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Comet Assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813539/vectorization-by-nanoparticles-decreases-the-overall-toxicity-of-airborne-pollutants
#1
Rodolphe Carpentier, Anne Platel, Helena Maiz-Gregores, Fabrice Nesslany, Didier Betbeder
Atmospheric pollution is mainly composed of volatile pollutants and particulate matter that strongly interact. However, their specific roles in the induction of cellular toxicity, in particular the impact of the vectorization of atmospheric pollutants by ultrafine particles, remains to be fully elucidated. For this purpose, non-toxic poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were synthesized and three pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) were adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles in order to evaluate the toxicity (cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ROS induction) of these complexes to a human airway epithelial cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811611/the-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-six-essential-oils-and-their-cyto-genotoxicity-to-human-hel-12469-cells
#2
Andrea Puškárová, Mária Bučková, Lucia Kraková, Domenico Pangallo, Katarína Kozics
Six essential oils (from oregano, thyme, clove, lavender, clary sage, and arborvitae) exhibited different antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antimicrobial activity was shown against pathogenic (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis) and environmental bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Arthrobacter protophormiae, Pseudomonas fragi) and fungi (Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus fumigatus)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807853/aqueous-extract-from-pecan-nut-carya-illinoinensis-wangenh-c-koch-shell-show-activity-against-breast-cancer-cell-line-mcf-7-and-ehrlich-ascites-tumor-in-balb-c-mice
#3
Josiane Hilbig, Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Valdelúcia Maria Alves de Souza Grinevicius, Nádia Sandrine Ramos Santos Mota, Rozangela Curi Pedrosa, Jane Mara Block
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Brazil, use of teas are common for the treatment of many health disorders. Shell extracts of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) are popularly taken as tea to prevent diverse pathologies due to their phytochemical composition presenting significant amounts of phenolic substances. AIM OF THE STUDY: Phenolic compounds from pecan nut shell extract have been associated with diverse biological effects but the effect on tumor cells has not been reported yet...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804928/the-comet-assay-for-detection-of-dna-damage-in-canine-sperm
#4
A F Pereira, P Borges, A Fontbonne, L Cardoso, I Gaivão, A Martins-Bessa
Sperm DNA integrity is a fundamental prerequisite in fertilization and embryo development. Among DNA integrity tests, the Comet assay is an accurate and sensitive test for the detection of sperm oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate sperm oxidative damage using the Comet assay and to study the correlation between Comet and routine assays for the evaluation of semen quality. Dogs were divided in two groups: group A (n = 6), comprising dogs with abnormal spermiogram, that is astheno-, terato- or oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT); and group B (n = 8), comprising normospermic dogs...
August 13, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800752/a-type-i-combi-targeting-approach-for-the-design-of-molecules-with-enhanced-potency-against-brca1-2-mutant-and-o6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-mgmt-expressing-tumour-cells
#5
Zhor Senhaji Mouhri, Elliot Goodfellow, Bertrand Jean-Claude
BACKGROUND: Mutations of the DNA repair proteins BRCA1/2 are synthetically lethal with the DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which when inhibited, leads to cell death due to the absence of compensatory DNA repair mechanism. The potency of PARP inhibitors has now been clinically proven. However, disappointingly, acquired resistance mediated by the reactivation of wild type BRCA1/2 has been reported. In order to improve their efficacy, trials are ongoing to explore their combinations with temozolomide (TMZ)...
August 11, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800456/synthesis-and-anticancer-properties-of-ruthenium-ii-complexes-as-potent-apoptosis-inducers-through-mitochondrial-disruption
#6
Dan Wan, Bing Tang, Yang-Jie Wang, Bo-Hong Guo, Hui Yin, Qiao-Yan Yi, Yun-Jun Liu
A new ligand MHPIP (MHPIP = 2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) and its three ruthenium (II) complexes [Ru(N-N)2(MHPIP)](ClO4)2 (N-N = phen: 1,10-phenanthroline 1; dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline 2; ttbpy = 4,4'-ditertiarybutyl-2,2'-bipyridine 3) were synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxic activity in vitro was studied by MTT method. The complexes 1-3 show moderate cytotoxic effects on the cell growth in HepG2 cells with an IC50 value of 25.5 ± 3.5, 35...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799093/an-appraisal-of-critical-effect-sizes-for-the-benchmark-dose-approach-to-assess-dose-response-relationships-in-genetic-toxicology
#7
Andreas Zeller, Gonzalo Duran-Pacheco, Melanie Guérard
The benchmark dose (BMD) concept is increasingly utilized to analyze quantitative dose-response relationships in genetic toxicology. This methodology requires the user (i.e. the toxicologist) to a priori define a small increase over controls that is "acceptable" to be induced by a genotoxic test substance. The increase is called benchmark response (BMR) or critical effect size (CES), depending on the software used. To render the metrics calculated from the data of animals treated with the test substance applicable for risk assessment, the BMR or CES must represent biologically relevant changes of parameters measured in in vivo genotoxicity assays such as the Micronucleus, Comet, Transgenic rodent or Pig-a assay...
August 10, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796341/silver-nano-materials-cause-genotoxicity-in-enchytraeus-crypticus-as-determined-by-the-comet-assay
#8
Vera L Maria, Maria João Ribeiro, Sofia Guilherme, Amadeu M V M Soares, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Enchytraeids have been used in standard ecotoxicity testing for about 20 years now. Since adopting the standard test for survival and reproduction, a number of additional tools have been developed, including transcriptomics and enzymatic biomarkers. So far, a genotoxicity tool and endpoint have not been used; hence, the goals of the current study included the optimization of the in vivo alkaline comet assay in Enchytraeus crypticus. Further, the effect of silver nanomaterial (Ag NM300K, dispersed, 15 nm) was tested and compared with AgNO3 ...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780454/nicotinamide-antioxidative-and-dna-hypomethylation-effects-in-plant-cells
#9
Torkel Berglund, Anders Wallström, Tuong-Van Nguyen, Cecilia Laurell, Anna B Ohlsson
The effects of nicotinamide (NIC) and its natural plant metabolites nicotinic acid (NIA) and trigonelline (TRIG) were studied with respect to defense in plant cell cultures. NIC and NIA could protect against oxidative stress damage caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which generates free radicals. Damage was analyzed as DNA strand breaks in cell cultures of Pisum sativum (garden pea), Daucus carota (carrot), Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides (hybrid aspen) and Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), monitored by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), and assays of cell leakage in C...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766757/sesamol-ameliorates-radiation-induced-dna-damage-in-hematopoietic-system-of-whole-body-%C3%AE-irradiated-mice
#10
Arun Kumar, Sandeep Choudhary, Jawahar S Adhikari, Nabo K Chaudhury
Ionizing radiation exposure is harmful and at high doses can lead to acute hematopoietic radiation syndrome. Therefore, agents that can protect hematopoietic system are important for development of radioprotector. Sesamol is a potential molecule for development of radioprotector due to its strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. In the present study, sesamol was evaluated for its role in DNA damage and repair in hematopoietic system of γ-irradiated CB57BL/6 mice and compared with amifostine...
August 2, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763637/sodium-fluoride-adversely-affects-ovarian-development-and-reproduction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Salma Khatun, Prem Rajak, Moumita Dutta, Sumedha Roy
The study demonstrates the effects of chronic sub-lethal exposure of sodium fluoride (NaF) on reproductive structure and function of female Drosophila melanogaster. As a part of treatment, flies were maintained in food supplemented with sub-lethal concentrations of NaF (10-100 μg/mL). Fecundity, ovarian morphology, presence and profusion of viable cells from ovary and fat body were taken into consideration for evaluating changes in reproductive homeostasis. Wing length (a factor demonstrating body size and reproductive fitness) was also monitored after NaF exposure...
July 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759753/inhibition-of-rad51-sensitizes-breast-cancer-cells-with-wild-type-pten-to-olaparib
#12
Qian Zhao, Jiawei Guan, Zhiwei Zhang, Jian Lv, Yulu Wang, Likun Liu, Qi Zhou, Weifeng Mao
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene well characterized as a phosphatase. However, more evidences demonstrate PTEN functions in DNA repair independent of its phosphatase activity, which affects the efficacy of DNA damage anti-tumoral drugs in treating cancer cells with PTEN variations. Using BT549 breast cancer cells, we studied the roles of PTEN in DNA repair and in sensitization of breast cancer cells to olaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. Comet assay showed PTEN promoted DNA repair. PTEN-deficient BT549 cells are sensitive to olaparib, which shows the synthetic lethality between PTEN and PARP1...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759748/dna-damage-levels-in-electronics-workers-in-southern-china-a-micro-whole-blood-comet-assay
#13
Zhiqiang Zhao, Xiumei Xing, Xiaoyan Ou, Xinxia Liu, Ridong Zhou, Huimin Zhang, Linqing Yang, Zhixiong Zhuang, Xiaolin Su, Yao Lu, Jun Jiang, Yarui Yang, Dong Cui, Yun He
We evaluated DNA damage levels of different categories of workers exposed to hazards inside electronics factories in Southern China. To find out the most dangerous risk factor, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 584 exposed subjects and 138 controls in an electronics factory in Southern China, where the electronics industry is prevalent. The exposed hazards included isopropanol (IPO), lead, noise, video display terminals (VDT), lead in a high-temperature (high-temp) environment, and IPO in a high-temp environment...
July 22, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757137/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-pharmacokinetics-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-curcumin-incorporated-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-applications
#14
Sainulabdeen Sherin, Sathyabhama Sheeja, Rukhmini Sudha Devi, Sreedharan Balachandran, Rema Sreenivasan Soumya, Annie Abraham
The present study deals with the preparation of stable Curcumin incorporated Titaniumdioxide Nanoparticles (CTNPs) by coprecipitation method for improving the bioavailability of curcumin and site specific drug delivery. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, DLS, SEM and EDX. The characterization studies showed the interaction of curcumin to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The average size of the prepared CTNPs was found to be ∼29 nm with zetapotential of-53...
July 28, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755435/the-development-and-validation-of-epicomet-chip-a-modified-high-throughput-comet-assay-for-the-assessment-of-dna-methylation-status
#15
Todd A Townsend, Marcus C Parrish, Bevin P Engelward, Mugimane G Manjanatha
DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation status are associated with multiple human diseases and are frequently correlated with clinically relevant information. Therefore, assessing DNA damage and epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, is critical for predicting human exposure risk of pharmacological and biological agents. We previously developed a higher-throughput platform for the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, CometChip, to assess DNA damage and genotoxic potential...
July 29, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755287/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-bioaccumulation-of-pah-from-the-marine-environment-on-dna-integrity-and-oxidative-stress-in-marine-rock-oyster-saccostrea-cucullata-along-the-arabian-sea-coast
#16
A Sarkar, Jacky Bhagat, Munmun Saha Sarker, Dipak C S Gaitonde, Subhodeep Sarker
Marine pollution due to oil spills is of great concern globally for their impact on the health of marine ecosystems. We assessed the genotoxic effects and oxidative stress due to genotoxic pollutants accumulated from the ambient marine environment in the tissues of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata along the Arabian Sea coast around Goa, India. The extent of DNA damage in S. cucullata was determined by comet assay as variation of comet parameter: mean % tail DNA along the coast with respect to that at the reference site (Tiracol, Goa, India)...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750895/genotoxic-evaluation-of-poly-anhydride-nanoparticles-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-mice
#17
T Iglesias, J M Irache, M Butinar, B Turk, A López de Cerain, A Azqueta
Gantrez(®) AN 119-based NPs have been developed as oral drug carriers due to their strong bioadhesive interaction with components of the gastrointestinal mucosa and to their adaptable surface. The use of mannosamine to coat Gantrez(®) AN 119-based NPs results in a high mucus-permeable carrier, able to reach the gastrointestinal epithelium. Although their efficacy to transport a therapeutic agent has been demonstrated, their safety has not yet been thoroughly studied. They have proved to be non-cytotoxic, non-genotoxic and non-mutagenic in vitro; however, the in vivo toxicity profile has not yet been determined...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750774/effects-of-sub-chronic-exposure-to-terbuthylazine-on-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-parent-compound-metabolite-levels-in-adult-male%C3%A2-rats
#18
Blanka Tariba Lovaković, Alica Pizent, Vilena Kašuba, Nevenka Kopjar, Vedran Micek, Gordana Mendaš, Marija Dvoršćak, Anja Mikolić, Mirta Milić, Suzana Žunec, Ana Lucić Vrdoljak, Davor Želježić
Terbuthylazine is a selective pre- and post-emergency chloro-triazine herbicide used for a broad spectrum of weed control. We evaluated the potential of low doses of terbuthylazine to induce oxidative stress and cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood samples of adult male Wistar rats. Following 28-day repeated oral exposure at 0.004 mg/kg b.w./day, 0.4 mg/kg b.w./day and 2.29 mg/kg b.w./day, parameters of lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in blood samples...
July 24, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748464/the-use-of-bacterial-repair-endonucleases-in-the-comet-assay
#19
Andrew R Collins
The comet assay is a sensitive electrophoretic method for measuring DNA breaks at the level of single cells, used widely in genotoxicity experiments, in biomonitoring, and in fundamental research. Its sensitivity and range of application are increased by the incorporation of an extra step, after lysis of agarose-embedded cells, in which the DNA is digested with lesion-specific endonucleases (DNA repair enzymes of bacterial or phage origin). Enzymes with specificity for oxidized purines, oxidized pyrimidines, alkylated bases, UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, and misincorporated uracil have been employed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745489/the-dihydroxy-metabolite-of-the-teratogen-thalidomide-causes-oxidative-dna-damage
#20
Tasaduq H Wani, Anindita Chakrabarty, Norio Shibata, Hiroshi Yamazaki, F Peter Guengerich, Goutam Chowdhury
Thalidomide [α-(N-phthalimido)glutarimide] (1) is a sedative and antiemetic drug originally introduced into the clinic in the 1950s for the treatment of morning sickness. Although marketed as entirely safe, more than 10 000 babies were born with severe birth defects. Thalidomide was banned and subsequently approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and complications associated with leprosy. Although known for more than 5 decades, the mechanism of teratogenicity remains to be conclusively understood. Various theories have been proposed in the literature including DNA damage and ROS and inhibition of angiogenesis and cereblon...
August 2, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
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