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stem cell in cardiology

Imre J Pavo, Ina Michel-Behnke
Although the incidence of pediatric heart failure is low, the mortality is relatively high, with severe clinical symptoms requiring repeated hospitalization or intensive care treatment in the surviving patients. Cardiac biopsy specimens have revealed a higher number of resident human cardiac progenitor cells, with greater proliferation and differentiation capacity, in the neonatal period as compared with adults, demonstrating the regeneration potential of the young heart, with rising interest in cardiac regeneration therapy in critically ill pediatric patients...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
Mikhail Maslov, Stephan Foianini, Mark Lovich
Local myocardial delivery (LMD) of therapeutic agents is a promising strategy that aims to treat various myocardial pathologies. It is designed to deliver agents directly to the myocardium and minimize their extracardiac concentrations and side effects. LMD aims to enhance outcomes of existing therapies by broadening their therapeutic window and to utilize new agents that could not be otherwise be implemented systemically. Areas covered: This article provides a historical overview of six decades LMD evolution in terms of the approaches, including intrapericardial, epicardial, and intramyocardial delivery, and the wide array of classes of agents used to treat myocardial pathologies...
February 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Shant Der Sarkissian, Thierry Lévesque, Nicolas Noiseux
Cell therapy has the potential to improve healing of ischemic heart, repopulate injured myocardium and restore cardiac function. The tremendous hope and potential of stem cell therapy is well understood, yet recent trials involving cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases have yielded mixed results with inconsistent data thereby readdressing controversies and unresolved questions regarding stem cell efficacy for ischemic cardiac disease treatment. These controversies are believed to arise by the lack of uniformity of the clinical trial methodologies, uncertainty regarding the underlying reparative mechanisms of stem cells, questions concerning the most appropriate cell population to use, the proper delivery method and timing in relation to the moment of infarction, as well as the poor stem cell survival and engraftment especially in a diseased microenvironment which is collectively acknowledged as a major hindrance to any form of cell therapy...
January 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
Fang Chen, Ming Ma, Junxin Wang, Fang Wang, Shi-Xiong Chern, Eric Ruike Zhao, Anamik Jhunjhunwala, Sean Darmadi, Hangrong Chen, Jesse V Jokerst
Ultrasound is critical in many areas of medicine including obstetrics, oncology, and cardiology with emerging applications in regenerative medicine. However, one critical limitation of ultrasound is the low contrast of target tissue over background. Here, we describe a novel cup-shaped silica nanoparticle that is reminiscent of exosomes and that has significant ultrasound impedance mismatch for labelling stem cells for regenerative medicine imaging. These exosome-like silica nanoparticles (ELS) were created through emulsion templating and the silica precursors bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) and bis(3-trimethoxysilyl-propyl)amine (TSPA)...
January 7, 2017: Nanoscale
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Kamila Bujko, Wojciech Wojakowski
Humans, like other species that reproduce sexually, originate from a fertilized oocyte (zygote), which is a totipotent stem cell giving rise to an adult organism. During the process of embryogenesis, stem cells at different levels of the developmental hierarchy establish all 3 germ layers and give rise to tissue‑committed stem cells, which are responsible for rejuvenation of a given tissue or organ. The robustness of the stem cell compartment is one of the major factors that directly impact life quality as well as lifespan...
November 10, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Duygu Kocyigit, Kadri Murat Gurses, Muhammed Ulvi Yalcin, Lale Tokgozoglu
Refractory angina (RFA) is an unfavourable condition that is characterized with persistent angina due to reversible myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease that remains uncontrollable despite an optimal combination of pharmacological agents and revascularization. Despite significant advances in revascularization techniques and agents used in pharmacological therapy, there is a significant population suffering from RFA and the global prevalence is even increasing. Anti- anginal treatment and secondary risk-factor modification are the traditional approaches for this group of patients...
November 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Alexandru Scafa-Udrişte, Maria DorobanŢu
Findings in the cardiology field from the last three decades of the 20th century were ruled by the theory that the heart is a post-mitotic organ, incapable to regenerate. Recent studies have brought evidences regarding the existence of some cells residing in the adult heart, having stem properties. These cardiac stem cells (CSCs) govern myocardial homeostasis and repair by differentiating into new cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells and also by releasing proangiogenic and procardiogenic cytokines...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Peter Paul Zwetsloot, Hendrik Gremmels, Birgit Assmus, Stefan Koudstaal, Joost P G Sluijter, Andreas M Zeiher, Steven A J Chamuleau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2016: Circulation Research
Steven Kesten, John K Fraser
Adipose derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells including multipotent adipose derived stems cells, other progenitor cells, fibroblasts, T-regulatory cells, and macrophages. Preclinical data exist supporting benefits that are predominantly through angiogenesis, modulation of inflammation, and wound remodeling. Such effects are likely paracrine in nature. The application of autologous ADRCs has been investigated across multiple therapeutic areas. While there are numerous publications, there is a relative lack of double-blind, well-controlled, randomized clinical trials in the literature...
October 26, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Ivan Varga, Lubos Danisovic, Jan Kyselovic, Andrea Gazova, Peter Musil, Michal Miko, Stefan Polak
Key morphological discoveries in recent years have included the discovery of new cell populations inside the heart called cardiac telocytes. These newly described cells of the connective tissue have extremely long cytoplasmic processes through which they form functionally connected three-dimensional networks that connect cells of the immune system, nerve fibers, cardiac stem cells, and cardiac muscle cells. Based on their functions, telocytes are also referred to as "connecting cells" or "nurse cells" for cardiac progenitor stem cells...
May 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Juliana de Souza Rebouças, Nereide Stela Santos-Magalhães, Fabio Rocha Formiga
Myocardial infarction is the most significant manifestation of ischemic heart disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Novel strategies targeting at regenerating the injured myocardium have been investigated, including gene therapy, cell therapy, and the use of growth factors. Growth factor therapy has aroused interest in cardiovascular medicine because of the regeneration mechanisms induced by these biomolecules, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, cardiomyocyte proliferation, stem-cell recruitment, and others...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Dries A M Feyen, Frederieke van den Akker, Willy Noort, Steven A J Chamuleau, Pieter A Doevendans, Joost P G Sluijter
Large animal models are an important preclinical tool for the evaluation of new interventions and their translation into clinical practice. The pig is a widely used animal model in multiple clinical fields, such as cardiology and orthopedics, and has been at the forefront of testing new therapeutics, including cell-based therapies. In the clinic, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used autologously, therefore isolated, and administrated into the same patient. For successful clinical translation of autologous approaches, the porcine model needs to test MSC in a similar manner...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ian A White, Cristina Sanina, Wayne Balkan, Joshua M Hare
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for more deaths globally than any other single disease. There are on average 1.5 million episodes of myocardial infarction (heart attack) each year in the United States alone with roughly one-third resulting in death. There is therefore a major need for developing new and effective strategies to promote cardiac repair. Intramyocardial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as a leading contender in the pursuit of clinical intervention and therapy. MSCs are potent mediators of cardiac repair and are therefore an attractive tool in the development of preclinical and clinical trials...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anne Blaes, Suma Konety, Peter Hurley
Survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are at significant risk for cardiac disease and cardiac complications. While there may be cardiac complications during the acute period of HSCT, long-term survivors remain at risk for cardiovascular disease at a rate at least fourfold higher than the general population. Aggressive screening for cardiac risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and arrhythmias is warranted pretransplant. For those with risk factors, particularly a history of cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation, cardiology consultation is warranted in the pretransplantation period...
April 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Nina Xie, Beisha Tang
In principle, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are generated from somatic cells by reprogramming and gaining the capacity to self-renew indefinitely as well as the ability to differentiate into cells of different lineages. Human iPSCs have absolute advantages over human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and animal models in disease modeling, drug screening, and cell replacement therapy. Since Takahashi and Yamanaka first described in 2007 that iPSCs can be generated from human adult somatic cells by retroviral transduction of the four transcription factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, disease specific iPSC lines have sprung up worldwide like bamboo shoots after a spring rain, making iPSC one of the hottest and fastest moving topics in modern science...
2016: Stem Cells International
Hideki Uosaki, Patrick Cahan, Dong I Lee, Songnan Wang, Matthew Miyamoto, Laviel Fernandez, David A Kass, Chulan Kwon
Decades of progress in developmental cardiology has advanced our understanding of the early aspects of heart development, including cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation. However, control of the CM maturation that is subsequently required to generate adult myocytes remains elusive. Here, we analyzed over 200 microarray datasets from early embryonic to adult hearts and identified a large number of genes whose expression shifts gradually and continuously during maturation. We generated an atlas of integrated gene expression, biological pathways, transcriptional regulators, and gene regulatory networks (GRNs), which show discrete sets of key transcriptional regulators and pathways activated or suppressed during CM maturation...
November 24, 2015: Cell Reports
Chi Y Lo, Brian R Weil, Beth A Palka, Arezoo Momeni, John M Canty, Sriram Neelamegham
Promising results are emerging in clinical trials focused on stem cell therapy for cardiology applications. However, the low homing and engraftment of the injected cells to target tissue continues to be a problem. Cellular glycoengineering can address this limitation by enabling the targeting of stem cells to sites of vascular injury/inflammation. Two such glycoengineering methods are presented here: i. The non-covalent incorporation of a P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) mimetic 19Fc[FUT7(+)] via lipid-protein G fusion intermediates that intercalate onto the cell surface, and ii...
January 2016: Biomaterials
Rosalinda Madonna, Christian Cadeddu, Martino Deidda, Donato Mele, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Pasquale Pagliaro, Alessia Pepe, Paolo Spallarossa, Carlo Gabriele Tocchetti, Concetta Zito, Giuseppe Mercuro
Although treatment for heart failure induced by cancer therapy has improved in recent years, the prevalence of cardiomyopathy due to antineoplastic therapy remains significant worldwide. In addition to traditional mediators of myocardial damage, such as reactive oxygen species, new pathways and target cells should be considered responsible for the impairment of cardiac function during anticancer treatment. Accordingly, there is a need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to protect the heart from pharmacologic injury, and improve clinical outcomes in cancer patients...
September 2015: Heart Failure Reviews
Suryyani Deb, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Shrimati Dharmapal Shetty
Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents , to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Taketaro Sadahiro, Shinya Yamanaka, Masaki Ieda
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells changed the field of regenerative medicine and inspired the technological development of direct reprogramming or the process by which one cell type is directly converted into another without reverting a stem cell state by overexpressing lineage-specific factors. Indeed, direct reprogramming has proven sufficient in yielding a diverse range of cell types from fibroblasts, including neurons, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and hepatocytes...
April 10, 2015: Circulation Research
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