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Comet Assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792945/cross-linking-by-epichlorohydrin-and-diepoxybutane-correlates-with-cytotoxicity-and-leads-to-apoptosis-in-human-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#1
Phuong M Le, Vanesa L Silvestri, Samuel C Redstone, Jordanne B Dunn, Julie T Millard
The bifunctional alkylating agents epichlorohydrin (ECH) and diepoxybutane (DEB) have been linked to increased cancer risks in industrial workers. These compounds react with DNA and proteins, leading to genotoxic effects. We used the comet assay to monitor formation of cross-links in HL-60 cells treated with ECH, DEB, and the structurally related anti-cancer drug mechlorethamine (HN2). We report a time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity that correlated with cross-linking activity, following the order HN2 > DEB > ECH...
May 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790399/mechanistic-insight-into-reactivity-and-geno-toxicity-of-well-characterized-nanoparticles-of-cobalt-metal-and-oxides
#2
Francesca Cappellini, Yolanda Hedberg, Sarah McCarrick, Jonas Hedberg, Remco Derr, Giel Hendriks, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Hanna L Karlsson
An increasing use of cobalt (Co)-based nanoparticles (NPs) in different applications and exposures at occupational settings triggers the need for toxicity assessment. Improved understanding regarding the physiochemical characteristics of Co metal NPs and different oxides in combination with assessment of toxicity and mechanisms may facilitate decisions for grouping during risk assessment. The aim of this study was to gain mechanistic insights in the correlation between NP reactivity and toxicity of three different Co-based NPs (Co, CoO, and Co3 O4 ) by using various tools for characterization, traditional toxicity assays, as well as six reporter cell lines (ToxTracker) for rapid detection of signaling pathways of relevance for carcinogenicity...
May 23, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787439/genotoxic-effects-in-human-fibroblasts-exposed-to-microwave-radiation
#3
Valeria Franchini, Elisa Regalbuto, Andrea De Amicis, Stefania De Sanctis, Sara Di Cristofaro, Elisa Coluzzi, Jessica Marinaccio, Antonella Sgura, Silvio Ceccuzzi, Andrea Doria, Gian Piero Gallerano, Emilio Giovenale, Gian Luca Ravera, Roberto Bei, Monica Benvenuto, Andrea Modesti, Laura Masuelli, Florigio Lista
In the last decades, technological development has led to an increasing use of devices and systems based on microwave radiation. The increased employment of these devices has elicited questions about the potential long-term health consequences associated with microwave radiation exposure. From this perspective, biological effects of microwave radiation have been the focus of many studies, but the reported scientific data are unclear and contradictory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential genotoxic and cellular effects associated with in vitro exposure of human fetal and adult fibroblasts to microwave radiation at the frequency of 25 GHz...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783987/an-updated-review-of-the-genotoxicity-of-respirable-crystalline-silica
#4
REVIEW
Paul J A Borm, Paul Fowler, David Kirkland
Human exposure to (certain forms of) crystalline silica (CS) potentially results in adverse effects on human health. Since 1997 IARC has classified CS as a Group 1 carcinogen [1], which was confirmed in a later review in 2012 [2]. The genotoxic potential and mode of genotoxic action of CS was not conclusive in either of the IARC reviews, although a proposal for mode of actions was made in an extensive review of the genotoxicity of CS by Borm, Tran and Donaldson in 2011 [3]. The present study identified 141 new papers from search strings related to genotoxicity of respirable CS (RCS) since 2011 and, of these, 17 relevant publications with genotoxicity data were included in this detailed review...
May 21, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777724/novel-mirna-biomarkers-for-genotoxicity-screening-in-mouse
#5
Hiroyuki Oka, Koichi Masuno, Takeki Uehara, Toru Okamoto, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Toru Nakano, Shinpei Yamaguchi
The genotoxic potential of drugs is a serious problem, and its evaluation is one of the most critical processes of drug development. Although the comet assay of compound-exposed tissue is a frequently used genotoxicity test, its high false-positive rate is a major complication, and we consistently obtained false-positive results using the comet assay of mouse liver for nine hepatotoxic non-genotoxins (NGTXs). To identify novel genotoxin (GTX)-specific biomarkers, we screened the expression of 750 microRNAs (miRNAs) in the livers of mice treated with GTXs or NGTXs...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773007/cell-proliferation-and-dna-repair-ability-of-ganoderma-neo-japonicum-agaricomycetes-an-indigenous-medicinal-mushroom-from-malaysia
#6
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768882/grape-seed-extract-alone-or-combined-with-atropine-in-treatment-of-malathion-induced-neuro-and-genotoxicity
#7
Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Asmaa F Galal, Mahrousa M Hassanane, Lamiaa M Salem, Somaia A Nada, Fatma A Morsy
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with grape seed extract (GSE) on the neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of acute malathion exposure. Rats received malathion (150 mg/kg by i.p. injection) for two successive days alone or combined with GSE at doses of 150 or 300 mg/kg, orally or with GSE at 300 mg/kg and atropine at a dose of 2 mg/kg, i.p. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, paraoxonase (PON1) were determined in cortex, striatum, and rest of brain tissue (subcortex)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768880/tio%C3%A2-nps-induce-dna-damage-in-lymphocytes-from-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-respiratory-diseases-an-ex-vivo-in-vitro-study
#8
Ilham F Osman, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Vyom Sharma, Ritesh K Shukla, B K Jacob, Alok Dhawan, D Anderson
Little is known of the effects of nanoparticles in human systems, let alone in diseased individuals and nanotechnology has preceded nanotoxicology. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with respiratory diseases [lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma] were compared with those in healthy Individuals, to determine differences in sensitivity to nanochemical insult. The Comet assay was performed according to recommended guidelines...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767296/evaluating-the-antimicrobial-apoptotic-and-cancer-cell-gene-delivery-properties-of-protein-capped-gold-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-the-edible-mycorrhizal-fungus-tricholoma-crassum
#9
Arpita Basu, Sarmishtha Ray, Supriyo Chowdhury, Arnab Sarkar, Deba Prasad Mandal, Shamee Bhattacharjee, Surekha Kundu
Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles of distinct geometric shapes with highly functional protein coats without additional capping steps is rarely reported. This study describes green synthesis of protein-coated gold nanoparticles for the first time from the edible, mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma crassum (Berk.) Sacc. The nanoparticles were of the size range 5-25 nm and of different shapes. Spectroscopic analysis showed red shift of the absorption maxima with longer reaction period during production and blue shift with increase in pH...
May 16, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763681/manuka-honey-attenuates-oxidative-damage-induced-by-h-2-o-2-in-human-whole-blood-in-vitro
#10
Lada Živković, Vladan Bajić, Dragana Dekanski, Andrea Čabarkapa-Pirković, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Luca Mazzoni, Biljana Spremo Potparević
Manuka honey has been widely researched regarding its biological properties, in particular its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. We tested the genotoxic and genoprotective properties of Manuka honey, ranging from 25-1000 μg/mL, by performing an in vitro comet assay after exposure to human whole blood. No genotoxic effect on whole blood cells was observed within the tested concentration range (p = 0.154). Then, the antigenotoxic potency of Manuka honey against oxidative DNA damage to whole blood cells was assessed...
May 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755547/lipocalin2-protects-human-embryonic-kidney-cells-against-cisplatin-induced-genotoxicity
#11
Fatemeh Sadeghi, Mahmoud Etebari, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi
Cisplatin is one of the most useful chemotherapeutics which performs its cytotoxic effect via accumulation of platinum resulting in oxidative stress, and destruction of cell DNA. This could probably cause secondary cancers in healthy tissues. Lipocalin2 (Lcn2) is a protein which its expression is increased in oxidative stresses. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of Lcn2 up-regulation on cisplatin genotoxicity. In order to up-regulate Lcn2 expression, HEK293 cells were transfected with pcDNA3...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755294/inhibition-of-the-pi3k-but-not-the-mek-erk-pathway-sensitizes-human-glioma-cells-to-alkylating-drugs
#12
Bodo Haas, Veronika Klinger, Christina Keksel, Verena Bonigut, Daniela Kiefer, Julia Caspers, Julia Walther, Maria Wos-Maganga, Sandra Weickhardt, Gabriele Röhn, Marco Timmer, Roland Frötschl, Niels Eckstein
Background: Intrinsic chemoresistance of glioblastoma (GBM) is frequently owed to activation of the PI3K and MEK/ERK pathways. These signaling cascades are tightly interconnected however the quantitative contribution of both to intrinsic resistance is still not clear. Here, we aimed at determining the activation status of these pathways in human GBM biopsies and cells and investigating the quantitative impact of both pathways to chemoresistance. Methods: Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways in temozolomide (TMZ) treatment naive or TMZ resistant human GBM biopsies and GBM cells were investigated by proteome profiling and immunoblotting of a subset of proteins...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754083/genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-pm2-5-collected-over-the-year-in-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#13
M K Bełcik, A Trusz-Zdybek, E Zaczyńska, A Czarny, K Piekarska
In the ambient is >2000 chemical substances, some of them are absorbed on the surface of the particulate matter and may causes many health problems. Air pollution is responsible for >3.2 million premature deaths which classifies it as a second place environmental risk factor. Especially dangerous for health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives which shows mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Air pollutions were also classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer to group which carcinogenic properties on human were proved by available knowledge...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752667/comparative-study-on-toxicity-of-methylmercury-chloride-and-methylmercury-hydroxide-to-the-human-neuroblastoma-cell-line-sh-sy5y
#14
Rajashree Patnaik, Rabindra N Padhy
Toxicities of methylmercury chloride (CH3 HgCl) and methylmercury hydroxide (CH3 HgOH) to cultured neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y in vitro are evaluated. This is the comparative study between two methylmercury compounds to find out the extent of toxicity of these compounds are toxic to SH-SY5Y cell line. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity experiments were carried out to find out the more toxic compound. For cytotoxicity study, four staining assay methods independently with trypan blue (TB), acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and neutral red (NR) were used and the comet assay method was done for genotoxicity study...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747151/role-of-pon1-sod2-ogg1-xrcc1-and-xrcc4-polymorphisms-on-modulation-of-dna-damage-in-workers-occupationally-exposed-to-pesticides
#15
Vivian F Silva Kahl, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Jodel da Silva Alves, Gabrieli Flesch da Silva, Juliana Picinini, Varinderpal Singh Dhillon, Michael Fenech, Melissa Rosa de Souza, Johnny F Dias, Claudia Telles de Souza, Mirian Salvador, Cátia Dos Santos Branco, Flávia Valadão Thiesen, Daniel Simon, Juliana da Silva
Tobacco farming has been proving to induce poor health outcomes in agricultural workers, genomic instability being the triggering one. This study evaluated influence of PON1 (paraoxonase 1), SOD2 (superoxide dismutase), OGG1 (8-oxoguanine glycosylase), XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1), and XRCC4 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4) genes polymorphisms on DNA damage in 121 subjects occupationally exposed to pesticides mixtures and nicotine at tobacco fields and 121 non-exposed individuals...
May 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745168/-damage-of-deltamethrin-on-tissue-and-cell-dna-in-hepatopancreas-of-pagrosomus-major
#16
Hui Dong Zheng
In order to study the toxic effect of deltamethrin on the hepatopancreas of Pagrosomus major with sub-acute exposure, Pagrosomus major were divided into 5 groups with different doses of semi-static exposure. The damage of the hepatopancreas tissue of Pagrosomus major was analyzed by microscopy observation and the DNA damage of the cells was analyzed by comet assay technique after 25 days exposure. The results showed that different degrees of congestion, nuclear enrichment and cell necrosis appeared in hepatopancreas of 0...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745075/geraniol-and-geranyl-acetate-induce-potent-anticancer-effects-in-colon-cancer-colo-205-cells-by-inducing-apoptosis-dna-damage-and-cell-cycle-arrest
#17
Fei Qi, Qiang Yan, Zhaozheng Zheng, Jian Liu, Yan Chen, Guiyang Zhang
PURPOSE: Colon cancer ranks second in mortality among all human malignancies, creating thus a need for exploration of novel molecules that would prove effective, cost-effective and with lower toxicity. In the recent past monoterpenes have gained tremendous attention for their anticancer activity. In the present study we evaluated the anticancer effects of two important monoterpenes, geraniol and geranyl acetate against colo-205 cancer cells. METHODS: The antiproliferative activity was determined by MTT assay...
March 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738492/anthropometric-and-dietary-factors-as-predictors-of-dna-damage-in-obese-women
#18
Marta Włodarczyk, Beata Jabłonowska-Lietz, Wioletta Olejarz, Grażyna Nowicka
Enhanced DNA damage and disturbances in DNA repair mechanisms are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether anthropometric factors and dietary habits are related to endogenous DNA damage. One hundred and fourteen premenopausal, apparently healthy women were included in the study: 88 obese individuals and 26 controls. The comet assay was used to measure basal DNA damage...
May 8, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734849/antiproliferative-and-apoptosis-induction-studies-of-5-hydroxy-3-4-7-trimethoxyflavone-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-mcf-7-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approach
#19
A Sudha, P Srinivasan, V Kanimozhi, K Palanivel, B Kadalmani
The aim of this study was to find the efficacy of 5-hydroxy 3',4',7-trimethoxyflavone (HTMF), a flavonoid compound isolated from the medicinal plant Lippia nodiflora, in inhibiting the proliferation and inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The anti-proliferative effect of the compound HTMF was confirmed using MTT cytotoxicity assay. Increased apoptotic induction by HTMF was demonstrated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) and Hoechst 33258 staining studies. The phosphatidylserine translocation, an early feature of apoptosis and DNA damage were revealed through AnnexinV-Cy3 staining and comet assay...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734402/effects-of-cryopreservation-on-ultrastructural-morphology-of-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-sperm
#20
Y Zhao, C Yang, X Chen, M Peng, X Chen, D Zeng
BACKGROUND: The structural integrity of a spermatozoon is very important for the processes of fertilization and embryo development. OBJECTIVE: To provide valuable data for developing better cryopreservation techniques for shrimp sperm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we examined the morphological alteration of Litopenaeus vannamei sperm after cryopreservation with different concentrations of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)...
September 2017: Cryo Letters
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