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Mona Motwani, Katherine A Fitzgerald
Maintenance of genome integrity is essential to prevent cancer. Genotoxic stress drives damaged DNA out of the nucleus by forming micronuclei. Two studies in Nature reveal how the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS gains access to the cargo within micronuclei to drive type I IFN responses.
October 17, 2017: Immunity
Dmitry Dedukh, Spartak Litvinchuk, Juriy Rosanov, Dmitry Shabanov, Alla Krasikova
BACKGROUND: Interspecies animal hybrids can employ clonal or hemiclonal reproduction modes where one or all parental genomes are transmitted to the progeny without recombination. Nevertheless, some interspecies hybrids retain strong connection with the parental species needed for successful reproduction. Appearance of polyploid hybrid animals may play an important role in the substitution of parental species and in the speciation process. RESULTS: To establish the mechanisms that enable parental species, diploid and polyploid hybrids coexist we have performed artificial crossing experiments of water frogs of Pelophylax esculentus complex...
October 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Amal A A Alotaibi, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Justin D Davies, Adolf Baumgartner, Diana Anderson
Chemotherapy drugs usually inflict a lethal dose to tumour cells with the consequence that these cells are being killed by cell death. However, each round of chemotherapy also causes damage to normal somatic cells. The DNA cross-linking agent oxaliplatin (OXP), which causes DNA double-strand breaks, and vinflunine (VFN), which disrupts the mitotic spindle, are two of these chemotherapy drugs which were evaluated in vitro using peripheral lymphocytes from colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals to determine any differential response...
October 4, 2017: Mutagenesis
Fela Mendlovic, Mayra Cruz-Rivera, Jose Alfredo Diaz-Gandarilla, Marco Antonio Flores-Torres, Guillermina Avila, Maria Perfiliev, Ana Maria Salazar, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Ana Flisser
Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model...
2017: PloS One
Marcos Felipe de Oliveira Galvão, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Paula Anastácia Ferreira, Sofia Caumo, Pérola de Castro Vasconcellos, Paulo Artaxo, Sandra de Souza Hacon, Deborah Arnsdorff Roubicek, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros
Emissions from burning of biomass in the Amazon region have adverse effects on the environment and human health. Herein, particulate matter (PM) emitted from biomass burning in the Amazon region during two different periods, namely intense and moderate, was investigated. This study focused on: i) organic characterization of nitro- and oxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); ii) assessment of the excess lifetime cancer risk (LCR); and iii) assessment of the in vitro mutagenic effects of extractable organic matter (EOM)...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Luis Orozco-Hernández, Adriana Andrea Gutiérrez-Gómez, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Hariz Islas-Flores, Sandra García-Medina, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Octavio Dublán-García, Reyna Natividad, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
17β-Estradiol, a natural hormone present at high concentrations in aquatic ecosystems, affects and modifies endocrine function in animals. In recent years research workers have expressed concern over its potential effects on aquatic organisms; however, little is known about its capacity to induce genetic damage or the pro-apoptotic effects of such damage on fish. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate 17β-estradiol-induced cyto-genotoxicity in blood cells of the common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to different concentrations (1 ng, 1 μg and 1 mg L(-1))...
October 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Juan Manuel Pérez-Iglesias, Guillermo S Natale, Sonia Soloneski, Marcelo L Larramendy
In the present study, the damage recovery capabilities of Boana pulchella tadpoles after acute exposure (96h) to 0.39mg/L concentration of the imazethapyr (IMZT)-based herbicide formulation Pivot(®) H (25% IMZT LC50 value) were assessed during a period of 7 to -21 days. To appraise the recovery capabilities, frequency of micronuclei (MNs), other nuclear abnormalities and DNA single-strand breaks evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis assay on circulating blood cells were employed as endpoints for genotoxicity...
October 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kareen Bartsch, Katharina Knittler, Christopher Borowski, Sönke Rudnik, Markus Damme, Konrad Aden, Martina E Spehlmann, Norbert Frey, Paul Saftig, Athena Chalaris, Björn Rabe
Hypomorphic mutations in the DNA repair enzyme RNase H2 cause the neuroinflammatory autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). Endogenous nucleic acids are believed to accumulate in patient cells and instigate pathogenic type I interferon expression. However, the underlying nucleic acid species amassing in the absence of RNase H2 has not been established yet. Here, we report that murine RNase H2 knockout cells accumulated cytosolic DNA aggregates virtually indistinguishable from micronuclei. RNase H2-dependent micronuclei were surrounded by nuclear lamina and most of them contained damaged DNA...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Maxim Yu Sinitsky, Varvara I Minina, Maxim A Asanov, Arseniy E Yuzhalin, Anastasia V Ponasenko, Vladimir G Druzhinin
In underground coal mining, numerous harmful substances and ionising radiation pose a major threat to the occupational safety and health of workers. Because cell DNA repair machinery eliminates genotoxic stress conferred by these agents, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in hOGG1 (rs1052133), XRCC1 (rs25487), ADPRT (rs1136410), XRCC4 (rs6869366) and LIG4 (rs1805388) genes modulate the genotoxic damage assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in lymphocytes from 143 underground coal miners and 127 healthy non-exposed males...
August 8, 2017: Mutagenesis
Tania Warnakulasuriya, Senani Williams, Mangala Dabarera, Kusum Rodrigo, Thiwanka Weerakkody, Rajitha Wickremasinghe
Lanka Mineral Sands Ltd (LMS), a government-owned company, has been mining mineral sands including monazite which contains thorium (Th) at Pulmoddai, Sri Lanka since 1957. Th emits alpha particles on decay and gamma rays are emitted by the daughter products. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay is popular for large scale radiation exposure studies as it is an easy, fast and reliable method of biodosimetry. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of micronuclei among persons residing in the vicinity of LMS...
August 29, 2017: Mutagenesis
Katharina Netzer, Galateja Jordakieva, Angelika M Girard, Alexandra C Budinsky, Alexander Pilger, Lukas Richter, Nadezhda Kataeva, Joerg Schotter, Jasminka Godnic-Cvar, Peter Ertl
Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have unique physicochemical properties and a widespread application scope depending on their composition and surface characteristics. Potential biomedical applications and the growing diversity of novel nanocomposites highlight the need for toxicological hazard assessment of next-generation magnetic nanomaterials. Our study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of coated and uncoated ferric cobalt boron (FeCoB) NPs (5-15 nm particle size) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs)...
October 9, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Tatjana Čėsnienė, Violeta Kleizaitė, Skaistė Bondzinskaitė, Ričardas Taraškevičius, Donatas Žvingila, Raimondas Šiukšta, Vytautas Rančelis
Soil mutagens, particularly metals, may persist long after the source of pollution has been removed, representing a hazard to plants, animals, and humans in or near contaminated areas. Often, due to urban growth, previous land uses may be forgotten and hazards overlooked. We exposed Tradescantia clone #4430 plants to soil from two industrial areas (with different former uses) and two urban waste landfills in the city of Vilnius, all of which were long disused. Two modes of exposure were used: long-term exposure of growing plants in test soils for 0...
November 2017: Mutation Research
Sandra García-Medina, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Karina Ruiz-Lara, Hariz Islas-Flores, Eloy Gasca-Pérez
Mercury is one of the most toxic metals in aquatic systems since it is able to induce neurobehavioral disorders as well as renal and gastrointestinal tract damage. The common carp Cyprinus carpio is an important species from both an ecological and economic viewpoint as it is consumed in many countries, the top producers being Mexico, China, India and Japan. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation between Hg-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in diverse tissues of C. carpio. Specimens were exposed to 0...
September 21, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Evelyn Louise Antonio, Aguinaldo José do Nascimento, Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima, Maria Suely Soares Leonart, Ângela Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: To assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity produced by X-rays in the epithelium of the oral mucosa of infants exposed to panoramic radiography. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 healthy children, 19 females and 11 males, ranging in age from 4 to 10 years (average of 7 years of age). Oral mucosa cells were collected by liquid-based cytology immediately before and after seven days following the exposure to panoramic radiography. Smears were processed and stained using the modified Feulgen Rossenbeck technique...
July 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar, Isela Álvarez-González, Eduardo Osiris Madrigal-Santillán, José A Morales-González, Andrea Torres-Gómez, José Melesio Cristóbal-Luna
Duloxetine is an antidepressant which has showed valuable results, particularly in patients with major depression. This type of drugs is known to require genotoxic studies as part of their preclinical safety evaluation. In the case of duloxetine, however, there have been controversial results. Therefore, we considered it worthwhile to extend studies on the matter in an attempt to reach a conclusion. The present assay was made in mouse bone marrow to evaluate the capacity of the drug to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), as well as to modify the proliferation kinetics and the mitotic index...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Lucilene Finoto Viana, Yzel Rondon Súarez, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Bruno do Amaral Crispim, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia, Sidnei Eduardo Lima-Junior
The present study evaluated mutagenic and genotoxic effects and metal accumulation in the liver and musculature of Pterygoplichthys ambrosetti and Prochilodus lineatus in the Amambai River, a tributary of the Upper Paraná River in Brazil. We also evaluated the potential for these fish species as environmental bioindicators and performed risk assessment for conservation purposes. We found that P. ambrosetti had a higher frequency of micronuclei compared to P. lineatus (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between species in other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) (p > 0...
September 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Abtahi, Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, Masoumeh Yadolahi, Aziz Mahmoudzadeh
AIM: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the dependence of micronuclei response on the depth of absorbed dose. BACKGROUND: One of the most common cytogenetic methods used for radiation dosimetry is micronuclei (MN). Being less complex and faster than other methods are two remarkable advantages of the MN method which make it suitable for monitoring of population. In biological dosimetry based on the micronuclei method, the investigation into the dependence of response on the depth in which dose is absorbed is significant, though has received less attention so far...
November 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Anurag Kumar Srivastav, Akhilesh Kumar, Jyoti Prakash, Dhirendra Singh, Pankaj Jagdale, Jai Shankar, Mahadeo Kumar
The expanded uses of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have grown rapidly in the field of nanotechnology. Thus, rising production of nanoparticles (NPs) increases the possible risks to the environment and occupationally exposed humans. Hence, it is indispensable to appraise the safety toxicity including genotoxicity for these NPs. In the present study, we have evaluated the genotoxic effect of ZnO NPs after oral administration to Swiss mice at dose levels of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. These doses were administered for 2 days at 24 h apart...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Shashi Kiran Arya, Ilika Ghosh, Ritesh Banerjee, Anita Mukherjee
The increasing use of pesticides such as malathion and dithane in agriculture causes environmental mutagenicity. However, their genotoxicity in edible crops is seldom assessed. In this study, the genotoxic potential of malathion and dithane was evaluated in the roots of Vicia faba L. All three concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2%) of malathion and dithane tested resulted in a significant decrease in root length and inhibited seed germination. Cytological observations showed that the mitotic frequency in the root meristematic cells decreased parallel to the increase in concentrations, and the increase in chromosome aberrations and micronuclei frequency was concentration dependent...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Paula A Ossa-López, Gabriel J Castaño-Villa, Fredy A Rivera-Páez
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most studied aquatic organisms for water biomonitoring, due to its sensitivity to environmental degradation and resistance to toxic substances. This study determined the presence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood erythrocytes, and assessed the gene expression of caspase-3 (CASP-3) and metallothionein 1 (MT-1) in the gills and liver of D. rerio. The study fish (n = 45) were exposed to water collected from two stations with mining impact (E2 and E3) and a reference station without evident mining contamination (E1), all located in La Elvira stream (Manizales-Colombia)...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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