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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161479/-laboratory-susceptibility-tests-of-aedes-aegypti-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae-to-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora
#1
Carolina Ulvedal, Marìa Alejandra Bertolotti, Susana Raquel Cagnolo, Walter Ricardo Almirón
INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya viruses, and Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector of St. Louis and West Nile encephalitis viruses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate infectivity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora N4 in C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti larvae under laboratory conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty second-instar larvae of the two mosquito species were exposed each to different doses (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1 and 1,500:1) of nematode infective juveniles...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157676/upregulation-of-aedes-aegypti-vago1-by-wolbachia-and-its-effect-on-dengue-virus-replication
#2
Sultan Asad, Rhys Parry, Sassan Asgari
Dengue infection along with its related disease conditions poses a significant threat to human health. The pathogen responsible for this infection is dengue virus (DENV) which is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Unavailability of a potent vaccine has recently sparked renewed research endeavours aimed at vector control. To date, Wolbachia as an endosymbiotic bacterium has shown promise as a novel biocontrol agent to restrict DENV replication in the vector, although the underlying antiviral mechanism remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154686/a-retrospective-summary-of-raptor-mortality-in-ontario-canada-1991-2014-including-the-effects-of-west-nile-virus
#3
Kathryn A Smith, G Douglas Campbell, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine, Fernando Salgado-Bierman, Nicole M Nemeth
The causes of mortality of free-ranging raptors range from anthropogenic (e.g., trauma) to dynamic environmental conditions that may affect habitat suitability and prey availability. The province of Ontario, Canada, is vulnerable to anthropogenic and environmental changes because of its northern latitudes and expanding human populations, both of which may impact wildlife. We retrospectively evaluated diagnostic data from raptors submitted to the Ontario-Nunavut node of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) from 1991 to 2014 (n=1,448)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152704/west-nile-disease-in-tunisia-an-overview-of-60-years
#4
Salah Hammami, Thameur Ben Hassine, Annamaria Conte, Jihène Amdouni, Fabrizio De Massis, Soufiène Sghaier, Sonia Ben Hassen
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne virus of public health importance. The virus is a member of the genus Flavivirus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex under the Flaviviridae family. The WNV is continuously spreading across Tunisia especially in the coastal and Southern area of the country. The first human West Nile disease (WND) epidemic in Tunisia occurred in 1997, since then, the quantity and the extension of spillover effects increased constantly. However, the existing knowledge of factors triggering such events continues to be rather poor...
September 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152314/seroprevalence-of-west-nile-virus-in-horses-in-different-moroccan-regions
#5
Abdennasser Benjelloun, Mehdi El Harrak, Paolo Calistri, Chafiqa Loutfi, Hafsa Kabbaj, Annamaria Conte, Carla Ippoliti, Maria Luisa Danzetta, Bouchra Belkadi
West Nile virus-associated disease is one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in the world. In Morocco, the first cases were reported in horses in 1996 and the disease re-emerged in 2003 and in 2010. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological situation of WNV-associated infection in Morocco, by quantifying the seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG antibodies in horses in different bioclimatic regions-zones of Morocco in 2011. During the months of May, June and July 2011, 840 serum samples were collected from horses in four regions characterized by different environmental and climatic features such as altitude, temperature and precipitation...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#6
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148889/lack-of-detection-of-avian-influenza-newcastle-disease-and-west-nile-viruses-in-wild-birds-of-northeastern-brazil
#7
Camile Lugarini, Renata Hurtado, Jansen de Araujo, Tatiana Ometto, Luciano Thomazelli, Marina de Seixas, Edison Durigon, Jean Carlos Silva
We tested 529 wild birds captured in northeastern Brazil for infection by avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and West Nile. Viruses were not detected by real-time PCR with the exception of one Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea) positive for influenza virus, but this could not be confirmed by viral isolation or gene sequencing.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148653/novel-indices-of-meterological-drivers-of-west-nile-virus-in-ohio-culex-species-mosquitoes-from-2002-2006
#8
Paul A Rosalie, Michael Bisesi
Novel indices were developed representing estimated stages in the mosquito life cycle and its ecology, and informed with meteorological data. We used descriptive statistics to identify relationships between meteorological/ecological trends and peak infection rates (IRs), and mixed model linear regression to identify meteorological/ecological trends that were significantly associated with increases in mosquito IRs. Results showed increased mean weekly temperature as a significant driver of increased IRs between 2002 and 2006 during oviposition (the trapping week); the gonotrophic cycle; the egg, larvae, and pupae stage; the development of oviposition sites; and during the over-winter months preceding trapping...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148375/west-nile-virus-lineage-2-in-horses-and-other-animals-with-neurologic-disease-south-africa-2008-2015
#9
Marietjie Venter, Marthi Pretorius, James A Fuller, Elizabeth Botha, Mpho Rakgotho, Voula Stivaktas, Camilla Weyer, Marco Romito, June Williams
During 2008-2015 in South Africa, we conducted West Nile virus surveillance in 1,407 animals with neurologic disease and identified mostly lineage 2 cases in horses (7.4%, 79/1,069), livestock (1.5%, 2/132), and wildlife (0.5%, 1/206); 35% were fatal. Geographic correlation of horse cases with seropositive veterinarians suggests disease in horses can predict risk in humans.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142017/modelling-the-effects-of-phylogeny-and-body-size-on-within-host-pathogen-replication-and-immune-response
#10
Soumya Banerjee, Alan S Perelson, Melanie Moses
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141768/rat-fall-surveillance-coupled-with-vector-control-and-community-education-as-a-plague-prevention-strategy-in-the-west-nile-region-uganda
#11
Karen A Boegler, Linda A Atiku, Russell E Enscore, Titus Apangu, Joseph Tendo Mpanga, Sarah Acayo, John Kaggwa, Paul S Mead, Brook M Yockey, Kiersten J Kugeler, Martin E Schriefer, Kalanthe Horiuchi, Kenneth L Gage, Rebecca J Eisen
Plague, primarily a disease of rodents, is most frequently transmitted by fleas and causes potentially fatal infections in humans. In Uganda, plague is endemic to the West Nile region. Primary prevention for plague includes control of rodent hosts or flea vectors, but targeting these efforts is difficult given the sporadic nature of plague epizootics in the region and limited resource availability. Here, we present a community-based strategy to detect and report rodent deaths (rat fall), an early sign of epizootics...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141749/visualization-of-west-nile-virus-in-urine-sediment-using-electron-microscopy-and-immunogold-up-to-nine-years-postinfection
#12
Kristy O Murray, Steven Kolodziej, Shannon E Ronca, Rodion Gorchakov, Patricia Navarro, Melissa S Nolan, Amber Podoll, Kevin Finkel, Sreedhar Mandayam
West Nile virus (WNV) is an important emerging flavivirus in North America. Experimental studies in animals infer the development of persistent infection in the kidneys. In humans, recent studies suggest the possibility of persistent renal infection and chronic kidney disease. Considering the discrepancies between published studies on viral RNA detection in urine of convalescing WNV-positive patients, we explored the use of electron microscopy (EM) with anti-WNV E protein antibody immunogold labeling to detect virus in the urine sediment from a subset of study participants in the Houston WNV cohort...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131357/zika-virus-what-we-need-to-know
#13
REVIEW
Farakh Javed, Khanzadi N Manzoor, Mubashar Ali, Irshad U Haq, Abid A Khan, Assad Zaib, Sobia Manzoor
Zika virus is one of the emerging viruses and is of significant threat to human health globally. It is a mosquito borne flavivirus similar to dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. It was reported about 5 decades ago and then it spreads to different parts of the world. Large outbreaks were reported on Yap Islands in 2007. Now it has gained wide attention globally by health communities. Major vector for virus transmission is Aedes aegypti mosquito. ZIKV infection is mostly asymptomatic but it is also responsible to cause mild influenza like illness to serious manifestations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128516/west-nile-virus-anopheles-flavivirus-a-novel-flavivirus-as-well-as-merida-like-rhabdovirus-turkey-in-field-collected-mosquitoes-from-thrace-and-anatolia
#14
Ceren Öncü, Annika Brinkmann, Filiz Günay, Sırrı Kar, Kerem Öter, Yasemen Sarıkaya, Andreas Nitsche, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Bülent Alten, Koray Ergünay
Mosquitoes are involved in the transmission and maintenance of several viral diseases with significant health impact. Biosurveillance efforts have also revealed insect-specific viruses, observed to cocirculate with pathogenic strains. This report describes the findings of flavivirus and rhabdovirus screening, performed in eastern Thrace and Aegean region of Anatolia during 2016, including and expanding on locations with previously-documented virus activity. A mosquito cohort of 1545 individuals comprising 14 species were collected and screened in 108 pools via generic and specific amplification and direct metagenomics by next generation sequencing...
November 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121099/dengue-virus-ns1-cytokine-independent-vascular-leak-is-dependent-on-endothelial-glycocalyx-components
#15
Dustin R Glasner, Kalani Ratnasiri, Henry Puerta-Guardo, Diego A Espinosa, P Robert Beatty, Eva Harris
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent, medically important mosquito-borne virus. Disease ranges from uncomplicated dengue to life-threatening disease, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular leakage. Previously, we demonstrated that DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) induces endothelial hyperpermeability in a systemic mouse model and human pulmonary endothelial cells, where NS1 disrupts the endothelial glycocalyx-like layer. NS1 also triggers release of inflammatory cytokines from PBMCs via TLR4...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120567/use-of-the-vectortest-for-advanced-warning-of-human-west-nile-virus-cases-in-mississippi
#16
Wendy C Varnado, Jerome Goddard
West Nile virus (WNV) continues to persist in Mississippi; 2012 was the worse year for human infections, with a total of 247 reported human cases and five deaths. Public health officials are keenly interested in ways to detect WNV in advance in their jurisdictions, so they can implement appropriate and timely mosquito control in affected areas. A total of 40,312 female Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected by gravid traps in Mississippi in 2013 and 2014 and tested by VectorTest, a rapid immunochromatographic assay (“dip-stick” test) that is a highly specific and effective rapid threat assessment tool...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119349/southern-california-neuroinvasive-west-nile-virus-case-series
#17
Chirag B Patel, Bhavesh V Trikamji, Glenn E Mathisen, Shrikant K Mishra
Approximately 80% of individuals infected with West Nile virus (WNV) are asymptomatic, and less than 1% suffer from neuroinvasion that can result in permanent neurological deficits or mortality. Our institution's location in southern California predisposes it to a sizable case volume of neuroinvasive WNV. A 2-year retrospective study was performed at the Olive View-UCLA Medical Center to identify patients with confirmed WNV infection with neuroinvasion. Patient demographics, neurological exam findings, and laboratory diagnostics were reviewed...
November 8, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117567/the-host-protein-reticulon-3-1a-is-utilized-by-flaviviruses-to-facilitate-membrane-remodelling
#18
Turgut E Aktepe, Susann Liebscher, Julia E Prier, Cameron P Simmons, Jason M Mackenzie
Flaviviruses are enveloped, positive-sensed single-stranded RNA viruses that remodel host membranes, incorporating both viral and host factors facilitating viral replication. In this study, we identified a key role for the membrane-bending host protein Reticulon 3.1 (RTN3.1A) during the replication cycle of three flaviviruses: West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). We observed that, during infection, RTN3.1A is redistributed and recruited to the viral replication complex, a recruitment facilitated via the WNV NS4A protein, however, not DENV or ZIKV NS4A...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117195/biological-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-west-african-lineages-of-west-nile-virus
#19
Gamou Fall, Nicholas Di Paola, Martin Faye, Moussa Dia, Caio César de Melo Freire, Cheikh Loucoubar, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African lineages in arthropod (Ap61) and primate (Vero) cell lines, and in mice...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116220/vector-competence-of-european-mosquitoes-for-west-nile-virus
#20
REVIEW
Chantal Bf Vogels, Giel P Göertz, Gorben P Pijlman, Constantianus Jm Koenraadt
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus of high medical and veterinary importance. The main vectors for WNV are mosquito species of the Culex genus that transmit WNV among birds, and occasionally to humans and horses, which are 'dead-end' hosts. Recently, several studies have been published that aimed to identify the mosquito species that serve as vectors for WNV in Europe. These studies provide insight in factors that can influence vector competence of European mosquito species for WNV. Here, we review the current knowledge on vector competence of European mosquitoes for WNV, and the molecular knowledge on physical barriers, anti-viral pathways and microbes that influence vector competence based on studies with other flaviviruses...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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