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Micronuclei

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734215/dna-damage-and-cytotoxicity-induced-on-common-carp-by-pollutants-in-water-from-an-urban-reservoir-mad%C3%A3-n-reservoir-a-case-study
#1
I Pérez-Coyotl, C Martínez-Vieyra, M Galar-Martínez, L M Gómez-Oliván, S García-Medina, H Islas-Flores, R Pérez-Pasten Borja, E Gasca-Pérez, K A Novoa-Luna, O Dublán-García
Madín Reservoir provides a substantial amount of drinking water to two municipalities close to Mexico City metropolitan area. However, it receives untreated wastewater discharges from domestic sources in the towns of Nuevo Madín and others, as well as diverse pollutants which are hauled by the Río Tlalnepantla from its upper reaches, so that the xenobiotics in the reservoir are highly diverse in terms of type and quantity. Previous studies showed that MR is contaminated with xenobiotics such as Al, Hg and Fe, as well as NSAIDs, at concentrations exceeding the limits established for aquatic life protection...
July 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732039/abnormal-meiosis-in-an-intersectional-allotriploid-of-populus-l-and-segregation-of-ploidy-levels-in-2x-%C3%A3-3x-progeny
#2
Jun Wang, Beibei Huo, Wanting Liu, Daili Li, Ling Liao
Triploid plants are usually highly aborted owing to unbalanced meiotic chromosome segregation, but limited viable gametes can participate in the transition to different ploidy levels. In this study, numerous meiotic abnormalities were found with high frequency in an intersectional allotriploid poplar (Populus alba × P. berolinensis 'Yinzhong'), including univalents, precocious chromosome migration, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, and precocious cytokinesis, indicating high genetic imbalance in this allotriploid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714549/increased-level-of-dna-damage-in-some-organs-of-obese-zucker-rats-by-%C3%AE-h2ax-analysis
#3
Alessia Azzarà, Anna Chiaramonte, Erika Filomeni, Barbara Pinto, Stefano Mazzoni, Simona Piaggi, Maria Angela Guzzardi, Fabrizio Bruschi, Patricia Iozzo, Roberto Scarpato
In a recent study, we showed that lymphocytes of obese Italian children/adolescents displayed levels of double strand breaks (DSB), assayed as serine 139-phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), about eightfold higher than normal weight controls, and that 30% of this damage-generated micronuclei. These findings suggested that obese children could be at increased risk of obesity-mediated cancer later in life. We therefore aimed to assess the level of γ-H2AX in a genetic animal model of obesity (Zucker rat) to identify a genotoxic/carcinogenic risk in some organs...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706219/high-temperature-induced-production-of-unreduced-pollen-and-its-cytological-effects-in-populus
#4
Jun Wang, Daili Li, Fengnan Shang, Xiangyang Kang
Temperature change is of potential to trigger the formation of unreduced gametes. In this study, we showed that short periods of high temperature treatment can induce the production of 2n pollen in Populus pseudo-simonii Kitag. The meiotic stage, duration of treatment, and temperature have significant effects on the induction of 2n pollen. Heat stress resulted in meiotic abnormalities, including failure of chromosome separation, chromosome stickiness, laggards and micronuclei. Spindle disorientations in the second meiotic division, such as parallel, fused, and tripolar spindles, either increased in frequency or were induced de novo by high temperature treatment...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702759/evaluation-of-dna-damage-in-tobacco-male-meiocytes-involved-in-cytomixis-using-comet-assay
#5
Sergey Mursalimov, Alla Zagorskaya, Elena Deineko
Cytomixis is a process of nuclear migration between plant cells. As a rule, it is detectable in male meiocytes and gives rise to the cells with micronuclei. Examination of the integrity and functional state of migrating chromatin is of great interest, since cytomixis is assumed to change the gamete karyotype. We, for the first time, used comet assay to assess the DNA integrity in the chromatin that migrates between plant meiocytes. As was shown, the cells involved in cytomixis are viable and display no signs of DNA damage...
July 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702419/scoring-criteria-for-the-evaluation-of-micronuclei-in-oral-exfoliated-cells
#6
Sonal Grover, B R Ahmed Mujib
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690165/p53-mapkapk-2-and-caspases-regulate-nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-induce-cell-death-and-cytogenetic-anomalies-in-rats
#7
Quaiser Saquib, Sabry M Attia, Sabiha M Ansari, Abdullah Al-Salim, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Javed Musarrat, Xiaowei Zhang, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy
The unique properties of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) distinguish it from traditional nickel containing materials, and enable its industrial application as an advanced nanomaterial. Despite the benefits, the in vivo toxicological studies on NiO-NPs have been mainly focused on its pulmonary pathology. However, NiO-NPs exposure via oral route and its subsequent toxic effects in exposed animals are still lacking. Hence, we evaluated the NiO-NPs oral toxicity in male Wistar rats. NiO-NPs induced significant increase in chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN) formation and, DNA damage in rats...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688644/a-mussel-inspired-double-crosslinked-tissue-adhesive-on-rat-mastectomy-model-seroma-prevention-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-biocompatibility
#8
Wenzhen Zhu, Jian Yang, Jabed Iqbal, Yvonne Peck, Changjiang Fan, Dong-An Wang
BACKGROUND: Seroma formation is a common postsurgical complication of breast cancer surgery. It delays wound healing and may lead to other more serious complications. Conventional methods of reducing seroma formation through suturing or placement of surgical drainage produce inconsistent clinical outcomes. Tissue adhesives are viable alternatives but most of them are unsuitable for internal use and for large-area applications because of weak tissue adhesion strength or biocompatibility issues...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685333/chrysotile-and-rock-wool-fibers-induce-chromosome-aberrations-and-dna-damage-in-v79-lung-fibroblast-cells
#9
Yan Cui, Ji Ma, Wei Ye, Zhixia Han, Faqin Dong, Jianjun Deng, Qingbi Zhang
According to global estimates, at least 107,000 people die each year from asbestos-related lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis resulting from occupational exposure. Chrysotile accounts for approximately 90% of asbestos used worldwide. Artificial substitutes can also be cytotoxic to the same degree as chrysotile. But only a few researchers focused on their genetic effects and mutagenicity information which is useful in evaluating the carcinogenicity of chemicals. In this study, chrysotile from Mangnai, Qinghai, China, and an artificial substitute, rock wool fiber were prepared as suspensions and were tested at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml in V79 lung fibroblasts...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673972/fancm-brca1-and-blm-cooperatively-resolve-the-replication-stress-at-the-alt-telomeres
#10
Xiaolei Pan, William C Drosopoulos, Louisa Sethi, Advaitha Madireddy, Carl L Schildkraut, Dong Zhang
In the mammalian genome, certain genomic loci/regions pose greater challenges to the DNA replication machinery (i.e., the replisome) than others. Such known genomic loci/regions include centromeres, common fragile sites, subtelomeres, and telomeres. However, the detailed mechanism of how mammalian cells cope with the replication stress at these loci/regions is largely unknown. Here we show that depletion of FANCM, or of one of its obligatory binding partners, FAAP24, MHF1, and MHF2, induces replication stress primarily at the telomeres of cells that use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway as their telomere maintenance mechanism...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673471/unusual-features-of-non-dividing-somatic-macronuclei-in-the-ciliate-class-karyorelictea
#11
REVIEW
Ying Yan, Anna J Rogers, Feng Gao, Laura A Katz
Genome structure and nuclear organization have been intensely studied in model ciliates such as Tetrahymena and Paramecium, yet few studies have focused on nuclear features of other ciliate clades including the class Karyorelictea. In most ciliates, both the somatic macronuclei and germline micronuclei divide during cell division and macronuclear development only occurs after conjugation. However, the macronuclei of Karyorelictea are non-dividing (i.e. Div-) and develop anew from micronuclei during each asexual division...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669817/deep-ancestry-of-programmed-genome-rearrangement-in-lampreys
#12
Vladimir A Timoshevskiy, Ralph T Lampman, Jon E Hess, Laurie L Porter, Jeramiah J Smith
In most multicellular organisms, the structure and content of the genome is rigorously maintained over the course of development. However some species have evolved genome biologies that permit, or require, developmentally regulated changes in the physical structure and content of the genome (programmed genome rearrangement: PGR). Relatively few vertebrates are known to undergo PGR, although all agnathans surveyed to date (several hagfish and one lamprey: Petromyzon marinus) show evidence of large scale PGR...
June 29, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669154/anti-genotoxicity-evaluation-of-cratoxylum-formosum-dyer-leaves-by-comet-assay-and-micronucleus-test
#13
Ratsada Praphasawat, Narongsak Munkong
Cratoxylum formosum Dyer is the Thai vegetable which commonly consumed a fresh leaves. In this study, we extracted Cratoxylum formosum with water and tested the extract for genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity effects. We carried out the experiment using micronucleus test and comet assay in TK6 cells. In micronucleus experiment, we used cytokinesis-block proliferation technique to stop cell division which produced a cell at binucleated (BNC) stage. The comet assay was carried out after pre-treatment the cell with C...
June 25, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669044/genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-response-to-environmentally-relevant-complex-metal-mixture-zn-cu-ni-cr-pb-cd-accumulated-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-part-i-importance-of-exposure-time-and-tissue-dependence
#14
Milda Stankevičiūtė, Gintarė Sauliutė, Gintaras Svecevičius, Nijolė Kazlauskienė, Janina Baršienė
Health impact of metal mixture at environment realistic concentrations are difficult to predict especially for long-term effects where cause-and-effect relationships may not be directly obvious. This study was aimed to evaluate metal mixture (Zn-0.1, Cu-0.01, Ni-0.01, Cr-0.01, Pb-0.005 and Cd-0.005 mg/L, respectively for 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days at concentrations accepted for the inland waters in EU) genotoxicity (micronuclei, nuclear buds, nuclear buds on filament), cytotoxicity (8-shaped nuclei, fragmented-apoptotic erythrocytes), bioaccumulation, steady-state and the reference level of geno-cytotoxicity in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon tissues...
July 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664144/acute-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-fermented-traditional-medicine-oyaksungi-san
#15
Hwayong Park, Youn-Hwan Hwang, Jin Yeul Ma
BACKGROUND: The traditional medicine oyaksungi-san (OY) has been prescribed in East Asia for hundreds of years for the treatment of stroke, paralysis, and ataxia. OY also has therapeutic effects on arthralgia, myalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis, and recent studies have shown its protective effects against apoptosis of hippocampal cells and its anti-inflammatory effects on the peripheral blood cells of patient with cerebral infarction. Many studies have explored the use of traditional medicine and herb materials in the development of safe, novel, and effective pharmaceuticals with fewer side effects...
June 2017: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655460/bioaccumulation-of-metals-and-biomarkers-of-environmental-stress-in-parablennius-sanguinolentus-pallas-1814-sampled-along-the-italian-coast
#16
Margherita Ferrante, Anna Maria Pappalardo, Venera Ferrito, Valentina Pulvirenti, Carmelo Fruciano, Alfina Grasso, Salvatore Sciacca, Concetta Tigano, Chiara Copat
Heavy metal pollution is one of the greatest threats to the ecosystems because it degrades the habitat and is potentially toxic to wildlife and human populations. In the last few decades, bioaccumulation studies performed with a multimarker approach have been a valuable tool for the investigation of environmental and animal safety. We perform an analysis of a benthic teleost fish species - Parablennius sanguinolentus - sampled at several Italian coastal sites with different degrees of anthropogenic pressure...
June 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650219/interrogating-cell-division-errors-using-random-and-chromosome-specific-missegregation-approaches
#17
Peter Ly, Don W Cleveland
Accurate segregation of the duplicated genome in mitosis is essential for maintaining genetic stability. Errors in this process can cause numerical and/or structural chromosome abnormalities - hallmark genomic features commonly associated with both tumorigenesis and developmental disorders. A cell-based approach was recently developed permitting inducible missegregation of the human Y chromosome by selectively disrupting kinetochore assembly onto the Y centromere. Although this strategy initially requires several steps of genetic manipulation, it is easy to use, highly efficient and specific for the Y without affecting the autosomes or the X, and does not require cell cycle synchronization or mitotic perturbation...
June 26, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645274/buccal-mucosa-micronuclei-counts-in-relation-to-exposure-to-low-dose-rate-radiation-from-the-chornobyl-nuclear-accident-and-other-medical-and-occupational-radiation-exposures
#18
D Bazyka, S C Finch, I M Ilienko, O Lyaskivska, I Dyagil, N Trotsiuk, N Gudzenko, V V Chumak, K M Walsh, J Wiemels, M P Little, L B Zablotska
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen. Chromosome aberrations, and in particular micronuclei represent an early biological predictor of cancer risk. There are well-documented associations of micronuclei with ionizing radiation dose in some radiation-exposed groups, although not all. That associations are not seen in all radiation-exposed groups may be because cells with micronuclei will not generally pass through mitosis, so that radiation-induced micronuclei decay, generally within a few years after exposure...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644429/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-studies-of-essential-oil-from-rosa-damascene-mill-kashan-iran
#19
Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Emran Habibi, Mona Modanloo
Aim Rosa damascene Mill. belongs to the family of Roseaceae and its essential oil is produced in large amounts in Iran. The wide application of rose oil has raised questions about potential adverse health effects. We have investigated cytotoxic activity and genotoxic effects of Rosa oil from Kashan, Iran. Methods The cytotoxic effect and IC50 of the essential oil on the cell lines was studied followed by MTT assay. In this assay mitochondrial oxidoreductase enzymes with reducing the tetrazolium dye MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reflect the number of viable cells...
August 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643089/time-lapse-observation-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-a-case-with-repeated-multiple-pronuclei-after-ivf-icsi
#20
J Dai, L Z Leng, C F Lu, F Gong, S P Zhang, W Zheng, G X Lu, G Lin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause of repeated multipronucleus (MPN) formation in zygotes in a patient after both in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). METHOD: This is a case study. A patient had unexplained primary infertility with recurring total MPN zygotes after IVF and ICSI cycles. Time-lapse monitoring of pronucleus formation was carried out. Embryos developed from MPN zygotes were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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