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Tais Susane Pereira, Juliane Rocha de Sant'anna, Janicelle Fernandes Morais, Joana Paula Rocha de Sant'anna Yajima, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Marialba Avezum Alves de Castro-Prado
Bendamustine, an anticancer drug with alkylating properties, is widely used to treat hematological malignancies. Since the nitrogen mustard family alkylators induce DNA damages and have been associated with an elevated risk of second malignancy, current study evaluates the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic effects of bendamustine by using, respectively the mitotic index assay, the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (Mnvit) and the chromosome aberration (CA) test in human peripheral lymphocytes, and the in vivo homozygotization assay in Aspergillus nidulans, which detects the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to somatic recombination...
April 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Célia Ventura, Ana Filipa Lourenço, António Sousa-Uva, Paulo J T Ferreira, Maria João Silva
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are manufactured nanofibres that hold impressive expectations in forest, food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. CNF production and applications are leading to an increased human exposure and thereby it is of utmost importance to assess its safety to health. In this study, we screened the cytotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic effects of a CNF produced by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of an industrial bleached Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp on a co-culture of lung epithelial alveolar (A549) cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1 cells)...
April 18, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Karen Gomez-Mariscal, Belinda C Gómez-Meda, Ana L Zamora-Perez, María G Sánchez-Parada, Martha P Gallegos-Arreola, Guillermo M Zúñiga-González
The aim of the study was to determine if amniotic fluid cells of rats can be used to provide evidence of genotoxicity. In order to do that micronuclei formation was induced in rats during pregnancy after treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP), at different CP doses. On gestational day 19, we collected the amniotic fluid and determined the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNCs) from the offspring. Samples were centrifuged and placed on clean slides. The smears were observed with an epifluorescence microscope...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Dithu Thekkekkara, Duraiswamy B, Sudhir Chandna, M J Nanjan
PURPOSE: Exposure to ionizing radiation causes damage to the genomic integrity and stability of the cell. Though a large number of molecules have been studied for their radioprotective capability, no single agent is available today that meets all the requirements of a good radiprotector. In this study, we have investigated a combination of Resveratrol (RSV) and 3, 3'-Diindolyl methane (DIM) for its efficacy for radioprotection. It is our hypothesis that this combination that possesses less toxicity than synthetic compounds, free radical scavenging potential and the capacity to interfere with the several of the signalling cascades that trigger damage to cell by ionizing radiation, may possess good radioprotective capability...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Carol D Swartz, Kim G Shepard, Steven M Bryce, Stephen D Dertinger, Suramya Waidyanatha, Grace E Kissling, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt
Black cohosh extract (BCE) is a widely used dietary supplement marketed to women to alleviate symptoms of gynecological ailments, yet its toxicity has not been well characterized. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) previously reported significant increases in micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of female Wistar Han rats and B6C3F1/N mice administered 15-1,000 mg BCE/kg/day by gavage for 90 days. These animals also developed a dose-dependent nonregenerative macrocytic anemia characterized by clinical changes consistent with megaloblastic anemia...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Murilo T D Bueno, Marta Baldascini, Stéphane Richard, Noel F Lowndes
Lysine demethylase 2A (KDM2A) functions in transcription as a demethylase of lysine 36 on histone H3. Herein, we characterise a role for KDM2A in the DNA damage response in which KDM2A stimulates conjugation of ubiquitin to 53BP1. Impaired KDM2A-mediated ubiquitination negatively affects the recruitment of 53BP1 to DSBs. Notably, we show that KDM2A itself is recruited to DSBs in a process that depends on its demethylase activity and zinc finger domain. Moreover, we show that KDM2A plays an important role in ensuring genomic stability upon DNA damage...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Zizhi Tang, Juan Yang, Xin Wang, Ming Zeng, Jing Wang, Ao Wang, Mingcai Zhao, Liandi Guo, Cong Liu, Dehua Li, Jie Chen
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is one of the most deadly gynecological malignancies and inclined to recurrence and drug resistance. Previous studies showed that the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancers and their major histotypes are associated with genomic instability caused by defined sets of pathogenic mutations. In contrast, the mechanism that influences the development of drug resistance and disease recurrence is not well elucidated. Solid tumors are prone to chromosomal instability (CIN) and micronuclei formation (MN)...
April 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Jelena Pajic, Branislav Rovcanin, Dusan Kekic, Dubravka Jovicic, Aleksandar Ps Milovanovic
PURPOSE: Ionizing radiation (IR) can act on atomic structures, producing damage to biomolecules. Earlier investigations evaluating individual radiosensitivity in vitro were focused on cytogenetic biomarkers (chromosomal aberrations - CA and micronuclei - MN). Since IR can also cause oxidative damage by producing reactive oxygen species, the main goal of this investigation was to establish the influence of redox status on CA and MN frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples from 56 healthy donors were irradiated at doses of 0, 0...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Alfredo Santovito, Stefano Ruberto, Gabriella Galli, Costanza Menghi, Marilena Girotti, Piero Cervella
Oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone; BP-3) is a filter used in a variety of personal care products for protection of human skin and hair from damage by ultraviolet radiation. BP-3 is suspected to exhibit endocrine disruptive properties. Indeed, it was found to be able to interact with the endocrine system causing alteration of its homeostasis, with consequent adverse health effects. Moreover, it is ubiquitously present in the environment, mostly in aquatic ecosystems, with consequent risks to the health of aquatic organisms and humans...
April 12, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Sefa Pekol
Metal-cutting fluids, one of the most consumed materials in the metallurgy industry, turn into oily wastewater after being used in the metalworking processes. The amount of cutting fluids used can reach up to millions of tons. And these invaluable fluids are difficult to distil and expensive, and impossible to store. Even after it is disposed and recaptured, the end product has no commercial value. In this study, the effect of this mixture was examined on the ecosystem using the Allium cepa test system in which onion root tips were treated with three different concentrations of waste-cutting fluid, based on a 24- and 48-h cell cycle...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A De Los Ríos, B Echavarri-Erasun, M-H Dévier, K Le Menach, H Budzinski, M Ortiz-Zarragoitia, A Orbea, J A Juanes, M P Cajaraville
The present study analysed potential adverse effects of discontinuous sources of contamination, namely the discharge of a combined sewer overflow (CSO) and of runoff in an urban area, the Bay of Santander (North Iberian Peninsula). Water samples and caged mussels were used to analyse concentrations of contaminants and biological responses. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were transplanted to a marina receiving runoff from a petrol station and to a CSO discharge site. Samples were collected in synchrony with heavy rains along 62days...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ricardo Andrade Furtado, Pollyanna Francielli de Oliveira, Juliana Marques Senedese, Saulo Duarte Ozelin, Larissa Daniela Ribeiro de Souza, Luís Fernando Leandro, Wendel Luiz de Oliveira, Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva, Larissa Costa Oliveira, Hervé Rogez, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Denise Crispim Tavares
The uses of Copaifera species in folk medicine are related to a wide variety of pharmacological properties. This paper reports the cytotoxic and genotoxic analyses of oleoresins and leaves extracts of Copaifera species: C. duckei, C. multijuga, C. paupera, C. pubiflora, C. reticulata and C. trapezifolia. In vitro assays were performed using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells). The clonogenic efficiency and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays were employed for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment, respectively...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Madhav Jagannathan, Yukiko M Yamashita
Satellite DNAs are simple tandem repeats that exist at centromeric and pericentromeric regions on eukaryotic chromosomes. Unlike the centromeric satellite DNA that comprises the vast majority of natural centromeres, function(s) for the much more abundant pericentromeric satellite repeats are poorly understood. In fact, the lack of coding potential allied with rapid divergence of repeat sequences across eukaryotes has led to their dismissal as "junk DNA" or "selfish parasites." Although implicated in various biological processes, a conserved function for pericentromeric satellite DNA remains unidentified...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
N Cuevas, I Zorita
Micronuclei (MN) and nuclear buds (NB) frequency was assessed monthly over a one-year period in erythrocytes of common soles (Solea solea) from the Basque continental shelf, a minor disturbed area, in order to determine baseline levels and potential biotic and abiotic confounding factors within biomonitoring purposes. Both genotoxic parameters presented seasonal variations, although only NB frequency was positively correlated with environmental variables (i.e. water temperature and salinity). On the contrary, MN and NB were not affected by age and gender...
March 21, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Valeria Franchini, Stefania De Sanctis, Jessica Marinaccio, Andrea De Amicis, Elisa Coluzzi, Sara Di Cristofaro, Florigio Lista, Elisa Regalbuto, Andrea Doria, Emilio Giovenale, Gian Piero Gallerano, Roberto Bei, Monica Benvenuto, Laura Masuelli, Ion Udroiu, Antonella Sgura
The applications of Terahertz (THz) technologies have significantly developed in recent years, and the complete understanding of the biological effects of exposure to THz radiation is becoming increasingly important. In a previous study, we found that THz radiation induced genomic damage in fetal fibroblasts. Although these cells demonstrated to be a useful model, exposure of human foetuses to THz radiation is highly improbable. Conversely, THz irradiation of adult dermal tissues is cause of possible concern for some professional and nonprofessional categories...
March 30, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Iztleuov Marat, Mamyrbayev Arstan, Yeleuov Galymzhan, Jarkenov Timur, Iztleuov Yerbolat, Yeleuov Almasbek
The purpose of this research is to study the process of mutagenesis and the reproductive function in male rats under separate and combined exposure to chromium and boron compounds. The experiment was conducted on two groups of animals. The first group was used to assess the ability of potassium dichromate and boric acid to induce mutation in germ and somatic cells under isolated and combined administration with the use of the dominant lethal mutations test and the micronuclei test in the polychromatophilic erythrocytes of the bone marrow...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Lawrence Mj Best, Cynthia Tanguay, Elaine Lennan, Mika Korva, Jean-François Bussières
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs can decrease fertility and result in miscarriages, stillbirths, and cancers in healthcare staff. Several recommended practices aim to reduce this exposure, including protective clothing, gloves, and biological safety cabinets ('safe handling'). There is significant uncertainty as to whether using closed-system drug-transfer devices (CSTD) in addition to safe handling decreases the contamination and risk of staff exposure to infusional hazardous drugs compared to safe handling alone...
March 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Melanie Guerard, Christine Marchand, Jürgen Funk, Francois Christen, Michael Winter, Andreas Zeller
The potential of 4-chloro-ortho-toluidine (4-CloT), an aromatic amine substituted on the ortho- and para-position of the amine function, to induce DNA damage in male Wistar rats was evaluated with the micronucleus test (peripheral blood), Pig-a (peripheral blood) and comet assay (peripheral blood, liver, urinary bladder, jejunum) at several time points. In addition to those markers of DNA damage, i.e. gene mutation and clastogenicity, standard hematology, including methemoglobin (MetHb), histopathology and immunohistochemistry of γ-H2AX and Ki-67 in liver, jejunum and urinary bladder were performed...
March 20, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Madhav Jagannathan, Ryan Cummings, Yukiko M Yamashita
A universal and unquestioned characteristic of eukaryotic cells is that the genome is divided into multiple chromosomes and encapsulated in a single nucleus. However, the underlying mechanism to ensure such a configuration is unknown. Here we provide evidence that pericentromeric satellite DNA, which is often regarded as junk, is a critical constituent of the chromosome, allowing the packaging of all chromosomes into a single nucleus. We show that the multi AT-hook satellite DNA binding proteins, D. melanogaster D1 and mouse HMGA1, play an evolutionarily conserved role in bundling pericentromeric satellite DNA from heterologous chromosomes into 'chromocenters', a cytological association of pericentromeric heterochromatin...
March 26, 2018: ELife
Gildácio Pereira Chaves Filho, Angélica Fernandes Gurgel de Sousa, Rafael Barros Gomes Câmara, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Susana Margarida Gomes Moreira
Marine algae are sources of novel bioactive molecules and present a great potential for biotechnology and biomedical applications. Although green algae are the least studied type of seaweed, several biological activities have already been described for them. Here, we investigated the osteogenic potential of Sulfated Polysaccharides (SPs) enriched samples extracted from the green seaweed Caulerpa prolifera on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton jelly (hMSC-WJ). In addition, their potential genotoxicity was determined, by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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