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Comet Assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535484/biomonitoring-of-genotoxicity-of-industrial-fertilizer-pollutants-in-aiolopus-thalassinus-orthoptera-acrididae-using-alkaline-comet-assay
#1
Eman A Abdelfattah, Maria Augustyniak, Hesham A Yousef
Phosphate fertilizer industry is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollutants. Besides solid waste products, e.g. phosphates, sulphates, and heavy metals, also atmospheric pollutants, such as hydrofluoric acid fumes (HF), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and particulate matter with diameter up to 10 μm (PM10) can be dangerous. Genotoxic effect of these pollutants was monitored by assessing the DNA damage using alkaline comet assay on cells from brain, thoracic muscles and gut of Aiolopus thalassinus collected at three sites (A-C) located at 1, 3, and 6 km away from Abu-Zaabal Company for Fertilizers and Chemical Industries...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533948/radiosensitization-effect-of-hsa-mir-138-2-3p-on-human-laryngeal-cancer-stem-cells
#2
Ying Zhu, Li-Yun Shi, Yan-Min Lei, Yan-Hong Bao, Zhao-Yang Li, Fei Ding, Gui-Ting Zhu, Qing-Qing Wang, Chang-Xin Huang
BACKGROUND: Treatments that target cancer stem cells play an important role in the controlling and eliminating of tumor initiation as well as in development, progression, and chemotherapy/radiotherapy resistance. In our previous study, we cultured and harvested human laryngeal cancer stem cells (CSCs) and applied microRNA biochips to screen differentially expressed miRNAs that were related to radiation tolerance in irradiated human laryngeal CSCs. According to the predicted genes and pathways of differential miRNAs target, down-regulated expression of hsa-miR-138-2-3p under radiation was thought to play a key role in enhancing the radio-sensitivity in human laryngeal squamous cancer stem cells...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532341/pterostilbene-protects-against-uvb-induced-photo-damage-through-a-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent-nrf2-are-pathway-in-human-keratinocytes
#3
Huaping Li, Na Jiang, Bihua Liang, Qing Liu, Erting Zhang, Liqian Peng, Huiyan Deng, Runxiang Li, Zhenjie Li, Huilan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is the initial etiological factor for various skin disorders, including erythema, sunburn, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Pterostilbene (Pter) displayed remarkable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities. This study aimed to investigate the effective mechanism of Pter against UVB-induced photodamage in immortalized human keratinocytes. METHODS: Human keratinocytes were pretreated with Pter (5 and 10 μM) for 24 h prior to UVB irradiation (300 mJ/cm(2))...
May 22, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531839/genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-atrazine-atanor-50-sc-on-dendropsophus-minutus-peters-1872-anura-hylidae-developmental-larval-stages
#4
Macks Wendhell Gonçalves, Calebe Bertolino Marins de Campos, Vinícius Guerra Batista, Aparecido Divino da Cruz, Paulo de Marco Junior, Rogério Pereira Bastos, Daniela de Melo E Silva
The potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine were investigated in different developmental stages of Dendropsophus minutus tadpoles. These animals were exposed to 4 nominal concentrations of atrazine (2.25, 4.5, 9, and 18 mg/L) and 40 mg/L of Cyclophosphamide as a positive control, for 96 h. Negative controls were also added to the experiment. The tadpoles were divided into three groups according to Gosner's developmental stages, namely GS 25-33 as premetamorphic, GS 36-39 as prometamorphic, and GS 42-43 as metamorphic climax...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531838/antimicrobial-agents-triclosan-chloroxylenol-methylisothiazolinone-and-borax-used-in-cleaning-had-genotoxic-and-histopathologic-effects-on-rainbow-trout
#5
Erol Capkin, Tuna Ozcelep, Sevki Kayis, Ilhan Altinok
Triclosan (TRC), chloroxylenol (PCMX) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT) have been commonly used as an antimicrobial in soaps while borax (BRX) is used in household cleaning. After using these chemicals, they are washed down drains and getting into the aquatic ecosystem in which they may affect aquatic living organisms. In the present study, the chronic effects of TRC, PCMX, MIT and BRX on genotoxicity, gene expression and histopathology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were evaluated for 40 days under semi static condition...
May 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528796/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-energy-band-gap-reduction-triggers-the-oxidative-stress-resulting-into-autophagy-mediated-apoptotic-cell-death
#6
Manoranjan Arakha, Jyoti Roy, Parth Sarthi Nayak, Bibekanand Mallick, Suman Jha
The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticle (NP), such as particle size, surface defects, crystallinity and accessible surface, affect NP photocatalytic activity that in turn defines the NP cytotoxic propensity. Since zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnONP) energy band gap falls in a range of a semiconductor, the particle possesses photocatalytic activity. Hence, the study correlates energy band gap with cytotoxic propensity of ZnONP. To this end, ZnONPs with varying energy band gap are fabricated by varying calcination temperature...
May 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525815/an-integrated-approach-to-study-the-risk-from-landfill-soil-of-delhi-chemical-analyses-in-vitro-assays-and-human-risk-assessment
#7
Swati, Pooja Ghosh, Indu Shekhar Thakur
In the present study, landfill soil of three municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India were toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment as inadequate information is available on the possible health effects of the contaminants present in landfill soil. The landfill soil samples were prepared for analyzing heavy metal concentration, organic contaminants and toxicity analysis separately. Composite soil sample collected from three landfill sites were analyzed for heavy metal by ICP-AES. Metal concentration so obtained was below the permissible limit of soil but higher than the set limits for effluent...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525650/detection-of-damage-on-single-or-double-stranded-dna-in-a-population-exposed-to-arsenic-in-drinking-water
#8
J Jiménez-Villarreal, D I Rivas-Armendariz, C P Pineda-Belmontes, N D Betancourt-Martínez, M A Macías-Corral, A J Guerra-Alanis, M S Niño-Castañeda, J Morán-Martínez
Different studies have suggested an association between arsenic (As) exposure and damage to single-stranded DNA by reactive oxygen species derived from the biotransformation of arsenic. The single strand damages are converted to double strand damage upon interaction with ultraviolet radiation. Analysis of genomic integrity is important for assessing the genotoxicity caused by environmental pollutants. In this study, we compared the concentration of As in drinking water, nutritional status, lifestyle variables, and the level of genotoxicity in an exposed population and a control group...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524757/wood-smoke-exposure-of-portuguese-wildland-firefighters-dna-and-oxidative-damage-evaluation
#9
Ana Abreu, Carla Costa, Susana Pinho E Silva, Simone Morais, Maria do Carmo Pereira, Adília Fernandes, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, João Paulo Teixeira, Solange Costa
Portugal is among the European Union countries most devastated by forest fires each year. In the last three decades, more than 3.8 million hectares of forest were burned. Wildland firefighters are exposed to a variety of hazards, including many toxic combustion products that may lead to deleterious health effects. Epidemiological studies showed a positive association between firefighting and several chronic diseases, including cancer. Results from biomonitoring studies in firefighters, particularly concerning genotoxicity evaluation, constitute a valuable tool for investigating important occupational hazards...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524728/a-reduction-in-dna-damage-in-neural-tissue-and-peripheral-blood-of-old-mice-treated-with-caffeine
#10
Adriani Paganini Damiani, Michelle Lima Garcez, Larissa Letieli de Abreu, Taís Helena Tavares, Carina Rodrigues Boeck, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade
Studies on caffeine consumption have shown a negative correlation with development of some diseases with subsequent beneficial manifestations. Our aim was to assess the effects of caffeine on peripheral blood and neural tissue DNA in young adult and aged mice. Male Swiss mice (age 2-3 or 16-18 months, respectively) were treated with a caffeine solution (0.3 g/l) for 4 weeks, while controls received water. After the treatments, blood and hippocampal cells (for a comet assay) and femurs (for a micronucleus [MN] test) were collected...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524089/green-synthesized-zinc-oxide-zno-nanoparticles-induce-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-lathyrus-sativus-l-root-bioassay-system
#11
Kamal K Panda, Dambaru Golari, A Venugopal, V Mohan M Achary, Ganngam Phaomei, Narasimham L Parinandi, Hrushi K Sahu, Brahma B Panda
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn(2+) from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L(-1) for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂(•-), H₂O₂ and (•)OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L...
May 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524082/cellular-repair-of-dna-dna-cross-links-induced-by-1-2-3-4-diepoxybutane
#12
Lisa N Chesner, Amanda Degner, Dewakar Sangaraju, Shira Yomtoubian, Susith Wickramaratne, Bhaskar Malayappan, Natalia Tretyakova, Colin Campbell
Xenobiotic-induced interstrand DNA-DNA cross-links (ICL) interfere with transcription and replication and can be converted to toxic DNA double strand breaks. In this work, we investigated cellular responses to 1,4-bis-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol (bis-N7G-BD) cross-links induced by 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB). High pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI⁺-MS/MS) assays were used to quantify the formation and repair of bis-N7G-BD cross-links in wild-type Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) and the corresponding isogenic clones V-H1 and V-H4, deficient in the XPD and FANCA genes, respectively...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521819/linking-hypoxia-dna-damage-and-proliferation-in-multicellular-tumor-spheroids
#13
Stephen Riffle, Ram Naresh Pandey, Morgan Albert, Rashmi S Hegde
BACKGROUND: Multicellular Tumor Spheroids are frequently used to mimic the regionalization of proliferation and the hypoxic environment within avascular tumors. Here we exploit these features to study the activation of DNA damage repair pathways and their correlation to developing hypoxia. METHODS: Activation of DNA damage repair markers, proliferation, cell death, glycogen accumulation and developing hypoxia were investigated using immunofluorescence, immuno-histochemistry, EdU incorporation, Western blots, COMET assays, and pharmacological agents in A673 Ewing sarcoma spheroids and monolayer cultures...
May 18, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521290/mir-2964a-5p-binding-site-snp-regulates-atm-expression-contributing-to-age-related-cataract-risk
#14
Han Rong, Shanshan Gu, Guowei Zhang, Lihua Kang, Mei Yang, Junfang Zhang, Xinyue Shen, Huaijin Guan
This study was to explore the involvement of DNA repair genes in the pathogenesis of age-related cataract (ARC). We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes responsible to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in 804 ARC cases and 804 controls in a cohort of eye diseases in Chinese population and found that the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene-rs4585:G>T was significantly associated with ARC risk. An in vitro functional test found that miR-2964a-5p specifically down-regulated luciferase reporter expression and ATM expression in the cell lines transfected with rs4585 T allele compared to rs4585 G allele...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511299/-value-of-dna-content-in-comet-tail-in-predicting-changes-in-blood-cell-counts-in-workers-exposed-to-benzene
#15
B X Liang, X X Liu, L P Chen, A C Yang, M Huang, Q F Deng, W Chen, Y M Xiao
Objective: To investigate the value of DNA content in comet tail (TailDNA) in predicting the changes in peripheral blood cell counts in workers exposed to benzene. Methods: In 2011, cluster sampling was used to select 150 male workers exposed to benzene in a petrochemical factory. Cubital venous blood and urine samples were collected for routine blood rest, comet assay, and measurement of s-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and urine creatinine. The population was divided into groups according to urinary SPMA or TailDNA, and routine blood test results within 3 years were collected to analyze the changes in blood cell counts...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511064/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-anticancer-activity-of-ruthenium-ii-polypyridyl-complexes
#16
Bing Tang, Dan Wan, Shang-Hai Lai, Hui-Hui Yang, Cheng Zhang, Xiu-Zhen Wang, Chuan-Chuan Zeng, Yun-Jun Liu
A new ligand PFPIP (PFPIP=2-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)[4,5-f]imadazo [1,10]phenanthroline) and its four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(NN)2(PFPIP)](ClO4)2 (NN=dmb: 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, 1; bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine, 2; phen: 1,10-phenanthroline, 3; dmp: 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and ESI-MS. The cytotoxic activity in vitro of the ligand and complexes toward BEL-7402, A549, HeLa, HepG2 and MG-63 cell lines was evaluated using MTT method (MTT=(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506752/thio-functionalized-carbohydrate-thiosemicarbazones-and-evaluation-of-their-anticancer-activity
#17
Anna Czubatka-Bieńkowska, Joanna Sarnik, Anna Macieja, Grzegorz Galita, Zbigniew J Witczak, Tomasz Poplawski
Thiosemicarbazides and their analogs have shown potential medical applications as antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer drugs. We designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro anticancer activity against ovarian (A2780), cervix (HeLa), colon (LoVo), breast (MCF-7) and brain (MO59J) human cancer cell lines of seven novel compounds -S-glycosylated thiosemicarbazones. We assessed the cyto- and genotoxic properties of all novel compounds using a variety of methods including comet assay, XTT assay, various fluorescent assays and toxicology PathwayFinder expression array...
April 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505574/the-effect-of-insecticides-chlorpyrifos-%C3%AE-cypermethrin-and-imidacloprid-on-primary-dna-damage-tp-53-and-c-myc-structural-integrity-by-comet-fish-assay
#18
Davor Zeljezic, Benjamin Vinkovic, Vilena Kasuba, Nevenka Kopjar, Mirta Milic, Marin Mladinic
In parallel with the continuous use of conventional insecticides, introduction of more environmentally friendly substances continues to grow in modern agriculture. In the present study, we evaluated chlorpyrifos, and imidacloprid and α-cypermethrin as two representatives of green insecticides for their genotoxic activity. We conducted a 14-day treatment in extended human lymphocytes cultures using real life exposure relevant concentrations. An alkaline comet assay was used to detect primary DNA damage. Simultaneously, the effect on the specific action towards the TP 53 and c-Myc genes in terms of fragmentation and copy number were determined...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505481/altered-development-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-leptodactylus-chaquensis-anura-leptodactylidae-larvae-exposed-to-poultry-litter
#19
L M Curi, P M Peltzer, C Martinuzzi, M A Attademo, S Seib, M F Simoniello, R C Lajmanovich
Poultry litter (PL), which is usually used as organic fertilizer, is a source of nutrients, metals, veterinary pharmaceuticals and bacterial pathogens, which, through runoff, may end up in the nearest aquatic ecosystems. In this study, Leptodactylus chaquensis at different development stages (eggs, larval stages 28 and 31 here referred to as stages I, II and III respectively) were exposed to PL test sediments as follows: 6.25% (T1), 12.5% (T2); 25% (T3); 50% (T4); 75% (T5); 100% PL (T6) and to dechlorinated water as control...
May 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503984/the-genotoxic-effect-of-oxcarbazepine-on-mice-blood-lymphocytes
#20
Huma Akbar, Ajmal Khan, Imdadullah Mohammadzai, Muhammad Khisroon, Ilham Begum
This study was conducted to assess the amount of DNA damage caused by Oxcarbazepine (OXC) through single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique/comet assay. OXC derived from dibenzazepine series is an effective second generation antiepileptic drug (AED) for both children and adults. Side effects like genotoxic effects of AEDs are of prime importance resulting from toxic metabolites, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Forty Eight adult male Bagg's albino mice (BALB/c) were randomly classified into eight groups, each comprising of six animals...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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