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Comet Assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142345/in-vitro-protective-effect-of-rutin-and-quercetin-against-radiation-induced-genetic-damage-in-human-lymphocytes
#1
Shrikant L Patil, K Swaroop, Nilesh Kakde, H M Somashekarappa
Purpose of the Study: Rutin (RUT) and quercetin (QRT) which are dietary compounds were investigated for their ability to protect against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: The radiation antagonistic potential of RUT and QRT was assessed by alkaline comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Results: Treatment of lymphocytes with RUT and QRT (25 μg/ml) prior exposure to 2 Gy gamma radiation resulted in a significant reduction of frequency of micronuclei as compared to the control set of cells evaluated by CBMN assay...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#2
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131114/rosmarinic-acid-attenuates-the-activation-of-murine-microglial-n9-cells-through-the-downregulation-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-cleaved-caspase-3
#3
Vanessa Rodrigues Coelho, Cassiana Macagnan Viau, Renata Bartolomeu Staub, Marcele Silva De Souza, Pricila Pflüger, Gabriela Gregory Regner, Patrícia Pereira, Jenifer Saffi
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the ability of rosmarinic acid (RA) to inhibit microglia activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the N9 murine microglial cell line, and investigated the putative mechanisms involved in this process. METHODS: In all tests, N9 murine microglial cells were pretreated with RA (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM) for 20 h and exposed to LPS (1 μM/mL) for 4 h. Cell viability was measured by Trypan blue exclusion assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS), quantify cleaved caspase-3, and analyze the mitochondrial electrochemical potential...
November 7, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129129/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-furia-%C3%A2-180-sc-zeta-cypermethrin-and-bulldock-125%C3%A2-sc-%C3%AE-cyfluthrin-pyrethroid-insecticides-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#4
María Elena Calderón-Segura, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo, Josefina Cortés-Eslava, Carmen Martínez-Valenzuela, Luis Humberto Mojica-Vázquez, Magdiel Sosa-López, Diana Flores-Ramírez, Zaira Edtih Romero-Velázquez
In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed in vitro to 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 μg/mL Furia ®180 SC (zeta-cypermethrin) and 0, 6.3, 12.5, 18.8, 25, and 31.3 μg/mL Bulldock ®125 SC (β-cyfluthrin). Exposure to 32 µg/mL bleomycin for 24 h served as a positive control. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of each insecticide were analyzed using alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated through three genotoxicity parameters: tail length (TL), tail moment (TM) and tail intensity (TI)...
November 12, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129070/molecular-signatures-associated-with-treatment-of-triple-negative-mda-mb231-breast-cancer-cells-with-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-jaha-and-saha
#5
Mariangela Librizzi, Fabio Caradonna, Ilenia Cruciata, Janusz Dębski, Supojjanee Sansook, Michał Dadlez, John Spencer, Claudio Luparello
Jay Amin hydroxamic acid (JAHA; N8-ferrocenylN(1)-hydroxy-octanediamide) is a ferrocene-containing analogue of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). JAHA's cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells at 72 h has been previously demonstrated with an IC50 of 8.45 μM. JAHA's lethal effect was found linked to perturbations of cell cycle, mitochondrial activity, signal transduction, and autophagy mechanisms. To glean novel insights on how MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells respond to the cytotoxic effect induced by JAHA, and to compare the biological effect with the related compound SAHA, we have employed a combination of differential display-PCR, proteome analysis, and COMET assay techniques and shown some differences in the molecular signature profiles induced by exposure to either HDACis...
November 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128690/transcriptome-based-biological-dosimetry-of-gamma-radiation-in-arabidopsis-using-dna-damage-response-genes
#6
Tae Ho Ryu, Jin Kyu Kim, Jeong-Il Kim, Jin-Hong Kim
Plants are used as representative reference biota for the biological assessment of environmental risks such as ionizing radiation due to their immobility. This study proposed a faster, more economical, and more effective method than conventional cytogenetic methods for the biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation in plants (phytodosimetry). We compared various dose-response curves for the radiation-induced DNA damage response (DDR) in Arabidopsis thaliana after relatively "low-dose" gamma irradiation (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 Gy) below tens of Gy using comet (or single-cell gel electrophoresis), gamma-H2AX, and transcriptomic assays of seven DDR genes (AGO2, BRCA1, GRG, PARP1, RAD17, RAD51, and RPA1E) using quantitative real time PCR...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128605/erythrocytes-as-a-biological-model-for-screening-of-xenobiotics-toxicity
#7
REVIEW
Mayada Ragab Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany
Erythrocytes are the main cells in circulation. They are devoid of internal membrane structures and easy to be isolated and handled providing a good model for different assays. Red blood cells (RBCs) plasma membrane is a multi-component structure that keeps the cell morphology, elasticity, flexibility and deformability. Alteration of membrane structure upon exposure to xenobiotics could induce various cellular abnormalities and releasing of intracellular components. Therefore the morphological changes and extracellular release of haemoglobin [hemolysis] and increased content of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) [as signs of membrane stability] could be used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of various molecules...
November 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126054/a-study-of-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-mercuric-chloride-in-the-marine-polychaete-perinereis-aibuhitensis
#8
Lai Jun Zhang, Yao Li, Pan Chen, Xiao Mei Li, Yong Gan Chen, Yu Yu Hang, Wei Jie Gong
The marine polychaete worm Perinereis aibuhitensis was used to study the genotoxic effects of mercuric chloride by means of the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. P. aibuhitensis was subjected in vivo to two different concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.05mgL(-1) and 0.5mgL(-1)) for 96h. The comet assay of coelomocytes demonstrated that TailDNA% values increased with extended exposure to or increased concentrations of HgCl2 (p<0.01). The frequency of MNs was the highest in the treatment with 96h of exposure at all concentrations (p<0...
October 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125176/hplc-dad-esi-ms-ms-analysis-of-fruits-from-firmiana-simplex-l-and-evaluation-of-their-antioxidant-and-antigenotoxic-properties
#9
Mosad Ahmed Ghareeb, Tamer Mohamed, Amal Mohamed Saad, Laila Abdel-Ghany Refahy, Mansour Sobeh, Michael Wink
OBJECTIVES: The secondary metabolites of the fruits of Firmiana simplex (L.) were analysed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS; furthermore, we evaluated their antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties. METHODS: The antioxidant activity was investigated using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antigenotoxic potential was determined via the comet assay...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124512/synthesis-and-antiproliferative-and-apoptosis-inducing-activity-of-novel-3-substituted-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole-compounds
#10
Mona Nazemi Moghaddam, Razieh Jalal, Zohreh Zeraatkar
Anticancer role of oxindole compounds is well documented. Here, we synthesized new derivatives of 3-hydroxy-2-oxindole functionalized at position 3 (1a-f) which are expected to have antiproliferative activity in cancer cells. Human prostate cancer cell line (DU145) was treated with the synthesized derivatives at 40-μM concentration for 24, 48, and 72 h. Compounds 1-ethyl-3-hydroxy-1,1',3,3'-tetrahydro-2H,2'H-3,3'-biindole-2,2'-dione (1d), 5-bromo-1-ethyl-3-hydroxy-1,1',3,3'-2H,2'H-3,3'-biindole-2,2'-dione (1e), and 5-chloro-1-ethyl-3-hydroxy-1,1',3,3'-tetrahydro-2H,2'H-3,3'-biindole-2,2'-dione (1f) were found to significantly reduce DU145 cell viability at 48 and 72 h whereas no significant changes were observed up to 24 h...
November 9, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121949/quantifying-engineered-nanomaterial-toxicity-comparison-of-common-cytotoxicity-and-gene-expression-measurements
#11
Donald H Atha, Amber Nagy, Andrea Steinbrück, Allison M Dennis, Jennifer A Hollingsworth, Varsha Dua, Rashi Iyer, Bryant C Nelson
BACKGROUND: When evaluating the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMS) it is important to use multiple bioassays based on different mechanisms of action. In this regard we evaluated the use of gene expression and common cytotoxicity measurements using as test materials, two selected nanoparticles with known differences in toxicity, 5 nm mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)-capped InP and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). We tested the effects of these QDs at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 160 µg/mL on cultured normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells using four common cytotoxicity assays: the dichlorofluorescein assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS), the lactate dehydrogenase assay for membrane viability (LDH), the mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay for mitochondrial function, and the Comet assay for DNA strand breaks...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117507/zingerone-protects-keratinocyte-stem-cells-from-uvb-induced-damage
#12
Jienny Lee, Sae Woong Oh, Seoung Woo Shin, Kyung-Woo Lee, Jae-Youl Cho, Jongsung Lee
The epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, is a stratified epithelium that protects the body from the external environment. Keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) are involved in epidermis homeostasis by maintaining epidermal integrity through a process of constant regeneration. Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is a major inducer of cellular damage in the epidermis. In this study, we investigated the effects of zingerone (a phenolic compound derived from spices) on UVB-induced cellular damage in KSCs. We found that zingerone significantly inhibited cellular senescence of KSCs in response to UVB irradiation...
November 5, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115465/trichosanthes%C3%A2-kirilowii-extract-enhances-repair-of-uvb-radiation%C3%A2-induced-dna-damage-by-regulating-bmal1-and-mir%C3%A2-142%C3%A2-3p-in-human-keratinocytes
#13
Ji-Hye Joo, In-Kee Hong, Nam Kyoung Kim, Eunmi Choi
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation, and suppresses the immune system in the skin, which collectively contribute to skin aging and carcinogenesis. The DNA damage response, including DNA repair, can be regulated by the circadian clock and microRNA (miRNA) expression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reparative action of Trichosanthes kirilowii extract (TKE) against UVB irradiation‑induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. TKE demonstrated low cytotoxicity in normal HaCaT keratinocytes at low doses (up to 100 µg/ml)...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110549/a-104-week-pulmonary-toxicity-assessment-of-long-and-short-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes-after-a-single-intratracheal-instillation-in-rats
#14
Kazumasa Honda, Masato Naya, Hiroshi Takehara, Hiromichi Kataura, Katsuhide Fujita, Makoto Ema
We compared long-term pulmonary toxicities after a single intratracheal instillation of two types of dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), namely, those with relatively long or short linear shapes with average lengths of 8.6 and 0.55 µm, respectively. Both types of SWCNTs were instilled intratracheally in male F344 rats at 0.2 or 1.0 mg/kg (long SWCNTs) or 1.0 mg/kg (short SWCNTs). Pulmonary responses were characterized at 26, 52 and 104 weeks after a single instillation. Inflammatory changes, test substance deposition, test substance engulfment by macrophages, and alveolar wall fibrosis were observed in the lungs of almost all test rats at 52 and 104 weeks after short nanotube instillation...
November 7, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108776/evaluation-of-chlorpyrifos-toxicity-through-a-28-day-study-cholinesterase-activity-oxidative-stress-responses-parent-compound-metabolite-levels-and-primary-dna-damage-in-blood-and-brain-tissue-of-adult-male-wistar-rats
#15
Nevenka Kopjar, Suzana Žunec, Gordana Mendaš, Vedran Micek, Vilena Kašuba, Anja Mikolić, Blanka Tariba Lovaković, Mirta Milić, Ivan Pavičić, Ana Marija Marjanović Čermak, Alica Pizent, Ana Lucić Vrdoljak, Davor Želježić
In this 28 day-study, we evaluated the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos orally administered to Wistar rats at doses 0.160, 0.015, and 0.010 mg/kg b. w./day. Following treatment, total cholinesterase activity and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were measured. Oxidative stress responses were evaluated using a battery of endpoints to establish lipid peroxidation, changes in total antioxidant capacity, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase...
November 3, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108368/phase-i-clinical-trial-of-the-base-excision-repair-inhibitor-methoxyamine-in-combination-with-fludarabine-for-patients-with-advanced-hematologic-malignancies
#16
Paolo F Caimi, Brenda W Cooper, Basem M William, Afshin Dowlati, Paul M Barr, Pingfu Fu, John Pink, Yan Xu, Hillard M Lazarus, Marcos de Lima, Stanton L Gerson
Purpose: We determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and recommended phase II dose of the base excision repair blocker methoxyamine combined with fludarabine. Materials and Methods: This was a phase I study with intravenous fludarabine (25 mg/m(2), days 1-5), and methoxyamine (15 mg/m(2)-120 mg/m(2), once). A maximum of six cycles were given. Adult patients with relapsed/refractory hematologic malignancies, excluding acute myeloid leukemia, were eligible...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107684/ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-and-diethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-exhibits-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effect-on-human-gingival-fibroblasts-via-induction-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#17
Anna Bielecka-Kowalska, Piotr Czarny, Paulina Wigner, Ewelina Synowiec, Bartosz Kowalski, Marzena Szwed, Renata Krupa, Monika Toma, Malgorzata Drzewiecka, Ireneusz Majsterek, Janusz Szemraj, Tomasz Sliwinski, Michał Kowalski
Although methacrylic acid derivatives in their polymeric form are considered to be safe, insufficient polymerization and the release of monomers due to either mechanical or enzymatical factors can lead to their reaching millimolar concentrations in local tissue. The present study evaluates the effect of two methacrylate monomers - ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA) - on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Both monomers were found to reduce cells viability in MTT assay, increase apoptosis and cause cell cycle arrest in G1/G0 phase...
October 28, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107080/genotoxicity-evaluation-induced-by-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom-in-mice
#18
Nathalia Coral Galvani, Thais Ceresér Vilela, Angelino Chitoma Domingos, Mírian Ívens Fagundes, Luiza Macarini Bosa, Indiani Conti Della Vechia, Rahisa Scussel, Márcia Pereira, Bethina Trevisol Steiner, Adriani Paganini Damiani, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Vanessa Moraes De Andrade, Ricardo Andrez Machado de Ávila
Tityus serrulatus is the scorpion associated with the most severe cases of scorpion envenoming in Brazil. However, there are no studies reporting the genotoxic effects of this venom in natural or experimental envenomations. It is well known that DNA-damage responses are providing opportunities for improving disease detection and management. In this study was evaluating the genotoxicity of the T. serrulatus venom in different organs (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, blood, heart, lung, liver and kidney) and periods in mice experimentally envenomed...
October 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106440/identification-of-pmn-released-mutagenic-factors-in-a-co-culture-model-for-colitis-associated-cancer
#19
Nicolas Granofszky, Michaela Lang, Vineeta Khare, Gerald Schmid, Theresa Scharl, Franziska Ferk, Kristine Jimenez, Siegfried Knasmüller, Christoph Campregher, Christoph Gasche
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is present in ulcerative colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancers. Certain factors released by polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) may drive mucosal frameshift mutations resulting in MSI and cancer. Here, we applied a co-culture system with PMNs and colon epithelial cells to identify such culprit factors. Subjecting HCT116+chr3 and HCEC-1CT MSI-reporter cell lines harboring mono-, di- or tetranucleotide DNA repeats linked to EGFP to activated PMNs induced frameshift mutations within all repeats, as quantified by flow cytometry...
November 2, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105496/a-helicobacter-pylori-associated-insulin-resistance-in-asymptomatic-sedentary-young-men-does-not-correlate-with-inflammatory-markers-and-urine-levels-of-8-iso-pgf2-%C3%AE-or-1-4-dihydroxynonane-mercapturic-acid
#20
Andriy Cherkas, Sergii Golota, Françoise Guéraud, Orest Abrahamovych, Christoph Pichler, Armen Nersesyan, Volodymyr Krupak, Vira Bugiichyk, Ostap Yatskevych, Mykhaylo Pliatsko, Peter Eckl, Siegfried Knasmüller
A potential contribution of H. pylori contamination to low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress (OS) and insulin resistance as well as correlations between these parameters in asymptomatic sedentary males was analysed. We enrolled 30 apparently healthy asymptomatic young subjects (18 H. pylori negative and 12 positive) and measured whole blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, insulin, C-peptide, cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, interleukins 6 and 10, TNF-alpha and comet assay...
November 6, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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