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Immune deficiency

Beatriz T Costa-Carvalho, Kathleen E Sullivan, Patrícia M Fontes, Fernanda Aimé-Nobre, Isabela G S Gonzales, Elaine S Lima, Celso Granato, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
PURPOSE: Poliovirus has been nearly eliminated as part of a world-wide effort to immunize and contain circulating wild-type polio. Nevertheless, poliovirus has been detected in water supplies and represents a threat to patients with humoral immunodeficiencies where infection can be fatal. To define the risk, we analyzed antibodies to poliovirus 1, 2, and 3 in serum samples collected over a year from patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) on regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Lingyu Yang, Chao Liu, Wenjing Zhao, Chuan He, Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Ke Xu, Lu Xiao, Lingxiao Luo, Shuyun Liu, Wei Li, He Meng
Establishing and maintaining beneficial interactions between the host and associated gut microbiota are pivotal requirements for host health. Autophagy is an important catabolic recycling pathway that degrades long-lived proteins and some organelles by lysosome to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although impaired autophagy is thought to be closely correlated with Crohn's disease (CD), the functional role of autophagy in the maintenance of gut microbiota is poorly understood. As autophagy-related 5 ( Atg5 ) is a key gene associated with the extension of the phagophoric membrane in autophagic vesicles, we established a gut-specific Atg5 knockout mouse model, and found that the disruption of autophagic flux in the intenstinal epithelium cells dramatically altered the composition of the gut microbiota and reduced alpha diversity...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Naomi Shimoda, Ragab M Fereig, Tomoya Moritaka, Kousuke Umeda, Maki Nishimura, Fumiaki Ihara, Kaoru Kobayashi, Yuu Himori, Yutaka Suzuki, Hidefumi Furuoka
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii Neosporosis caused by N. caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle and nervous-system dysfunction in dogs, and identification of the virulence factors of this parasite is important for the development of control measures. Here, we used a luciferase reporter assay to screen the dense granule proteins genes of N. caninum , and found that NcGRA6, NcGRA7, and NcGRA14 are involved in the activation of the NF-κB, calcium/calcineurin, and cAMP/PKA signals...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Greilys Morejón García, Iria García de la Rosa, Ernesto C González Reyes, Anett Rubio Torres, Joel M Quintana Guerra, Milenén Hernández Marín, Pedro L Pérez Mora, Sadys Feal Carballo, Yesdiley Lafita Delfino, Maylín Pupo Infante, Elisa M Castells Martínez, Alik Rosabal Poloshkov, Liliana Hernández Pérez
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of one of the five enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of corticosteroids. The most common form of the disease is the lack of 21-hydroxylase which provokes an accumulation of high levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), the main biochemical marker for illness detection. Given the significance of neonatal diagnosis for ensuring a timely treatment to patients suffering from CAH, newborn screening is worldwide performed for the determination of 17-OHP from dried blood spots on filter paper...
July 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Tyler A Herek, Jacob E Robinson, Tayla B Heavican, Catalina Amador, Javeed Iqbal, Christine E Cutucache
OBJECTIVE: Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is known for its role as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene, harboring a highly context-dependent role within a myriad of malignancies and cell types. In an immunological context, dysregulation of CAV1 expression has been shown to alter immunological signaling functions and suggests a pivotal role for CAV1 in the facilitation of proper immune responses. Nonetheless, it is still unknown how Cav1-deficiency and heterozygosity would impact the development and composition of lymphoid organs in mice...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Shou-Sheng Liu, Yuan-Zhong Yang, Chang Jiang, Qi Quan, Qian-Kun Xie, Xiao-Pai Wang, Wen-Zhuo He, Yu-Ming Rong, Ping Chen, Qiong Yang, Lin Yang, Bei Zhang, Xiao-Jun Xia, Peng-Fei Kong, Liang-Ping Xia
BACKGROUND: Currently, mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) status is a promising candidate for targeted immune checkpoint inhibition therapy in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, however, the potential immunological mechanism has not yet been well clarified and some other predictors need to be excavated as well. METHODS: We collected 330 CRC patients by the match of mismatch repair-proficient (167) and dMMR (163), explored the relationship between MMR status and some important immune molecules including MHC class I, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand-1, and investigated the risk factors for dMMR status as well as low MHC class I expression...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Xudong Peng, Guiqiu Zhao, Jing Lin, Jianqiu Qu, Yingxue Zhang, Cui Li
BACKGROUND: Fungal keratitis (FK) is a sight-threatening disease, accounting for a significant portion with its complex presentation, suboptimal efficacy of the existing therapies and uncontrollable excessive innate inflammation. Phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role at the early period of innate immunity. This study aimed to identify the role of PLCγ2 in Dectin-1-mediated Ca2+ Flux and its effect on the expression of proinflammatory mediators at the exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A...
July 13, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Muhammad Omar, Ashwyna Sunassee, Matthew Hayes, Jennifer L Hsu
Nocardia is a genus of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria that most commonly infect persons with compromised immunity. Pneumonia and soft tissue infections are seen most frequently; osteomyelitis is an uncommonly reported manifestation of nocardiosis. We report a case of pelvic osteomyelitis due to Nocardia asteroides in a patient with unrecognized acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) without evidence of concomitant pulmonary or skin infection.
July 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas, Cong Wu, Bruce R Southey, Jason C O'Connor, Scott E Nixon, Robmay Garcia, Cynthia Zavala, Marcus Lawson, Robert H McCusker, Elena V Romanova, Jonathan V Sweedler, Keith W Kelley, Robert Dantzer
BACKGROUND: Peripheral immune challenge can elicit microglia activation and depression-related symptoms. The balance of inflammatory signals in the tryptophan pathway can skew the activity of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO1) towards the metabolization of tryptophan into kynurenine (rather than serotonin), and towards neuroprotective or neurotoxic metabolites. The proteome changes that accompany inflammation-associated depression-related behaviors are incompletely understood...
June 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Fei Yu, Wen Li, Lili Wang, Yu Dai, Xin Lu, Qian Wang, Lan Xie, Shibo Jiang
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs), including nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs), are critical antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Emergence of multi-RTI resistance calls for the development of more potent therapeutics or regimens against RTI-resistant strains. Here, we demonstrated that combining azidothymidine (AZT) with a new NNRTIs under development, diarylpyridine (DAPA)-2e, diarylanilin (DAAN)-14h, or DAAN-15h, resulted in strong synergism against infection by divergent HIV-1 strains, including those resistant to NRTIs and NNRTIs, suggesting the potential for developing these novel NNRTIs as salvage therapy for HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients...
July 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hui-Li Wong, Michael Christie, Lucy Gately, Jeanne Tie, Belinda Lee, Christine Semira, Sheau Wen Lok, Rachel Wong, Peter Gibbs
While mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency has been studied extensively, the assessment of MMR status in colorectal and other cancers remains highly relevant, particularly in light of recent data demonstrating that MMR deficiency is a strong predictor for treatment benefit with immune checkpoint inhibitors across multiple tumor types. In colorectal cancer, there is a growing consensus in support of routine MMR testing for Lynch syndrome screening, to inform prognosis and adjuvant chemotherapy use in early stage disease, and to predict response to immunotherapy in advanced disease...
July 13, 2018: Future Oncology
Andreas Patsalos, Zoltan Simandi, Tristan T Hays, Matthew Peloquin, Matine Hajian, Isabella Restrepo, Paul M Coen, Alan J Russell, Laszlo Nagy
Tissue regeneration is a highly coordinated process with sequential events including immune cell infiltration, clearance of damaged tissues, and immune-supported regrowth of the tissue. Aging has a well-documented negative impact on this process globally; however, whether changes in immune cells per se are contributing to the decline in the body's ability to regenerate tissues with aging is not clearly understood. Here, we set out to characterize the dynamics of macrophage infiltration and their functional contribution to muscle regeneration by comparing young and aged animals upon acute sterile injury...
July 12, 2018: Aging Cell
Zivan M Babic, Filip Z Zunic, Jelena M Pantic, Gordana D Radosavljevic, Ivan P Jovanovic, Nebojsa N Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening disease mediated by profound disturbances in systemic inflammatory response to infection. IL-33 is multifunctional regulator of numerous aspects of innate and adaptive immune response. The aim of this article was to further evaluate the role of IL-33 receptor (ST2) in different pathways of innate immunity during early polymicrobial sepsis. METHODS: Polymicrobial sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model in ST2 deficient (ST2-/- ) and wild type BALB/c mice...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
María Eugenia Loureiro, Andre Luiz Zorzetto-Fernandes, Sheli Radoshitzky, Xiaoli Chi, Simone Dallari, Nuha Marooki, Psylvia Lèger, Sabrina Foscaldi, Vince Harjono, Sonia Sharma, Brian M Zid, Nora López, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Sina Bavari, Elina Zúñiga
Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) diseases that are associated with high morbidity and mortality in humans. Accordingly, HF arenaviruses have been listed as top-priority emerging diseases for which countermeasures are urgently needed. Because arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) plays critical roles in both virus multiplication and immune-evasion, we used an unbiased proteomic approach to identify NP-interacting proteins in human cells. DDX3, a DEAD-box ATP-dependent-RNA-helicase, interacted with NP in both NP-transfected and virus-infected cells...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Camila Cordero R, Francisca Prado S, Paulina Bravo J
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common disease with a prevalence of 2-7%, increasingly so. It is characterized by an allergic reaction to one or more cow's milk proteins. There are not pathog nomonic clinical symptoms, and these will depend on the type of immune reaction involved. A good diagnostic approach avoids under and over diagnosis and, therefore, under and over treatment. The CMPA treatment is the elimination of cow's milk protein from the diet. A restricted diet in a child does not require it or who has developed tolerance can alter growth, quality of life, including unne cessary costs...
June 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Koji Matsuo, Samantha E Spragg, Marcia A Ciccone, Erin A Blake, Charité Ricker, Huyen Q Pham, Lynda D Roman
Tumors deficient in DNA mismatch repair are known to display increased susceptibility to immune checkpoint inhibitors due to accumulation of DNA damage and increased neoantigen load. This suggests that deficiency in the BRCA -related DNA repair mechanism may also be a surrogate marker for immunotherapy response. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, in women with BRCA gene mutations and recurrent müllerian cancer. This retrospective case series followed six BRCA carriers who received nivolumab monotherapy (3...
August 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Mohammedaman Mama, Aseer Manilal, Haile Tesfa, Hawa Mohammed, Endeshaw Erbo
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an extremely contagious disease detrimentally affecting virtually every organ, most importantly the lungs. Pulmonary complications have been one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality since the advent of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) pandemic. The AIDS virus has considerably reshape the epidemiology of TB by widening the risk of reactivating latent TB, increasing the possibility of TB infection once contracted to tubercle bacilli (re-infection) and by elevating the risk of rapid progression instantly after the infection...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
Tinhinane Fali, Véronique Fabre-Mersseman, Takuya Yamamoto, Charles Bayard, Laura Papagno, Solène Fastenackels, Rima Zoorab, Richard A Koup, Jacques Boddaert, Delphine Sauce, Victor Appay
The maintenance of effective immunity over time is dependent on the capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to sustain the pool of immunocompetent mature cells. Decline of immune competence with old age may stem from HSC defects, including reduced self-renewal potential and impaired lymphopoiesis, as suggested in murine models. To obtain further insights into aging-related alteration of hematopoiesis, we performed a comprehensive study of blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from older humans. In the elderly, HPCs present active oxidative phosphorylation and are pressed to enter cell cycling...
July 12, 2018: JCI Insight
Carl Allen, Rebecca Marsh, Peter Dawson, Catherine M Bollard, Shalini Shenoy, Philip Roehrs, Rabi Hanna, Lauri Burroughs, Leslie Kean, Julie-An Talano, Kirk R Schultz, Sung-Yun Pai, K Scott Baker, Jeffrey R Andolina, Elizabeth O Stenger, James Connelly, Alyssa Ramirez, Christopher Bryant, Mary Eapen, Michael A Pulsipher
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with myeloablative conditioning for disorders associated with excessive inflammation such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is associated with early mortality. A multicenter prospective phase 2 trial of reduced intensity conditioning with melphalan, fludarabine and intermediate-timing alemtuzumab was conducted for HLA matched or single HLA-locus mismatched related or unrelated donor HCT in a largely pediatric cohort. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine with methylprednisolone...
July 11, 2018: Blood
Ninad Mehta, Emeka K Enwere, Theodore Dos Santos, Holly A Saffran, Bart Hazes, David Evans, Michele Barry, James R Smiley
Poxviruses encode many proteins with the ability to regulate cellular signaling pathways. One such protein is the vaccinia virus innate immunity modulator E3. Multiple functions have been ascribed to E3, including modulating the cellular response to double stranded RNA, inhibiting the NF-κB and IRF3 pathways, and dampening apoptosis. Apoptosis serves as a powerful defense against damaged and unwanted cells and is an effective defense against viral infection; many viruses therefore encode proteins that prevent or delay apoptosis...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
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