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Comet Assay

João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Paula Peron, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva, Ellifran Bezerra de Siqueira Dantas, Ataíde de Macedo Vieira Lima, Victor Alves de Oliveira, Leomá Albuquerque Matos, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Marcus Vinicius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Cláudia Costa Bonecker, Horácio Ferreira Júlio
River pollution in Brazil is significant. This study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical and genotoxic profiles of the Guaribas river water, located in Northeast Brazil (State of Piauí, Brazil). The study conducted during the dry and wet seasons to understand the frequency of pollution throughout the year. Genotoxicity analysis was done with the blood of Oreochromis niloticus by using the comet assay. Water samples were collected from upstream, within and downstream the city Picos. The results suggest a significant (p < 0...
March 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Hussain Arif, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. It is also a major by-product generated upon disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In this study, we have investigated the genotoxicity of NaClO3 on the small intestine of rats. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: one control and four NaClO3 treated groups. The NaClO3 treated groups were given a single acute oral dose of NaClO3 (100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed 24 h later...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Khaled Habas, Martin H Brinkworth, Diana Anderson
The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only germline stem cells in adults that are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from mammals to the next generation. SSCs play a very important role in the maintenance of progression of spermatogenesis and help provide an understanding of the reproductive biology of future gametes and a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of infertility and male reproductive toxicity. Androgens/oestrogens are very important for the suitable maintenance of male germ cells...
March 14, 2017: Toxicology
Kodandaram Sumalatha, Mohan Gowda, Sreepriya Meenakshisundaram
Background Embelin is a benzoquinone reported to possess anticancer activity in several in vivo and in vitro models of carcinogenesis, especially hematopoietic and prostate malignancy. A detailed investigation on the influence of embelin on epithelial malignancy model system, especially colon adenocarcinoma, is lacking. The objective of the current study is to investigate the antiproliferative, antiinvasive and proapoptotic potential of embelin on colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. Methods The effect of embelin (35 µg/mL for 24 h) on cell proliferation was assessed by Sulforhodamine B assay and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation test, antiinvasive effect by Boyden chamber assay and scratch assay...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Madhu Sharma, Pooja Chadha
The present study investigated the intertissue differences in genotoxicity induction in the fish, Channa punctatus, in response to 4-nonylphenol. The lethal concentration of 50 (LC50) was estimated using a semi-static system. Fish were subjected to three sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Liver, gill, and kidney tissues were analyzed, and the genotoxicity was estimated using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. The frequency of micronucleated cells (MNCs), binucleated cells (BNCs), aberrant cells, and tail moment (TM) increased significantly...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
E Pastuszek, J Kiewisz, P Skowronska, J Liss, M Lukaszuk, A Bruszczynska, G Jakiel, K Lukaszuk
Presence of vacuoles and degree of sperm DNA damage are considered to be the basic factors used for the assessment of sperm fertilization capacity. We aimed to investigate the link between these two parameters. According to our knowledge, this is the first study where the Comet assay was used to assess the degree of DNA fragmentation of sperm categorized by Motile Sperm Organelle Morphology Examination (MSOME) Grades. Semen samples from 10 patients were assessed. Spermatozoa were graded into four MSOME groups according to the Vanderzwalmen's criteria...
March 2017: Andrology
Patrizia Ragazzo, Donatella Feretti, Silvano Monarca, Luca Dominici, Elisabetta Ceretti, Gaia Viola, Valentina Piccolo, Nicoletta Chiucchini, Milena Villarini
Disinfection with performic acid (PFA) represents an emerging technology in wastewater treatment. Many recent studies indicate its effectiveness and suitability as a disinfectant for different applications; several have demonstrated its reliability as an alternative to chlorine for disinfecting secondary effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Some disinfection technologies, in relation to their oxidative power, lead to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are of concern for their toxic and carcinogenic potential...
March 7, 2017: Water Research
Željana Fredotović, Matilda Šprung, Barbara Soldo, Ivica Ljubenkov, Irena Budić-Leto, Tea Bilušić, Vedrana Čikeš-Čulić, Jasna Puizina
Here, we report a comparative study of the phytochemical profile and the biological activity of two onion extracts, namely Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842), members of the family Amaryllidaceae. The identification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, and their individual quantities, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The potency of both extracts to scavenge free radicals was determined by the DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods...
March 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Muobarak J Tuorkey
Cyclophosphamide (Cy), a chemotherapeutic agent, is of great interest in the clinic due to its relatively high oncotoxic specificity. However, its usage is restricted due to its severe side effects, particularly hepatotoxicity. This study investigates the potential cytoprotective effect of Nigella sativa oil against the high toxic dose of Cy. 40 albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, Cy group that received a single intraperitoneal dose of Cy (200 mg/kg), and Cy-treated groups with 50 and 200 mg/kg of Nigella sativa oil (NSO), for 15 days...
April 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Eric R Lucas, Maria Augustyniak, Andrzej Kędziorski, Laurent Keller
The biological processes that underlie senescence are of universal biological importance, yet they remain poorly understood. A popular theory proposes that senescence is the result of limited investment into mechanisms involved in the prevention and repair of molecular damage, leading to an accumulation of molecular damage with age. In ants, queen and worker lifespans differ by an order of magnitude, and this remarkable difference in lifespan has been shown to be associated with differences in the expression of genes involved in DNA and protein repair...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Muhammad Torequl Islam, Leticia Streck, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Samara Wanessa Cardoso Silva, Kátia da Conceição Machado, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Joaquim Soares da Costa Junior, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Arnobio Antonio da Silva-Junior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Phytol (PYT) is a diterpenoid having important biological activity. However, it is a water non-soluble compound. This study aims to prepare PYT nanoemulsion (PNE) and evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of PYT and PNE. For this, the PNE was prepared by the phase inversion method. The cytotoxicity test was performed in Artemia salina, while toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Allium cepa at concentrations of 2, 4, 8 and 16 mM. Potassium dichromate and copper sulfate were used as positive controls for the tests of A...
March 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Hyunjung Ko, Youngdan Jeong, Miri Kim
Increasing interest is being paid to the toxicities of dental materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxicities and genotoxicities of endodontic compounds to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) reproductive cells. Cultured CHO-K1 cells were treated with dental formocresol, two types of calcium hydroxide paste, and two types of mineral trioxide aggregate cement for 24h. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was performed on each culture, and the micronucleus frequency was determined by performing a micronucleus assay...
March 2017: Mutation Research
Lara Rodríguez-Ribera, Zuray Corredor, Irene Silva, Juan Manuel Díaz, José Ballarín, Ricard Marcos, Susana Pastor, Elisabet Coll
End-stage renal disease patients present oxidative stress status that increases when they are submitted to hemodialysis (HD). This increase in oxidative stress can affect their genetic material, among other targets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using polysulfone membranes coated with vitamin E, during the HD sessions, on the levels of genetic damage of HD patients. Forty-six patients were followed for 6 months, of whom 29 changed from conventional HD to the use of membranes coated with vitamin E...
March 2017: Mutation Research
Sathesh Kumar Annamalai, Kantha Deivi Arunachalam
The strategic plan of this study is to analyze any possible radiological impact on aquatic organisms from forthcoming uranium mining facilities around the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam in the future. The predominantly consumed and dominant fish species Pangasius sutchi, which is available year-round at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, was selected for the study. To comprehend the outcome and to understand the mode of action of (238)U, the fish species Pangasius sutchi was exposed to ¼ and ½ of the LC50 doses of waterborne (238)U in a static system in duplicate for 21 days...
March 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Mingqin Zhong, Pinghe Yin, Ling Zhao
The objective of the present work was to evaluate the toxic effect of nonylphenol (NP) on the antioxidant response and antitumor activity of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. An obvious oxidative damage was observed in this study. The thallus exposed to NP showed 1.2-2.0-fold increase in lipid peroxide and displayed a maximum level of 16.58 μmol g(-1) Fw on 0.6 mg L(-1) for 15-day exposure. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enhanced significantly by 1.1-3...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cheng Teng Ng, Liang Qing Yong, Manoor Prakash Hande, Choon Nam Ong, Liya E Yu, Boon Huat Bay, Gyeong Hun Baeg
BACKGROUND: Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used, there has been an increasing number of reports on the toxicity of ZnO NPs. However, study on the underlying mechanisms under in vivo conditions is insufficient. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the toxicological profiles of ZnO NPs in MRC5 human lung fibroblasts in vitro and in an in vivo model using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the uptake, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, gene expression profiling and genotoxicity induced by ZnO NPs...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Plínio Cerqueira Dos Santos Cardoso, Carlos Alberto Machado da Rocha, Mariana Ferreira Leal, Marcelo de Oliveira Bahia, Diego Di Felipe Ávila Alcântara, Raquel Alves Dos Santos, Natália Dos Santos Gonçalves, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Bruno Coêlho Cavalcanti, Caroline Aquino Moreira-Nunes, Claudia do Ó Pessoa, Rommel Mário Rodríguez Burbano
The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of kaurenoic acid, obtained from copaiba oil resin, in gastric cancer (GC) and a normal mucosa of stomach (MNP01) cell lines. The compound was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 30 and 60μg/mL. Comet and micronucleus assays were used to access its potential genotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of kaurenoic acid in cell cycle progression and in the transcription of genes involved in the control of the cell cycle: MYC, CCND1, BCL2, CASP3, ATM, CHK2 and TP53...
March 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sonia Soloneski, Celeste Ruiz de Arcaute, Noelia Nikoloff, Marcelo L Larramendy
We evaluated the role of oxidative stress in the genotoxic damage induced by imazethapyr (IMZT) and its formulation Pivot® in mammalian CHO-K1 cell line. Using the alkaline comet assay, we observed that a concentration of 0.1 μg/mL of IMZT or Pivot® was able to induce DNA damage by increasing the frequency of damaged nucleoids. To test whether the DNA lesions were caused by oxidative stress, the DNA repair enzymes endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which convert base damage to strand breaks, were used...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Igor Vivian Almeida, Liliane Menezes Fernandes, Bruna Isabela Biazi, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is associated with a high mortality rate around the world due to its aggressiveness and highly resistance to conventional therapies. Sanguinarine (SAN) and Chelerythrine (CHE) are plant alkaloids extracted from Sanguinaria canadensis and Macleaya cordata, which have been studied for their bioactivities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the anticancer activities of Sanguinarine (SAN) and Chelerythrine (CHE) plant alkaloids. METHOD: It was performed the MTT assay, the alkaline comet assay and cell cycle analyses by flow cytometry...
February 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Corinna Herz, Hoai Thi Thu Tran, Steffen Landerer, Johanna Gaus, Nina Schlotz, Lia Lehr, Wolfgang R Schäfer, Oliver Treeck, Grace Akinyi Odongo, Ivan Skatchov, Evelyn Lamy
SCOPE: Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) from Brassica plants are regarded as promising anticancer phytochemicals. The enzyme telomerase is a very attractive target for cancer therapeutics; in normal cells such as lymphocytes, it plays a decisive role for cell maintenance. The effect of I3C and DIM on telomerase in normal human immune cells (PBMC) was studied compared to leukaemia cells (HL-60). Signalling of telomerase regulation via estrogen receptor (ER) was addressed...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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