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Comet Assay

Ashish Agnihotri, Praveen Gupta, Anuj Dwivedi, Chandra Shekhar Seth
Salicylic acid alleviates lead toxicity in Brassica juncea (L.) by promoting growth under non-stress and activating stress-defense mechanism (s) under lead stress conditions. It also boosts the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and thus helps in minimizing oxidative and DNA damage. Brassica juncea plants were exposed to different concentrations (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 ) of lead (Pb) and subsequently sprayed with 0.5 mM of salicylic acid (SA) to check for morphological and leaf gas exchange parameters like transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (GH2 O), net photosynthetic rate (A) and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv /Fm )...
March 21, 2018: Planta
Neelam Pandey, Sarbani Giri
Increasing male infertility of unknown aetiology can be associated with environmental factors. Extensive use of mobile phones has exposed the general population to unprecedented levels of radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) that may adversely affect male reproductive health. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of RFR Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) type, 900 MHz and melatonin supplementation on germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Cynthia Al Hageh, Majd Al Assaad, Zeinab El Masri, Nawar Samaan, Mirvat El-Sibai, Christian Khalil, Rony S Khnayzer
Copper is an earth-abundant and a biologically essential metal that offers a promising alternative to noble metals in photochemistry and photobiology. In this work, a series of sterically encumbered Cu(i) bis-phenanthroline complexes were investigated for their use in photochemotherapy (PCT). It was found that Cu(dsbtmp)2+ [dsbtmp = 2,9-disec-butyl-3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline] (compound 3), which possessed the longest excited state lifetime, exhibited significant in vitro photocytotoxicity on A375 (human malignant melanoma) and A549 (human lung carcinoma) cell lines...
March 20, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Umar Muzaffer, V I Paul, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad, Ramasamy Karthikeyan
The present study was aimed to investigate the photoprotective effect of the male flower of J. regia L. (MEJR) against ultraviolet-B induced apoptosis in human skin cells. Human skin epidermal keratinocytes were pretreated with the MEJR (80 µg/ml, has been selected after MTT assay), prior to 30 min UVB-irradiation at a dose of 20 mJ/cm2 . Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using Rhodamine-123 staining; the % apoptosis by Hoechst staining and acridine orange staining; DNA damage was measured by comet assay...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yanan Du, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Qiang Liu
In this data article, 146 villagers (exposed group) were randomly selected from the workers who involved in the e-wastes recycling directly as a daily job in Tianjin. Control group, including 121 villagers, came from another town without e-waste disposal sites. Chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus (CBMN) were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%), tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes and spermatozoa...
April 2018: Data in Brief
David Kirkland, Paul Fowler
Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) is a trifunctional acrylate monomer which polymerizes rapidly when exposed to sources of free radicals. It is widely used as a reactive diluent and polymer building block in the formulation of overprint varnishes, inks and a variety of wood, plastic and metal coatings. TMPTA has been tested in a range of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests. There is no clear evidence of induction of gene mutations by TMPTA in bacteria or mammalian cells in vitro, but there is evidence of clastogenicity from induction of small colony tk mutants in the mouse lymphoma assay, and also induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Monira M Rageh, Reem H El-Gebaly
The radioprotective and antioxidant activities of melanin nanoparticles (MNP) were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and BALB/C mice in vivo. The endpoints measured were cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, DNA damage (comet assay), and histopathological examination of tissues. Irradiated groups showed decreased SOD activity and increased MDA levels. Irradiation caused a 3-10-fold increase in comet parameters such as % tail DNA. Treatment with MNP protected cells from DNA damage and death, restored SOD activity, and decreased MDA production...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Serpil Könen-Adıgüzel, Serap Ergene
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are used in a wide range of applications because of their unique properties. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are one of the important ENPs, and they can cause negative health effects, such as genotoxicity, in humans and other living organisms. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic effects of short-term (3-24 h) CeO2 NPs exposure to cultured human blood lymphocytes. Three genotoxicity systems "cytokinesis-block micronucleus test, comet assay, and gamma H2AX test" were used to show the genotoxic potential of CeO2 NPs (particle size <25 nm, concentrations: 6, 12, and 18 µg/mL)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Saddaf Rashid, Muhammad Arshad, Maryam Siddiqa, Rafiq Ahmad
Air quality in urban areas is generally poor especially at traffic intersections and roadsides due to continuous vehicular emissions comprising poly aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, benzene, diesel soot etc. The objective of this study was to compare the primary DNA damage in traffic police wardens occupationally exposed to airborne Cd and Zn (exposed group) and educational institution with negligible exposure to airborne Cd and Zn (control group). Blood levels of Cd and Zn in traffic police wardens and control group were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) and DNA damage was assessed by using Comet assay...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sandrine Charles, Stéphane Jomini, Valérie Fessard, Emilie Bigorgne-Vizade, Christophe Rousselle, Cécile Michel
A review of in vitro genotoxicity studies on titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) published between 2010 and 2016 was performed by France in the framework of the CLP Regulation 1272/2008/EC. Neither the few in vivo studies of low quality nor the larger number of acceptable in vitro studies available for genotoxicity allowed France to conclude on the genotoxicity of TiO2 -NPs. Based on this work, it was decided to compare the acceptable in vitro studies to understand the reasons for the diverging results observed, such as the materials tested or of the protocols used and their inherent interferences...
March 19, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Sylwia Terpilowska, Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chromium(III) and iron(III) and molybdenum(III) and nickel(II) and their combinations on cyto-, genotoxicity and mutagenicity in BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cells. The results obtained from cytotoxicity assays indicate that there are differences between BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cell lines in their sensitivity to chromium chloride, iron chloride, molybdenum trioxide and nickel chloride. The statistically significant increase of DNA damage of all used microelements in both cell lines was observed...
March 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Jana Tomc, Katja Kološa, Bojana Žegura, Urška Kamenšek, Barbara Breznik, Tamara Lah Turnšek, Metka Filipič
The problem of the currently used routine genotoxicity tests is relatively low predictivity of in vitro tests for in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. An important reason is considered to be inadequate expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in indicator cell lines. The aim of our study was to generate metabolically active differentiated hepatic progenies (hDHP) from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) for genotoxicity testing. hDHP, generated using a three-step hepatic differentiation procedure, expressed hepatic properties such as glycogen storage and albumin secretion...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Tetyana Kobets, Jian-Dong Duan, Klaus D Brunnemann, Michael J Iatropoulos, Sylvain Etter, Christina Hickey, Benjamin Smith, Gary M Williams
Genotoxicity of flavor and fragrance materials was assessed in Turkey Egg Genotoxicity Assay (TEGA) using32 P-nucleotide postlabeling (NPL) and comet assays to detect hepatic DNA adducts and strand breaks. Twenty materials having results in GADD45a-Gluc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, and standard in vitro and in vivo tests, were selected to evaluate the accuracy of TEGA. Quinoline (QUI) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) served as positive comparators. Two materials, p-tert-butyldihydrocinnamaldehyde (BDHCA) and methyl eugenol (MEU) produced DNA adducts...
March 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Barbara Pascucci, Alessandra Fragale, Veronica Marabitti, Giuseppe Leuzzi, Angelo Salvatore Calcagnile, Eleonora Parlanti, Annapaola Franchitto, Eugenia Dogliotti, Mariarosaria D'Errico
CS proteins have been involved in the repair of a wide variety of DNA lesions. Here, we analyse the role of CS proteins in DNA break repair by studying histone H2AX phosphorylation in different cell cycle phases and DNA break repair by comet assay in CS-A and CS-B primary and transformed cells. Following methyl methane sulphate treatment a significant accumulation of unrepaired single strand breaks was detected in CS cells as compared to normal cells, leading to accumulation of double strand breaks in S and G2 phases...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
S Wang, Z Zou, X Luo, Y Mi, H Chang, D Xing
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH1) has been shown to promote tumor proliferation and development. However, the functions of LRH1 in mediating cancer cells chemoresistance are still not clear. Here, we found LRH1 levels were significantly elevated in primary breast cancer tissues in patients who developed early recurrence. Similarly, adriamycin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cell lines also exerted high LRH1 expression. Indeed, overexpression of LRH1 attenuated cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs ADR and cisplatin (DDP) in breast cancer cells in vitro and in nude mice tumor model...
March 16, 2018: Oncogene
Pingping Fang, Jill A Madden, Lisa Neums, K Ryan Moulder, M Laird Forrest, Jeremy Chien
FOXM1 transcription factor network is activated in over 84% of cases in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), and FOXM1 upregulates the expression of genes involved in the homologous recombination (HR) DNA damage and repair (DDR) pathway. However, the role of FOXM1 in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor response has not yet been studied. The present study demonstrates that PARP inhibitor (PARPi), olaparib, induces the expression and nuclear localization of FOXM1. Based on ChIP-qPCR, olaparib enhances the binding of FOXM1 to genes involved in HR repair...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Edgar Isaac Rojas-Bedolla, Jorge Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez, Mario Iván Arenas-López, Marco Martin González-Chávez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Claudia Leticia Mendoza-Macías, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Juan José Maldonado-Miranda, Martha Alicia Deveze-Álvarez, Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Celtis pallida Torr (Cannabaceae) is employed as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, skin infections, and diarrhea, among other diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this work was to assess the chemical composition, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, locomotor, and sedative effects of an ethanolic extract obtained from Celtis pallida aerial parts (CPE)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Josip Madunić, Maja Antunović, Mladen Paradžik, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Davorka Breljak, Inga Marijanović, Goran Gajski
Apigenin is found in several dietary plant foods such as vegetables and fruits. To investigate potential anticancer properties of apigenin on human breast cancer, ER-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA MB-231 cells were used. Moreover, toxicological safety of apigenin towards normal cells was evaluated in human lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity of apigenin towards cancer cells was evaluated by MTT assay whereas further genotoxic and oxidative stress parameters were measured by comet and lipid peroxidation assays, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Vanessa Koehlé-Divo, Carole Cossu-Leguille, Sandrine Pain-Devin, Cécile Simonin, Carole Bertrand, Bénédicte Sohm, Catherine Mouneyrac, Simon Devin, Laure Giambérini
The rapid development of nanotechnology and the increased use of nanomaterials in products used in everyday life have raised the question of the potential release of nanoparticles into the aquatic environment. Their fate and effects in natural ecosystems are not currently well understood but harmful effects of nanoparticles have been demonstrated at low concentrations on some freshwater and marine species. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are produced in large quantities and used in products in many different fields, such as automotives or optics...
February 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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