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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096450/analysis-of-genome-instability-biomarkers-in-children-with-non-syndromic-orofacial-clefts
#1
Luíza Araújo da Costa Xavier, João Felipe Bezerra, Adriana Augusto de Rezende, Raffael Azevedo de Carvalho Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira Dalmolin, Viviane Souza do Amaral
The non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) is a common birth defect caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The possible role of genome instability on NSCL/P patient needs more investigation, since DNA metabolism is an essential cellular function to keep cells with normal genotypes and gene expression patterns according to tissue specificities, which is critical during embryo development because it requires sensitive regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation...
January 16, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093936/biological-activities-of-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-rosemary-extract-as-analyzed-in-microorganisms-and-cells
#2
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Daiane de Jesus, Leandro Wagner Figueira, Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Cristina Pacheco Soares, Samira Estves Afonso Camargo, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088021/sanguinarine-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-like-programmed-cell-death-al-pcd-in-root-meristem-cells-of-allium-cepa
#3
Aneta Żabka, Konrad Winnicki, Justyna Teresa Polit, Janusz Maszewski
A vast number of studies on plant cell systems clearly indicate that various biotic and abiotic stresses give rise to the uncontrolled increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excess concentrations of ROS result in damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and DNA, which may lead, in consequence, to the apoptotic cell death. The current study investigates the effects of sanguinarine (SAN), a natural alkaloid derived from the roots of Sanguinaria canadensis, on root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa...
January 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078519/decrease-in-the-genotoxicity-of-metal-contaminated-soils-with-biochar-amendments
#4
Frédéric Rees, Adrien Dhyèvre, Jean Louis Morel, Sylvie Cotelle
Biochar amendments, i.e., the solid product of biomass pyrolysis, reduce soil metal availability, which may lower the toxicity of metal-contaminated soils. A direct link between the decrease in soil metal availability and improved plant development is however often difficult to establish, as biochar may induce undesirable side effects on plant growth, e.g., a modification to plant nutrition. In order to investigate toxicity processes at a cellular level, roots of Vicia faba were exposed for 7 days to three metal-contaminated substrates and one control soil, amended with a 0 or 5% (w/w) addition of a wood-derived biochar...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073664/extract-of-bulbus-fritillaria-cirrhosa-perturbs-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-induces-mitotic-aberrations-and-genomic-instability-in-human-colon-epithelial-cell-line
#5
Xihan Guo, Juan Ni, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
BACKGROUND: Bulbus Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don (BFC) has been used in China as a folk medicine for the treatment of cough and asthma for more than 2000 years. The antitussive and antiasthmatic effects of BFC have been reported before, nevertheless its toxicity and safety have not been documented. This study investigated the possible effects of BFC on spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic fidelity and genomic stability in human NCM460 colon epithelial cells. METHODS: Cells were treated with BFC (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160μg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72h and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064118/pb-low-doses-induced-genotoxicity-in-lactuca-sativa-plants
#6
S Silva, P Silva, H Oliveira, I Gaivão, M Matos, O Pinto-Carnide, C Santos
Soil and water contamination by lead (Pb) remains a topic of great concern, particularly regarding crop production. The admissible Pb values in irrigation water in several countries range from ≈0.1 to ≈5 mg L(-1). In order to evaluate putative effects of Pb within legal doses on crops growth, we exposed Lactuca sativa seeds and seedlings to increasing doses of Pb(NO3)2 up to 20 mg L(-1). The OECD parameter seed germination and seedling/plant growth were not affected by any of the Pb-concentrations used...
December 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062704/radiosensitization-by-the-atr-inhibitor-azd6738-through-generation-of-acentric-micronuclei
#7
Magnus T Dillon, Holly E Barker, Malin Pedersen, Hind Hafsi, Shreerang A Bhide, Kate L Newbold, Christopher M Nutting, Martin McLaughlin, Kevin J Harrington
AZD6738 is an orally active ATR inhibitor (ATRi) currently in phase I clinical trials. We found in vitro growth inhibitory activity of this ATRi in a panel of human cancer cell lines. We demonstrated radiosensitization by AZD6738 to single radiation fractions in multiple cancer cell lines independent of both p53 and BRCA2 status by the clonogenic assay. Radiosensitization by AZD6738 to clinically relevant doses of fractionated radiation was demonstrated in vitro using a 3D tumor spheroid model and, in vivo, AZD6738 radiosensitized by abrogating the radiation-induced G2 cell-cycle checkpoint and inhibiting homologous recombination...
January 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061478/mitotic-control-of-human-papillomavirus-genome-containing-cells-is-regulated-by-the-function-of-the-pdz-binding-motif-of-the-e6-oncoprotein
#8
Elizabeth K Marsh, Craig P Delury, Nicholas J Davies, Christopher J Weston, Mohammed A L Miah, Lawrence Banks, Joanna L Parish, Martin R Higgs, Sally Roberts
The function of a conserved PDS95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) binding motif (E6 PBM) at the C-termini of E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types contributes to the development of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, using a primary human keratinocyte-based model of the high-risk HPV18 life cycle, we identify a novel link between the E6 PBM and mitotic stability. In cultures containing a mutant genome in which the E6 PBM was deleted there was an increase in the frequency of abnormal mitoses, including multinucleation, compared to cells harboring the wild type HPV18 genome...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045896/a-signature-of-genomic-instability-resulting-from-deficient-replication-licensing
#9
Steven C Pruitt, Maochun Qin, Jianmin Wang, Dimiter Kunnev, Amy Freeland
Insufficient licensing of DNA replication origins has been shown to result in genome instability, stem cell deficiency, and cancers. However, it is unclear whether the DNA damage resulting from deficient replication licensing occurs generally or if specific sites are preferentially affected. To map locations of ongoing DNA damage in vivo, the DNAs present in red blood cell micronuclei were sequenced. Many micronuclei are the product of DNA breaks that leave acentromeric remnants that failed to segregate during mitosis and should reflect the locations of breaks...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043162/micronucleus-frequency-and-content-in-healthy-relatives-of-cancer-patients
#10
Friedo Zölzer, Marcela Křížová, Zuzana Freitinger Skalická, Andrea Rössnerová, Radim Šrám
OBJECTIVE: To compare chromosomal damage in lymphocytes of individuals who did or did not report first-degree relatives with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases and controls (68 each) were matched for sex, age and radon exposure. Chromosomal damage was quantified as frequency of micronucleus-containing cells and proportion of centromere-free micronuclei. RESULTS: Individuals not reporting cancer in their families showed lower values of both the frequency of micronucleus-containing cells (n...
January 19, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038458/chromosome-nondisjunction-during-bipolar-mitoses-of-binucleated-intermediates-promote-aneuploidy-formation-along-with-multipolar-mitoses-rather-than-chromosome-loss-in-micronuclei-induced-by-asbestos
#11
Tianwei Zhang, Lei Lv, Yun Huang, Xiaohui Ren, Qinghua Shi
Asbestos is a well-known occupational carcinogen that can cause aneuploidy during the early stages of neoplastic development. To explore the origins of asbestos-induced aneuploidy, we performed long-term live-cell imaging followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosomes 8 and 12 in human bronchial epithelial (HBEC) and mesothelial (MeT5A) cells. We demonstrate that asbestos induces aneuploidy via binucleated intermediates resulting from cytokinesis failure. On the one hand, asbestos increases chromosome nondisjunction during bipolar divisions of binucleated intermediates and produces near-tetraploidy...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033104/micronuclei-and-other-nuclear-anomalies-in-buccal-epithelial-cells-of-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Banu Aykanat, Gonca Cakmak Demircigil, Necla Buyan, Esra Baskin, Kaan Gulleroglu, Kibriya Fidan, Umut Selda Bayrakci, Aydin Dalgic, Hamdi Karakayali, Mehmet Haberal, Sema Burgaz
The objective of this study was to reveal the likely genomic instability in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using micronucleus (MN) assay on buccal epithelial cells (BEC). We investigated the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies, such as nuclear buds, binucleated cells, condensed chromatin, and karyorrhectic and pyknotic cells in BEC. Children with CKD were grouped as follows: children in the pre-dialysis (PreD) stage (N=17), children on regular haemodialysis (HD) (N=14), and children who have undergone transplantation (Tx) (N=17)...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033097/age-and-sex-differences-in-genome-damage-between-prepubertal-and-adult-mice-after-exposure-to-ionising-radiation
#13
Ranko Stojković, Aleksandra Fucic, Dušica Ivanković, Zoran Jukić, Petra Radulović, Josip Grah, Nenad Kovačević, Lovro Barišić, Božo Krušlin
The mechanisms that lead to sex and age differences in biological responses to exposure to ionising radiation and related health risks have still not been investigated to a satisfactory extent. The significance of sex hormones in the aetiology of radiogenic cancer types requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, especially during organism development. The aim of this study was to show age and sex differences in genome damage between prepubertal and adult mice after single exposure to gamma radiation...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032378/behavior-of-nucleolus-in-the-tobacco-male-meiocytes-involved-in-cytomixis
#14
Sergey Mursalimov, Yuriy Sidorchuk, Elena Deineko
Behavior of nucleolus during the nuclear migration between plant cells (cytomixis) is studied for the first time in the tobacco male meiosis. As is shown, the nucleolus is located in a nonrandom manner in the migrating nuclei. In the majority of cases, the nucleolus resides on the nuclear pole strictly opposite to the cytomictic channel. Owing to this localization, the nucleolus extremely rare enters the recipient cell, so that the nucleolar material is in most cases undetectable in the micronuclei formed after cytomixis...
December 29, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027584/il6-dependent-genomic-instability-heralds-accelerated-carcinogenesis-following-liver-regeneration-on-a-background-of-chronic-hepatitis
#15
Tali Lanton, Anat Shriki, Yael Nechemia-Arbely, Rinat Abramovitch, Orr Levkovitch, Revital Adar, Nofar Rosenberg, Mor Paldor, Daniel Goldenberg, Amir Sonnenblick, Amnon Peled, Stefan Rose-John, Eithan Galun, Jonathan H Axelrod
: Liver cancer, which typically develops on a background of chronic liver inflammation, is now the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. For these patients surgical resection is a principal treatment modality that offers a chance of prolonged survival. However, tumor recurrence after resection, the mechanisms of which remain obscure, markedly limits the long-term survival of these patients. We have previously shown that partial hepatectomy (PH) in Mdr2 knockout (Mdr2(-/-) ) mice, a model of chronic inflammation-associated liver cancer, significantly accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024242/aneugenicity-and-clastogenicity-in-freshwater-fish-oreochromis-niloticus-exposed-to-incipient-safe-concentration-of-tannery-effluent
#16
Abel Weldetinsae, Mekibib Dawit, Abebe Getahun, H S Patil, Esayas Alemayehu, Melaku Gizaw, Moa Abate, Daniel Abera
Conventional effluent bioassays mostly rely on overt responses or endpoints such as apical and Darwinian fitness. Beyond the empirical observation, laboratory toxicity testing needs to rely on effective detection of prognostic biomarkers such as genotoxicity. Indeed, characterization of tannery effluent requires slotting in of genotoxic responses in whole effluent toxicity testing procedures. Hence, the prime objective of the present experimental investigation is to apply the technique of biological assay as a tool of toxicity testing to evaluate the induction of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes, and exfoliated cells of gill and kidney of O...
December 23, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013349/pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-the-novel-investigational-agent-cantrixil-trx-e-002-1
#17
REVIEW
Muhammad Wasif Saif, Andrew Heaton, Kimberley Lilischkis, James Garner, David M Brown
PURPOSE: Recurrent, chemo-resistant ovarian cancer is thought to be due to a subgroup of slow-growing, drug-resistant cancer cells with stem-like properties and a high capacity for tumour repair. Cantrixil targets this sub-population of cells and is being developed as an intraperitoneal therapy to be used as first-line therapy in combination with carboplatin for epithelial ovarian cancer. The studies presented here justify further development. METHODS: A GLP dog CV study using a 4 × 4 Latin Square Crossover study was conducted using telemetric ECG recordings from dogs post IP administration to assess for cardiac abnormalities...
December 24, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012894/the-genotoxic-potency-of-glycidol-established-from-micronucleus-frequency-and-hemoglobin-adduct-levels-in-mice
#18
Jenny Aasa, Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg, Henrik Carlsson, Margareta Törnqvist
Glycidol is a genotoxic animal carcinogen that has raised concern due to its presence in food, as glycidyl fatty acid esters. Here we investigated the genotoxicity of glycidol in BalbC mice (0-120 mg/kg) by monitoring the induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood as a marker of chromosomal damage. The scoring of the micronuclei was assessed by flow cytometry. In the treated mice, the internal dose of glycidol, expressed as area under the concentration-time curve, AUC (mol × L(-1) × h; Mh), was measured by dihydroxypropyl adducts to hemoglobin (Hb)...
December 22, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008958/zika-virus-infection-induces-mitosis-abnormalities-and-apoptotic-cell-death-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#19
Bruno S F Souza, Gabriela L A Sampaio, Ciro S Pereira, Gubio S Campos, Silvia I Sardi, Luiz A R Freitas, Claudio P Figueira, Bruno D Paredes, Carolina K V Nonaka, Carine M Azevedo, Vinicius P C Rocha, Antonio C Bandeira, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Ricardo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Milena B P Soares
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with severe complications both in the developing and adult nervous system. To investigate the deleterious effects of ZIKV infection, we used human neural progenitor cells (NPC), derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). We found that NPC are highly susceptible to ZIKV and the infection results in cell death. ZIKV infection led to a marked reduction in cell proliferation, ultrastructural alterations and induction of autophagy. Induction of apoptosis of Sox2(+) cells was demonstrated by activation of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9, and by ultrastructural and flow cytometry analyses...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007967/aberrant-meiotic-modulation-partially-contributes-to-the-lower-germination-rate-of-pollen-grains-in-maize-zea-mays-l-under-low-nitrogen-supply
#20
Hongyan Zheng, Huamao Wu, Xiaoying Pan, Weiwei Jin, Xuexian Li
Pollen germination is an essential step towards successful pollination during maize reproduction. How low niutrogen (N) affects pollen germination remains an interesting biological question to be addressed. We found that only low N resulted in a significantly lower germination rate of pollen grains after 4 weeks of low N, phosphorus or potassium treatment in maize production. Importantly, cytological analysis showed 7-fold more micronuclei in male meiocytes under the low N treatment than in the control, indicating that the lower germination rate of pollen grains was partially due to numerous chromosome loss events resulting from preceding meiosis...
November 15, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
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