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Comet Assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437889/safety-of-sucrose-esters-from-physalis-peruviana-l-in-a-28-day-repeated-dose-study-in-mice
#1
Yanet C Ocampo, Daneiva C Caro, David E Rivera, Luis A Franco
Although extracts and consumed foods from Physalis species contain sucrose esters from their glandular trichomes, there is no experimental data available on their toxicological effects. As peruvioses A and B isolated from Physalis peruviana L. calyces have proved to be effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds, this work aimed to investigate their sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity. For this, CD-1(ICR) mice were treated intraperitoneally with peruvioses at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days, to simulate therapeutic and over-therapeutic dosage levels...
April 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437728/is-a-a-o-process-effective-in-toxicity-removal-case-study-with-coking-wastewater
#2
Liu Shi, Dong Wang, Di Cao, Chunhong Na, Xie Quan, Ying Zhang
The anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process is the commonly used biological wastewater treatment process, especially for the coking wastewater. However, limit is known about its ability in bio-toxicity removal from wastewater. In this study, we evaluated the performance of A/A/O process in bio-toxicity removal from the coking wastewater, using two test species (i.e. crustacean (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio rerio)) in respect of acute toxicity, oxidative damage and genotoxicity. Our results showed that the acute toxicity of raw influent was reduced gradually along with A/A/O process and the effluent presented no acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429522/globotriaosylsphingosine-induces-oxidative-dna-damage-in-cultured-kidney-cells
#3
Giovana Brondani Biancini, Ana Moira Morás, Luiza Steffens Reinhardt, Franciele Faccio Busatto, Nathalia Denise de Moura Sperotto, Jenifer Saffi, Dinara Jaqueline Moura, Roberto Giugliani, Carmen Regla Vargas
Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal disorder caused by mutations leading to a deficient activity α-galactosidase A with progressive and systemic accumulation of its substrates. Substrates deposition is related to tissue damage in FD, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain not completely understood. DNA damage has been associated with disease progression in chronic diseases and was recently described in high levels in Fabry patients. Once renal complications are major morbidity causes in FD, we investigated the effects of the latest biomarker for FD - globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3) in a cultured renal lineage - human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293 T) - on DNA damage...
June 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429338/caffeic-acid-n-butyl-ester-triggered-necrosis-like-cell-death-in-lung-cancer-cell-line-a549-is-prompted-by-ros-mediated-alterations-in-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#4
Y-X Zhang, P-F Yu, Z-M Gao, J Yuan, Z Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of caffeic acid n-butyl ester against lung cancer cell line A549 and to investigate the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IC50 was determined by MTT assay. Fluorescent probes DCFH-DA, Indo 1/AM, DiOC6 were used to determine ROS, Ca2+, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). ATP levels were determined by using ATP liteTM kit. DNA damage was investigated by DAPI and comet assays...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428138/pregnane-x-receptor-regulates-the-ahr-cyp1a1-pathway-and-protects-liver-cells-from-benzo-%C3%AE-pyrene-induced-dna-damage
#5
Hongmei Cui, Xinsheng Gu, Jingshu Chen, Ying Xie, Sui Ke, Jing Wu, Andrei Golovko, Benjamin Morpurgo, Chunhong Yan, Timothy D Phillips, Wen Xie, Jianyuan Luo, Zhijun Zhou, Yanan Tian
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays an important role in protecting cells from mutagenic DNA damages induced by endogenous and exogenous toxicants. This protective function is often attributed to the PXR-regulated metabolic detoxification. Here we report a novel potential mechanism that PXR reduces benzo-[α]-pyrene(BaP)-induced DNA damage through inhibiting the transcriptional activity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) which plays a pivotal role in the bioactivation of BaP. We have utilized three well-characterized cell lines, i...
April 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428088/modulatory-effect-of-curcumin-against-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-cisplatin-and-methotrexate-in-male-mice
#6
Noha Ibrahim Said Salem, Magda Mohammad Noshy, Azza Ali Said
The use of dietary antioxidants to modulate the toxic side effects induced by the anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy is currently eliciting considerable interest. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective role of the antioxidant curcumin (CMN) against genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by cisplatin and methotrexate. Male mice were administered CMN orally in the dosages of 60, 90, and 120 mg/kg for three consecutive days before a single intraperitoneal injection of either cisplatin (6...
April 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425536/cisplatin-resistance-in-cell-models-evaluation-of-metallomic-and-biological-predictive-biomarkers-to-address-early-therapy-failure
#7
Marta Espina, Mario Corte-Rodríguez, Leticia Aguado, María Montes-Bayón, Marta I Sierra, Pablo Martínez-Camblor, Elisa Blanco-González, L María Sierra
Cisplatin, one of the most extensively used metallodrugs in cancer treatment, presents the important drawback of patient resistance. This resistance is the consequence of different processes including those preventing the formation of DNA adducts and/or their quick removal. Thus, a tool for the accurate detection and quantitation of cisplatin-induced adducts might be valuable for predicting patient resistance. To prove the validity of such an assumption, highly sensitive plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) strategies were applied to determine DNA adduct levels and intracellular Pt concentrations...
April 20, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423637/apigenin-inhibits-renal-cell-carcinoma-cell-proliferation
#8
Shuai Meng, Yi Zhu, Jiang-Feng Li, Xiao Wang, Zhen Liang, Shi-Qi Li, Xin Xu, Hong Chen, Ben Liu, Xiang-Yi Zheng, Li-Ping Xie
Apigenin, a natural flavonoid found in vegetables and fruits, has antitumor activity in several cancer types. The present study evaluated the effects and mechanism of action of apigenin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. We found that apigenin suppressed ACHN, 786-0, and Caki-1 RCC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A comet assay suggested that apigenin caused DNA damage in ACHN cells, especially at higher doses, and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest through ATM signal modulation...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422719/fbxw7-haploinsufficiency-loses-its-protection-against-dna-damage-and-accelerates-mnu-induced-gastric-carcinogenesis
#9
Yannan Jiang, Xinming Qi, Xinyu Liu, Jun Zhang, Jun Ji, Zhenggang Zhu, Jin Ren, Yingyan Yu
Fbxw7, a subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase, recognizes oncoprotein substrates and leads to their proteasomal degradation. Fbxw7 acts as a tumor suppressor via inducing apoptosis and growth arrest in various kinds of tumors. To clarify the initiating role in gastric carcinogenesis as well as the histologic characterization of tumor in Fbxw7 allele haploinsufficient mice, we generated Fbxw7 heterozygous knockout mice (Fbxw7+/-) and treated them with chemical carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) at 5-6 weeks of age...
April 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421526/impact-of-the-toxicity-of-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-woloszynska-seenayya-subba-raju-on-laboratory-rats-in-vivo
#10
Nevena B Đorđević, Sanja Lj Matić, Snežana B Simić, Snežana M Stanić, Vladimir B Mihailović, Nevena M Stanković, Vesna D Stanković, Andrija R Ćirić
In vivo laboratory studies of toxicity were performed on Wistar rats using a methanol extract produced by the natural population of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (abundance of 2.13 × 10(5) trichomes mL(-1)) collected at Aleksandrovac Lake (Serbia). HPLC analysis showed that the extract contains 6.65 μg cylindrospermopsin (CYN) mg(-1). The rats were killed 24 or 72 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of C. raciborskii extract in concentrations of 1500, 3000, 6000 and 12,000 μg kg(-1) body weight (bw) and an equivalent amount of CYN as present in the highest dose of the extract (79...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420806/the-association-of-occupational-metals-exposure-and-oxidative-damage-telomere-shortening-in-fitness-equipments-manufacturing-workers
#11
Jiunn-Liang Ko, Yu-Jung Cheng, Guan-Cen Liu, I-Lun Hsin, Hsiu-Ling Chen
The welding is the major working process in fitness equipment manufacturing industry, and International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified welding fumes as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The present study aimed to evaluate associations between the occupational exposure of metals and oxidative damage and telomere length shortening in workers involved in the manufacture of fitness equipment. The blood metal concentrations were monitored and malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline Comet assay was determined as oxidative damage in 117 workers from two representative fitness equipment manufacturing plants...
April 14, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420168/comparative-study-of-blood-based-biomarkers-%C3%AE-2-3-sialic-acid-psa-and-phi-for-high-risk-prostate-cancer-detection
#12
Montserrat Ferrer-Batallé, Esther Llop, Manel Ramírez, Rosa Núria Aleixandre, Marc Saez, Josep Comet, Rafael de Llorens, Rosa Peracaula
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa), although it is not specific and sensitive enough to allow the differential diagnosis of the more aggressive tumors. For that, new diagnostic methods are being developed, such as PCA-3, PSA isoforms that have resulted in the 4K score or the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and PSA glycoforms. In the present study, we have compared the PHI with our recently developed PSA glycoform assay, based on the determination of the α2,3-sialic acid percentage of serum PSA (% α2,3-SA), in a cohort of 79 patients, which include 50 PCa of different grades and 29 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419133/reproductive-toxicity-after-levetiracetam-administration-in-male-rats-evidence-for-role-of-hormonal-status-and-oxidative-stress
#13
Merve Baysal, Sinem Ilgin, Gozde Kilic, Volkan Kilic, Seyda Ucarcan, Ozlem Atli
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy because of its excellent safety profile in all age groups. It is remarkable that there are no studies evaluating the toxic effects of this drug on the male reproductive system, as it is commonly used in male patients of reproductive age. From this point of view, our aim was to evaluate the possible toxic effects of LEV on the male reproductive system. Therefore, LEV was administered to male rats orally at 50, 150, and 300 mg/kg for 70 consecutive days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411389/the-comet-assay-in-folsomia-candida-a-suitable-approach-to-assess-genotoxicity-in-collembolans
#14
Diogo N Cardoso, Ana Rita R Silva, Andreia Cruz, Joana Lourenço, Joana Neves, Catarina Malheiro, Sónia Mendo, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
The present study shows the comet assay technique being successfully applied for the first time to one of the most widely used soil organisms in standardized ecotoxicological tests, Folsomia candida, providing a step forward in assessing the genotoxicity induced by xenobiotics. Because collembolans have a high content of chitin, a new methodology was developed in which the heads of the collembolans were separated from the rest of the body, allowing the hemolymph to leak out. This procedure allows the cells to be released, and after lysis the genetic material is available for the comet assay...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403652/a-contribution-to-pharmaceutical-biology-of-freshwater-sponges
#15
Aleksandra Talevska, Boris Pejin, Vesna Kojic, Tanja Beric, Slavisa Stankovic
In vitro anti-tumour and anti-radical activities of the acetone extract of the freshwater sponge Ochridaspongia rotunda were the subject of this study. The extract was found to be highly cytotoxic to human lung tumour cell line A-549 reaching IC50 value of 5.01 ± 0.21 μg/mL. Indeed, it displayed only 2-fold less anti-tumour activity than doxorubicin (IC50 value 2.42 ± 0.13 μg/mL) used as a positive control. The same extract was also found to be almost 37-fold more selective against A-549 vs. MRC-5 (normal) lung cells, in difference to weak selectivity of doxorubicin (less than 3-fold)...
April 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400324/impact-of-anatase-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-on-mutagenic-and-genotoxic-response-in-chinese-hamster-lung-fibroblast-cells-v-79-the-role-of-cellular-uptake
#16
Abhishek Kumar Jain, Violet Aileen Senapati, Divya Singh, Kavita Dubey, Renuka Maurya, Alok Kumar Pandey
The unique physico-chemical properties of nano crystalline anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) render them with different biological and chemical activities. Hence, it is widely used in industrial and consumer applications. Previous studies have shown the genotoxicity of TiO2 NPs. However, there is a paucity of data regarding mutagenicity of these NPs. In the present study, the cellular uptake, sub-cellular localization, cytotoxicity and short term DNA interaction of TiO2 NPs (1-100 μgmL(-1)) of diameter ranging from 12 to 25 nm on mammalian lung fibroblast cells (V-79) has been studied...
April 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398617/citalopram-induces-reproductive-toxicity-in-male-rats
#17
Sinem Ilgin, Gozde Kilic, Merve Baysal, Volkan Kilic, Busra Korkut, Seyda Ucarcan, Ozlem Atli
BACKGROUND: Citalopram hydrobromide (CTL) has been shown to cause sexual dysfunction; however, its reproductive toxicity potential has not been sufficiently elucidated in men. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the toxic effects of CTL on the reproductive system of male rats. METHODS: For this purpose, CTL was administered at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day to rats orally for 28 days. Sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system, and sperm DNA damage was detected using a Comet assay...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395203/reliability-of-plant-root-comet-assay-in-comparison-with-human-leukocyte-comet-assay-for-assessment-environmental-genotoxic-agents
#18
Gabriela Barreto Dos Reis, Larissa Fonseca Andrade-Vieira, Isabella de Campos Moraes, Pedro Henrique Souza César, Silvana Marcussi, Lisete Chamma Davide
Comet assay is an efficient test to detect genotoxic compounds based on observation of DNA damage. The aim of this work was to compare the results obtained from the comet assay in two different type of cells extracted from the root tips from Lactuca sativa L. and human blood. For this, Spent Pot Liner (SPL), and its components (aluminum and fluoride) were applied as toxic agents. SPL is a solid waste generated in industry from the aluminum mining and processing with known toxicity. Three concentrations of all tested solutions were applied and the damages observed were compared to negative and positive controls...
April 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392888/cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-lung-acutely-induce-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-dna-damage-in-various-organs-of-mice
#19
Abderrahim Nemmar, Priya Yuvaraju, Sumaya Beegam, Mohamed A Fahim, Badreldin H Ali
CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) which are used as a diesel fuel additive are emitted in the particulate phase in the exhaust, posing a health concern. However, limited information exists regarding the in vivo acute toxicity of CeO2 NPs on multiple organs. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 h) effects of intratracheally instilled CeO2 NPs in mice (0.5 mg/kg) on oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in major organs including lung, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain. Lipid peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde production was increased in the lungs only, and reactive oxygen species were increased in the lung, heart, kidney, and brain...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392458/anti-inflammatory-antimycobacterial-and-genotoxic-evaluation-of-doliocarpus-dentatus
#20
Raissa Borges Ishikawa, Maicon Matos Leitão, Roberto Mikio Kassuya, Luis Fernando Macorini, Flora Martinez Figueira Moreira, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Roberta Gomes Coelho, Arnildo Pott, Guilherme Martins Gelfuso, Julio Croda, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Candida Aparecida Leite Kassuya
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Doliocarpus dentatus is a medicinal plant widely used in Mato Grosso do Sul State for removing the swelling pain caused by the inflammation process and for treating urine retention. AIM OF THE STUDY: The genotoxic aspects and the anti-inflammatory and antimycobacterial activity of the ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of D. dentatus (EEDd) were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EEDd was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the compound composition was evaluated and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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