucidate the influence of such organic material and minimize potential risks of using sludge in natura...
June 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Roshan L Shrestha, Grace S Ahn, Mae I Staples, Kizhakke M Sathyan, Tatiana S Karpova, Daniel R Foltz, Munira A Basrai
Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of many cancers and a major contributor to tumorigenesis. Centromere and kinetochore associated proteins such as the evolutionarily conserved centromeric histone H3 variant CENP-A, associate with centromeric DNA for centromere function and chromosomal stability. Stringent regulation of cellular CENP-A levels prevents its mislocalization in yeast and flies to maintain genome stability. CENP-A overexpression and mislocalization are observed in several cancers and reported to be associated with increased invasiveness and poor prognosis...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
Wael Jdey, Sylvain Thierry, Tatiana Popova, Marc-Henri Stern, Marie Dutreix
Therapeutic strategies targeting DNA repair pathway defects have been widely explored, but often only benefit small numbers of patients. Here we characterized potential predictive biomarkers for treatment with AsiDNA, a novel first-in-class DNA repair inhibitor. We evaluated genetic instability and DNA repair defects by direct and indirect assays in 12 breast cancer cell lines to estimate the spontaneous occurrence of single-strand and double-strand breaks (DSB). For each cell line, we monitored constitutive poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, spontaneous DNA damage by alkaline comet assay, basal micronuclei (MN) levels, the number of large-scale chromosomal rearrangements (LST), and the status of several DNA repair pathways by transcriptome and genome analysis...
June 6, 2017: Cancer Research
P G Francis, Mathai Thomas, Vincy Antony, Muhammed Shaloob, K Jubin Hassan, Gazanafer Roshan
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group included 30 healthy patients who were advised orthodontic treatment. Applying sterile cement spatula, scrapping of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells was performed from the middle part of the inner cheeks before starting the orthodontic treatment and at 1(st) week, 2(nd) week, 1 month, and 45 days after the treatment, followed by smearing and staining with Papanicolaou stain...
May 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
A Naeeji, H Mozdarani, A Shabestani Monfared, F Faeghi, A A Ahmadi, M Gholami, R Behzadi, M R Momtaz
BACKGROUND: In many studies, chemicals and natural materials were tested to reduce the harmful effects of radiation. It is known that Famotidine and vitamin C reduce DNA damage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin C, Cimetidine and Famotidine on gamma-radiation-induced damage on mouse bone marrow. METHODS: Six-to-seven week male NMRI mice (28 g ±3) were randomly divided into fourteen groups: control, 2Gy irradiation, six group drugs without irradition (Famotidine, Cimetidine, vitaminC, Fam-Cim, Fam-Vit, Cim-Vit), six groups received drugs and 2Gy radiation with a 60Co |γ|-ray source at room temperature 22 ± 2 °C...
June 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Akira Takeiri, Kenji Tanaka, Asako Harada, Kaori Matsuzaki, Mariko Yano, Shigeki Motoyama, Chie Katoh, Masayuki Mishima
BACKGROUND: Pefcalcitol, an analog of vitamin D3 (VD3), is an anti-psoriatic drug candidate that is designed to achieve much higher pharmacological effects, such as keratinocyte differentiation, than those of VD3, with fewer side effects. Genotoxicity of the compound was evaluated in a rat skin micronucleus (MN) test. RESULTS: In the rat skin MN test, pefcalcitol showed positive when specimens were stained with Giemsa, whereas neither an in vitro chromosome aberration test in CHL cells nor an in vivo bone marrow MN test in rats indicated clastogenicity...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Gisel Padula, María Virginia Ponzinibbio, Analia I Seoane
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA damage through production of single and double-strand breaks and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Folic acid (FA) prevents radiation-induced DNA damage by modification of DNA synthesis and/or repair and as a radical scavenger. We hypothesized that in vitro supplementation with FA will decrease the sensitivity of cells to genetic damage induced by low dose of ionizing radiation. Annexin V, comet and micronucleus assays were performed in cultured CHO cells. After 7 days of pre-treatment with 0, 100, 200 or 300 nM FA, cultures were exposed to radiation (100 mSv)...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Shraddha Dwivedi, Manoj Kumar, Sunil P Trivedi
The mitigating potential of Melissa officinale (MO) (Lamiaceae) against arsenite (As(3+))-induced oxidative stress, cytogenotoxicity, and expression of stress genes in fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch), teleost, was explored. After confirming the composition of MO extract, caffeic acid (0.96%), hesperidin (1.73%), naringenin (7.70%), lutenolin (3.29%), kaempferol (11.46%) and hesperetin (6.24%), by HPLC-PDA analysis, the experiment was set up in six groups (G1-G6), each containing 10 specimens. Blood, muscle, gills and liver tissues of control and treated fishes were excised at an interval of 24 till 96 h...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mateus Flores Montalvão, Joyce Moreira de Souza, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto de Menezes, André Luis da Silva Castro, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Some of the most polluting activities occur in bovine skin processing. Tannery generates effluents containing high concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds. The phases composing the leather production process generate a large volume of tannery effluents that are often discarded in aquatic environments without any previous treatment. However, the effect these xenobiotics have on adult representatives belonging to the class Amphibia remains unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study is to assess the geno- and cytotoxic effects of tannery effluent on adult male bullfrogs (Lithobates castesbeianus) exposed to it...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
Bizhong Che, Qiulin Luo, Bingzhong Zhai, Guoqiang Fan, Zhiyong Liu, Kaiming Cheng, Lili Xin
OBJECTIVES: The intense commercial application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been raising concerns about their potential adverse health effects to human. This study aimed to explore the potency of AgNPs to induce GADD45α gene, an important stress sensor, and its relationships with the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity elicited by AgNPs. METHODS: Two established HepG2 and A549 cell lines containing the GADD45α promoter-driven luciferase reporter were treated with increasing concentrations of AgNPs for 48 hours...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Edlaine Acosta Da Silva Pinto, Edariane Menestrino Garcia, Krissia Aparecida de Almeida, Caroline Feijó Lopes Fernandes, Ronan Adler Tavella, Maria Cristina Flores Soares, Paulo Roberto Martins Baisch, Ana Luíza Muccillo-Baisch, Flavio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior
The present study assessed the DNA damage in environmentally exposed volunteers living in seven municipalities in an industrial coal region, through the use of the comet assay with blood cells and the micronucleus test with buccal cells. Blood and buccal smears were collected from 320 male volunteers living in seven cities inserted in a coal region. They were ages of 18 and 50 years and also completed a questionnaire intended to identify factors associated with DNA damage through a Poisson regression analysis...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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