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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820083/threonine-deficiency-decreased-intestinal-immunity-and-aggravated-inflammation-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-target-of-rapamycin-signalling-pathways-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-after-infection-with-aeromonas-hydrophila
#1
Yu-Wen Dong, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99-21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819871/health-related-quality-of-life-and-patients-empowerment-in-the-health-care-of-primary-immune-deficiencies
#2
EDITORIAL
Isabella Quinti, Federica Pulvirenti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818858/pai-1-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-expression-renders-alternatively-activated-human-macrophages-proteolytically-quiescent
#3
Philipp J Hohensinner, Johanna Baumgartner, Julia B Kral-Pointner, Pavel Uhrin, Benjamin Ebenbauer, Barbara Thaler, Konstantin Doberer, Stefan Stojkovic, Svitlana Demyanets, Michael B Fischer, Kurt Huber, Gernot Schabbauer, Walter S Speidl, Johann Wojta
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages are versatile immune cells capable of polarizing into functional subsets depending on environmental stimulation. In atherosclerotic lesions, proinflammatory polarized macrophages are associated with symptomatic plaques, whereas Th2 cytokine-polarized macrophages are inversely related with disease progression. To establish a functional cause for these observations, we analyzed extracellular matrix degradation phenotypes in polarized macrophages. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We provide evidence that proinflammatory polarized macrophages rely on membrane-bound proteases including matrix metalloproteinase 14 and the serine protease uPA (urokinase plasminogen activator) together with its receptor uPAR for extracellular matrix degradation...
August 17, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818753/benzoylsalicylic-acid-derivatives-as-defense-activators-in-tobacco-and-arabidopsis
#4
Samuel Kamatham, Reddanna Pallu, Anil Kumar Pasupulati, Surya Satyanarayana Singh, Padmaja Gudipalli
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a long lasting inducible whole plant immunity often induced by either pathogens or chemical elicitors. Salicylic acid (SA) is a known SAR signal against a broad spectrum of pathogens in plants. In a recent study, we have reported that benzoylsalicylic acid (BzSA) is a SAR inducer in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants. Here, we have synthesized BzSA derivatives using SA and benzoyl chlorides of various moieties as substrates. The chemical structures of BzSA derivatives were elucidated using Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) and High-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) analysis...
August 14, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815858/loss-of-chloroplast-localized-protein-phosphatase-2cs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-leads-to-enhancement-of-the-plant-immunity-and-resistance-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-infection
#5
Chiharu Akimoto-Tomiyama, Shigeru Tanabe, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Eiichi Minami, Hirokazu Ochiai
Protein phosphatases (PPs) counteract kinases in reversible phosphorylation events during numerous signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. PP2Cs, one of the four major classes of serine/threonine specific PPs family is greatly expanded in plants. Thus PP2C is thought to have a specific role in a signal transduction pathway. Some rice PP2Cs classified to subgroup K were responsive to the infection by the compatible Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight. In A. thaliana, orthologous PP2C genes (AtPP2C62 and AtPP2C26) classified to subgroup K were also responsive to Xanthomonas campestris pv...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815217/deletion-of-cytoplasmic-double-stranded-rna-sensors-does-not-uncover-viral-small-interfering-rna-production-in-human-cells
#6
Susan Schuster, Lotte E Tholen, Gijs J Overheul, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Ronald P van Rij
Antiviral immunity in insects and plants is mediated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in which viral long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by Dicer enzymes. Although this pathway is evolutionarily conserved, its involvement in antiviral defense in mammals is the subject of debate. In vertebrates, recognition of viral RNA induces a sophisticated type I interferon (IFN)-based immune response, and it has been proposed that this response masks or inhibits antiviral RNAi...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815025/oesophageal-candidiasis-and-squamous-cell-cancer-in-patients-with-gain-of-function-stat1-gene-mutation
#7
Sara Koo, Deepak Kejariwal, Tariq Al-Shehri, Anjan Dhar, Desa Lilic
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal candidiasis is a common, usually self-limiting opportunistic infection, but long-term infection with Candida is known to predispose to oral and oesophageal squamous cell cancer (SCC). Permissive factors that lead to immune deficiencies can underlie persistent or recurring candidiasis, called chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Secondary immune deficiencies are most often due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, antibiotic use and immunosuppressive treatment (steroids, chemotherapy)...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814779/the-beach-protein-lrba-promotes-the-localization-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein-golf-to-olfactory-cilia
#8
Stefan Kurtenbach, Andreas Gießl, Siv Strömberg, Jan Kremers, Jenny Atorf, Sebastian Rasche, Eva M Neuhaus, Denis Hervé, Johann Helmut Brandstätter, Esther Asan, Hanns Hatt, Manfred W Kilimann
BEACH domain proteins are involved in membrane protein traffic and human diseases, but their molecular mechanisms are not understood. The BEACH protein LRBA has been implicated in immune response and cell proliferation, and human LRBA mutations cause severe immune deficiency. Here, we report a first functional and molecular phenotype outside the immune system of LRBA-knockout mice: compromised olfaction, manifesting in reduced electro-olfactogram response amplitude, impaired food-finding efficiency, and smaller olfactory bulbs...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814733/enhancing-immune-responses-to-cancer-vaccines-using-multi-site-injections
#9
Robert C Mould, Amanda W K AuYeung, Jacob P van Vloten, Leonardo Susta, Anthony J Mutsaers, James J Petrik, Geoffrey A Wood, Sarah K Wootton, Khalil Karimi, Byram W Bridle
For a vaccine to be effective it must induce a sufficiently robust and specific immune response. Multi-site injection protocols can increase the titers of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. Hypothetically, spreading a vaccine dose across multiple lymphatic drainage regions could also potentiate T cell responses. We used a replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-vectored cancer vaccine targeting the melanoma-associated antigen dopachrome tautomerase. Clinically, high numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells are a positive prognostic indicator...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814433/personalized-medicine-based-approach-to-model-patterns-of-chemoresistance-and-tumor-recurrence-using-ovarian-cancer-stem-cell-spheroids
#10
Shreya Raghavan, Pooja Mehta, Maria W Ward, Michael E Bregenzer, Elyse M A Fleck, Lijun Tan, Karen McLean, Ronald Buckanovich, Geeta Mehta
PURPOSE: Chemoresistant ovarian cancers grow in suspension within the ascites fluid. In order to screen the effect of chemotherapeutics and biologics on resistant ovarian cancers with a personalized basis, we developed a 3D hanging drop spheroid platform. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We initiated spheroids with primary ALDH+ CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs) from different patient samples, and demonstrated that stem cell progeny from harvested spheroids was similar to the primary tumor...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814408/intrinsic-maturational-neonatal-immune-deficiencies-and-susceptibility-to-group-b-streptococcus-infection
#11
REVIEW
Michelle L Korir, Shannon D Manning, H Dele Davies
Although a normal member of the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiota, group B Streptococcus (GBS) can also occasionally be the cause of highly invasive neonatal disease and is an emerging pathogen in both elderly and immunocompromised adults. Neonatal GBS infections are typically transmitted from mother to baby either in utero or during passage through the birth canal and can lead to pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis within the first few months of life. Compared to the adult immune system, the neonatal immune system has a number of deficiencies, making neonates more susceptible to infection...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814356/pneumococcal-13-valent-conjugate-vaccine-administration-after-inferior-response-to-pneumococcal-vaccine
#12
Ratika Gupta, Chak Shui Wong, Luz Fonacier
BACKGROUND: The pneumococcal vaccine, a nonconjugated vaccine, may be used to evaluate the integrity of the humoral immune system. Those patients with an inferior response to a nonconjugated vaccine may be vaccinated with a conjugated vaccine, which elicits both a B- and T-cell response. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the immunogenicity of a conjugated vaccine in patients with inferior responses to a nonconjugated vaccine. METHODS: This was an institutional review board approved retrospective study that involved 22 patients with suspected specific antibody deficiency who received a nonconjugated vaccine, followed by a conjugated vaccine...
September 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814219/coeliac-disease-review-of-diagnosis-and-management
#13
Marjorie M Walker, Jonas F Ludvigsson, David S Sanders
Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disease triggered by exposure to gluten, and manifested by small intestinal enteropathy and gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Recent guidelines recommend a concerted use of clear definitions of the disease. In Australia, the most recent estimated prevalence is 1.2% in adult men (1:86) and 1.9% in adult women (1:52). Active case finding is appropriate to diagnose coeliac disease in high risk groups. Diagnosis of coeliac disease is important to prevent nutritional deficiency and long term risk of gastrointestinal malignancy...
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812413/unusual-retinopathy-in-a-child-with-severe-combined-immune-deficiency
#14
Christina Gerth-Kahlert, Amit Tiwari, Mathias M Hauri-Hohl, James V M Hanson, Angela Bahr, Anja Palmowski-Wolfe, Tayfun Güngör, Wolfgang Berger
We describe a case of an infant diagnosed with severe combined immune deficiency (Adenosine Deaminase (ADA), SCID) with severe retinopathy and associated low vision in both eyes at first examination. An extensive infectious work up revealed an enterovirus infection, which suggested an early infectious and severe retinopathy. Genetic causes of congenital retinitis pigmentosa/ Leber's congenital amaurosis could be excluded by whole exome sequencing.
August 16, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811925/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-to-be-expected-due-to-immune-changes-related-to-mental-health-problems
#15
Annie Swanepoel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811651/inkt-cells-prevent-obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-in-a-c-c-chemokine-receptor-7-dependent-manner
#16
H M Kim, R Lee, E S Lee, M H Kwon, J H Huh, B-E Kwon, E-K Park, S-Y Chang, M-N Kweon, P-H Kim, H-J Ko, C H Chung
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are characterized by an increase in hepatic triglyceride content with infiltration of immune cells, which can cause steatohepatitis and hepatic insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is primarily expressed in immune cells, and CCR7 deficiency leads to the development of multi-organ autoimmunity, chronic renal disease, and autoimmune diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of CCR7 on hepatic steatosis in a mouse model and its underlying mechanism...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811580/%C3%AE-eta-2-glycoprotein-i-protects-mice-against-gram-negative-septicaemia-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-manner
#17
Fatima El-Assaad, Miao Qi, Alice Kizny Gordon, Jian Qi, Shangwen Dong, Freda Passam, James Crofton Weaver, Bill Giannakopoulos, Steven Anthony Krilis
The immune responses of males and females to bacterial infections display differences. The mechanisms that underlie this sexual dimorphism are multifactorial. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to the pathogenesis of endotoxaemia. We have previously demonstrated that the plasma protein beta-2 glycoprotein-1 (β2GPI) reduces LPS-induced inflammation in male mice. In the present study using a more robust infection model of septicaemia the role of β2GPI is examined in both male and female wild type (WT) and β2GPI deficient (β2GPI(-/-)) mice challenged with Escherichia coli (E...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811575/biological-and-functional-characterization-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-patients-affected-by-primary-immunodeficiency
#18
Nadia Starc, Daniela Ingo, Antonella Conforti, Valeria Rossella, Luigi Tomao, Angela Pitisci, Fabiola De Mattia, Immacolata Brigida, Mattia Algeri, Mauro Montanari, Giuseppe Palumbo, Pietro Merli, Paolo Rossi, Alessandro Aiuti, Franco Locatelli, Maria Ester Bernardo
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a key component of bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and display immune-regulatory properties. We performed a detailed analysis of biological/functional properties of BM-MSCs derived from 33 pediatric patients affected by primary immune-deficiencies (PID-MSCs): 7 Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), 15 Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), 11 Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID). Results were compared with MSCs from 15 age-matched pediatric healthy-donors (HD-MSCs). Clonogenic and proliferative capacity, differentiation ability, immunophenotype, immunomodulatory properties were analyzed...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811476/lyn-and-fyn-function-as-molecular-switches-that-control-immunoreceptors-to-direct-homeostasis-or-inflammation
#19
Sanae Ben Mkaddem, Amaya Murua, Héloise Flament, Dimitri Titeca-Beauport, Carine Bounaix, Luca Danelli, Pierre Launay, Marc Benhamou, Ulrich Blank, Eric Daugas, Nicolas Charles, Renato C Monteiro
Immunoreceptors can transduce either inhibitory or activatory signals depending on ligand avidity and phosphorylation status, which is modulated by the protein kinases Lyn and Fyn. Here we show that Lyn and Fyn control immune receptor signaling status. SHP-1 tyrosine 536 phosphorylation by Lyn activates the phosphatase promoting inhibitory signaling through the immunoreceptor. By contrast, Fyn-dependent phosphorylation of SHP-1 serine 591 inactivates the phosphatase, enabling activatory immunoreceptor signaling...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811340/type-iii-interferon-mediated-signaling-is-critical-for-controlling-live-attenuated-yellow-fever-virus-infection-in-vivo
#20
Florian Douam, Yentli E Soto Albrecht, Gabriela Hrebikova, Evita Sadimin, Christian Davidson, Sergei V Kotenko, Alexander Ploss
Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. The live attenuated vaccine strain, YFV-17D, has significantly contributed in controlling the global burden of yellow fever worldwide. However, the viral and host contributions to YFV-17D attenuation remain elusive. Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling and type II interferon (IFN-γ) signaling have been shown to be mutually supportive in controlling YFV-17D infection despite distinct mechanisms of action in viral infection...
August 15, 2017: MBio
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