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Comet Assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734215/dna-damage-and-cytotoxicity-induced-on-common-carp-by-pollutants-in-water-from-an-urban-reservoir-mad%C3%A3-n-reservoir-a-case-study
#1
I Pérez-Coyotl, C Martínez-Vieyra, M Galar-Martínez, L M Gómez-Oliván, S García-Medina, H Islas-Flores, R Pérez-Pasten Borja, E Gasca-Pérez, K A Novoa-Luna, O Dublán-García
Madín Reservoir provides a substantial amount of drinking water to two municipalities close to Mexico City metropolitan area. However, it receives untreated wastewater discharges from domestic sources in the towns of Nuevo Madín and others, as well as diverse pollutants which are hauled by the Río Tlalnepantla from its upper reaches, so that the xenobiotics in the reservoir are highly diverse in terms of type and quantity. Previous studies showed that MR is contaminated with xenobiotics such as Al, Hg and Fe, as well as NSAIDs, at concentrations exceeding the limits established for aquatic life protection...
July 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732331/an-evaluation-of-dna-damage-in-human-lymphocytes-and-sperm-exposed-to-methyl-methanesulfonate-involving-the-regulation-pathways-associated-with-apoptosis
#2
Khaled Habas, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Adolf Baumgartner, Martin H Brinkworth, Diana Anderson
Exposure to DNA-damaging agents produces a range of stress-related responses. These change the expression of genes leading to mutations that cause cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and cancer. We have examined the contribution of haploid and diploid DNA damage and genes involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process associated with exposure, The Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage and quantitative RT-PCR analysis (qPCR) to detect gene expression changes in lymphocytes and sperm in response to methyl methanesulfonate...
June 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730515/selective-induction-of-dna-damage-g2-abrogation-and-mitochondrial-apoptosis-by-leaf-extract-of-traditional-medicinal-plant-wrightia-arborea-in-k562-cells
#3
T Lakshmipriya, T Soumya, P R Jayasree, P R Manish Kumar
Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Wrightia arborea, an Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant, is used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments. This study evaluates the antiproliferative/apoptotic potential of Wrightia arborea leaf extracts, prepared in different organic solvents, on cancer cell lines. MTT assay, light and fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, DNA laddering, alkaline comet assay, and western blotting were some of the techniques used for evaluation. Combinations of camptothecin, either with CHK1 inhibitor-PD407824 or with W...
July 20, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729873/ageratum-enation-virus-infection-induces-programmed-cell-death-and-alters-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-papaver-somniferum
#4
Ashish Srivastava, Lalit Agrawal, Rashmi Raj, Meraj Jaidi, Shri K Raj, Swati Gupta, Ritu Dixit, Poonam C Singh, Tusha Tripathi, Om P Sidhu, Brahma N Singh, Sudhir Shukla, Puneet S Chauhan, Susheel Kumar
A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch's postulates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721745/pesticide-genotoxicity-in-cotton-picking-women-in-pakistan-evaluated-using-comet-assay
#5
Tayyaba Ali, Muhammad Ismail, Farkhanda Asad, Asma Ashraf, Usman Waheed, Qaiser M Khan
To control agricultural pests and meet the increasing food demands, pesticides use has been increased substantially over time. Although pesticides are relatively specific to their targets, they can affect non-target organisms and are hazardous for the population around the application areas particularly to the individuals engaged in different types of agricultural activities. This situation is worse in developing and under-developed countries where personal protective equipment is merely used and regulatory guidelines are hardly practiced...
July 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718668/olea-europaea-leaf-extract-improves-the-efficacy-of-temozolomide-therapy-by-inducing-mgmt-methylation-and-reducing-p53-expression-un-glioblastoma
#6
Gulcin Tezcan, Berrin Tunca, Hilal Demirci, Ahmet Bekar, Mevlut Ozgur Taskapilioglu, Hasan Kocaeli, Unal Egeli, Gulsah Cecener, Sahsine Tolunay, Ozgur Vatan
Unmethylated O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter leads to Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in most of the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. We previously investigated the synergistic effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on TMZ cytotoxicity through modulating microRNA expression. To date, knowledge about the effect of OLE on MGMT methylation is insufficient. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential modulating effect of OLE on the TMZ response of GBM tumors through MGMT methylation...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715867/therapeutic-impact-of-grape-leaves-polyphenols-on-certain-biochemical-and-neurological-markers-in-alcl3-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Ibrahim H Borai, Magda K Ezz, Maha Z Rizk, Hanan F Aly, Mahmoud El-Sherbiny, Azza A Matloub, Ghadha I Fouad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a grave and prevailing neurodegenerative disease, characterized by slow and progressive neurodegeneration in different brain regions. Aluminum (Al) is a potent and widely distributed neurotoxic metal, implicated in the neuropathogenesis of AD. This study aimed to evaluate the possible neurorestorative potential of Vitis vinifera Leaves Polyphenolic (VLP) extract in alleviating aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity in male rats. AlCl3 neurotoxicity induced a significant decrease in brain/serum acetylcholine (ACh) contents and serum dopamine (DA) levels, along with a significant increment of brain/serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714748/no-adverse-lung-effects-of-7-and-28-day-inhalation-exposure-of-rats-to-emissions-from-petrodiesel-fuel-containing-20-rapeseed-methyl-esters-b20-with-and-without-particulate-filter-the-fuelhealth-project
#8
Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Johan Øvrevik, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Jacek Biedrzycki, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Gunnar Brunborg, Christine Instanes, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Oddvar Myhre
Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers...
July 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714172/a-study-of-dna-damage-in-buccal-cells-of-consumers-of-well-and-or-tap-water-using-the-comet-assay-assessment-of-occupational-exposure-to-genotoxicants
#9
Celia Vazquez Boucard, Larisa Lee-Cruz, Laurence Mercier, Martín Ramírez Orozco, Vania Serrano Pinto, Gerardo Anguiano, Linette Cazares, Daniel Díaz
Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712879/comet-assay-on-thawed-embryos-an-optimized-technique-to-evaluate-dna-damage-in-mouse-embryos
#10
L Rolland, B Courbiere, V Tassistro, A Sansoni, T Orsière, W Liu, C Di Giorgio, J Perrin
Our objective was to optimize the CA technique on mammal embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1000 frozen 2-cell embryos from B6CBA mice were used. Based on a literature review, and after checking post-thaw embryo viability, the main outcome measures included: 1) comparison of the embryo recovery rate between 2 CA protocols (2 agarose layers and 3 agarose layers); 2) comparison of DNA damage by the CA on embryos with (ZP+) and without (ZP-) zona pellucida; and 3) comparison of DNA damage in embryos exposed to 2 genotoxic agents (H2O2 and simulated sunlight irradiation (SSI))...
July 13, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712878/antidepressants-are-cytotoxic-to-rat-primary-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells-at-high-therapeutic-concentrations
#11
Ekramy Elmorsy, Ayat Al-Ghafari, Fahd M Almutairi, Amal Misbah Aggour, Wayne G Carter
Antidepressants are commonly employed for the treatment of major depressive disorders and other psychiatric conditions. We investigated the relatively acute cytotoxic effects of three commonly prescribed antidepressants: fluoxetine, sertraline, and clomipramine on rat primary blood brain barrier endothelial cells over a concentration range of 0.1-100μM. At therapeutic concentrations (0.1μM) no significant cytotoxicity was observed after 4, 24, or 48h. At high therapeutic to overdose concentrations (1-100μM), antidepressants reduced cell viability in proportion to their concentration and exposure duration...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712131/a-novel-antibacterial-peptide-derived-from-crocodylus-siamensis-hemoglobin-hydrolysate-induces-membrane-permeabilisation-causing-iron-dysregulation-oxidative-stress-and-bacterial-death
#12
J Lueangsakulthai, N Jangpromma, T Temsiripong, J E McKendrick, W Khunkitti, S E Maddocks, S Klaynongsruang
AIMS: A novel antibacterial peptide from Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysate (CHHs) was characterised for antimicrobial activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: CHHs was hydrolysed for 2 h (2h-CHH), 4 h (4h-CHH), 6 h (6h-CHH) and 8 h (8h-CHH). 8h-CHH showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of 20, 20, 20 and 10 mg ml(-1) (w/v), respectively. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that 8h-CHH had bactericidal activity against E...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710764/twelve-gel-comet-assay-format-for-quick-examination-of-dna-damage-and-repair
#13
Sergey Shaposhnikov, Andrew Collins
The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive, versatile method for detecting DNA damage in eukaryotic cells. The traditional comet assay format has 1 or 2 gels on a microscope slide, 1 sample per slide, and there is a limit of 40 gels per experiment given the size of a typical electrophoresis tank. To increase throughput, we have designed and tested a system with 12 minigels on one slide, allowing analysis of up to 12 times more samples in one electrophoresis run. The novel comet assay format compares well with the traditional technology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710754/the-fast-halo-assay-for-the-detection-of-dna-damage
#14
Piero Sestili, Cinzia Calcabrini, Anna Rita Diaz, Carmela Fimognari, Vilberto Stocchi
The need for express screening of the DNA damaging potential of chemicals has progressively increased over the past 20 years due to the wide number of new synthetic molecules to be evaluated, as well as the adoption of more stringent chemical regulations such as the EU REACH and risk reduction politics. In this regard, DNA diffusion assays such as the microelectrophoretic comet assay paved the way for rapid genotoxicity testing. A more significant simplification and speeding up of the experimental processes was achieved with the fast halo assay (FHA) described in the present chapter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702759/evaluation-of-dna-damage-in-tobacco-male-meiocytes-involved-in-cytomixis-using-comet-assay
#15
Sergey Mursalimov, Alla Zagorskaya, Elena Deineko
Cytomixis is a process of nuclear migration between plant cells. As a rule, it is detectable in male meiocytes and gives rise to the cells with micronuclei. Examination of the integrity and functional state of migrating chromatin is of great interest, since cytomixis is assumed to change the gamete karyotype. We, for the first time, used comet assay to assess the DNA integrity in the chromatin that migrates between plant meiocytes. As was shown, the cells involved in cytomixis are viable and display no signs of DNA damage...
July 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699091/the-effects-of-ozone-application-on-genotoxic-damage-and-wound-healing-in-bisphosphonate-applied-human-gingival-fibroblast-cells
#16
Sıdıka Sinem Akdeniz, E Beyler, Y Korkmaz, E Yurtcu, U Ates, K Araz, F I Sahin, O Y Torun
OBJECTIVES: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is an extremely therapy-resistant disease involving the jaws especially following bisphosphonate treatment. Bisphosphonates accumulate in bone in concentrations sufficient to be directly toxic to the oral epithelium. Current therapeutic options are inadequate for the prevention and treatment of MRONJ. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of ozone gas plasma therapy on wound healing in bisphosphonate-applied human fibroblasts...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696896/assessment-of-dna-damage-in-a-group-of-professional-dancers-during-a-10-month-dancing-season
#17
Filipa Esteves, Eduardo Teixeira, Tânia Amorim, Carla Costa, Cristiana Pereira, Sónia Fraga, Vanessa Moraes De Andrade, João Paulo Teixeira, Solange Costa
Despite the numerous health benefits of physical activity, some studies reported that increased intensity and duration may induce oxidative stress in several cellular components including DNA. The aim of this study was to assess the level of basal DNA damage as well as oxidative DNA damage in a group of professional dancers before and after a 10-month dancing season. A group of individuals from general population was also assessed as a control. The alkaline version of the comet assay was the method selected to measure both basal DNA damage and oxidative stress, since this method quantifies both endpoints...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695982/combinations-of-genotoxic-tests-for-the-evaluation-of-group-1-iarc-carcinogens
#18
REVIEW
Jacky Bhagat
Many of the known human carcinogens are potent genotoxins that are efficiently detected as carcinogens in human populations but certain types of compounds such as immunosuppressants, sex hormones, etc. act via non-genotoxic mechanism. The absence of genotoxicity and the diversity of modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens make predicting their carcinogenic potential extremely challenging. There is evidence that combinations of different short-term tests provide a better and efficient prediction of human genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694773/loud-noise-exposure-produces-dna-neurotransmitter-and-morphological-damage-within-specific-brain-areas
#19
Giada Frenzilli, Larisa Ryskalin, Michela Ferrucci, Emanuela Cantafora, Silvia Chelazzi, Filippo S Giorgi, Paola Lenzi, Vittoria Scarcelli, Alessandro Frati, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Alessandra Falleni, Francesco Fornai
Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum) of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA) for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694083/impact-of-surface-functionalization-on-the-uptake-mechanism-and-toxicity-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-hepg2-cells
#20
Lada Brkić Ahmed, Mirta Milić, Igor M Pongrac, Ana Marija Marjanović, Hrvoje Mlinarić, Ivan Pavičić, Srećko Gajović, Ivana Vinković Vrček
Safe and successful bioapplications of metallic nanoparticles depend on their physicochemical characteristics, in particular their surface properties. This study aimed to investigate how different surface functionalization of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) affect their interaction with mammalian liver cells with regard to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mechanism of cellular uptake. Differentially coated AgNP were prepared by surface functionalization using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate (AOTAgNP), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABAgNP), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPAgNP), poly-l-lysine (PLLAgNP), and bovine serum albumin (BSAAgNP)...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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