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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916816/striking-diflubenzuron-resistance-in-culex-pipiens-the-prime-vector-of-west-nile-virus
#1
Linda Grigoraki, Arianna Puggioli, Konstantinos Mavridis, Vassilis Douris, Mario Montanari, Romeo Bellini, John Vontas
Culex pipiens mosquitoes cause severe nuisance and transmit human diseases including West Nile. Vector control by insecticides is the main tool to prevent these diseases and diflubenzuron is one of the most effective mosquito larvicides used in many places. Here, high levels of resistance were identified in Cx. pipiens from Italy, with a Resistance Ratio of 128 fold. The phenotype was associated with mutations at amino acid I1043 (I1043M and I1043L) of the Chitin synthase gene, which showed significantly higher frequency in bioassay survivors...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915240/improved-reliability-of-serological-tools-for-the-diagnosis-of-west-nile-fever-in-horses-within-europe
#2
Cécile Beck, Steeve Lowenski, Benoit Durand, Céline Bahuon, Stéphan Zientara, Sylvie Lecollinet
West Nile Fever is a zoonotic disease caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus, WNV. By its clinical sensitivity to the disease, the horse is a useful sentinel of infection. Because of the virus' low-level, short-term viraemia in horses, the primary tools used to diagnose WNV are serological tests. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests (ILPTs) were held in 2010 and 2013 to evaluate WNV serological diagnostic tools suited for the European network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for equine diseases. These ILPTs were designed to evaluate the laboratories' and methods' performances in detecting WNV infection in horses through serology...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906572/culex-torrentium-mosquitoes-from-germany-are-negative-for-wolbachia
#3
M Leggewie, R Krumkamp, M Badusche, A Heitmann, S Jansen, J Schmidt-Chanasit, E Tannich, S C Becker
Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) infects a wide range of arthropods, including several mosquito species. The bacterium is known to induce a plethora of phenotypes in its host, examples being the reproductive phenotype cytoplasmic incompatibility or resistance against infection with arboviruses. The latter is especially relevant when assessing the vector competence of mosquito species for emerging arboviruses. Thus, knowledge of Wolbachia infection status is important for the assessment of vector competence...
September 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899628/a-novel-approach-to-a-rabies-vaccine-based-on-a-recombinant-single-cycle-flavivirus-vector
#4
Maryann Giel-Moloney, Alexander A Rumyantsev, Fred David, Monica Figueiredo, Brad Feilmeier, Teshome Mebatsion, Mark Parrington, Harry Kleanthous, Konstantin V Pugachev
The RepliVax® vaccine (RV) platform is based on flavivirus genomes that are rationally attenuated by deletion. These single-cycle RV vaccine candidates targeting flavivirus pathogens have been demonstrated to be safe, highly immunogenic, and efficacious in animal models, including non-human primates. Here we show utility of the technology for delivery of a non-flavivirus immunogen by engineering several West Nile-based RV vectors to express full-length rabies virus G protein. The rabies virus G protein gene was incorporated in place of different West Nile structural protein gene deletions...
September 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882664/spatial-distribution-of-west-nile-virus-in-humans-and-mosquitoes-in-israel-2000-2014
#5
Yaniv Lustig, Zalman Kaufman, Ella Mendelson, Laor Orshan, Emilia Anis, Yael Glazer, Daniel Cohen, Tamy Shohat, Ravit Bassal
OBJECTIVES: Israel has a long history of West Nile virus (WNV) morbidity, and the rate of detection of WNV in mosquitoes has been high since 2000. The aim of this study was to integrate several WNV datasets in order to gain an insight into the geographical distribution of WNV in Israel. METHODS: Three choropleth maps were generated showing WNV human morbidity, WNV prevalence in mosquitoes, and the results of a nationwide serological survey, based on the division of Israel into 15 sub-districts...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878963/the-impact-of-weather-and-storm-water-management-ponds-on-the-transmission-of-west-nile-virus
#6
Yiyuan Wang, Wendy Pons, Jessica Fang, Huaiping Zhu
West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widely distributed arbovirus in the world and the spread is influenced by complex factors including weather conditions and urban environmental settings like storm water management ponds (SWMP). The purpose of this work was to develop an ordinary differential equation model to explore the impacts of SWMP, temperature and precipitation on WNV vector abundance and the transmission of WNV between mosquito and bird populations. The model was used to analyse how weather conditions and SWMP can influence the basic reproduction number...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878079/minocycline-has-anti-inflammatory-effects-and-reduces-cytotoxicity-in-an-ex-vivo-spinal-cord-slice-culture-model-of-west-nile-virus-infection
#7
Eamon D Quick, Scott Seitz, Penny Clarke, Kenneth L Tyler
West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that can cause significant neurological disease. Mouse models of WNV infection demonstrate that a pro-inflammatory environment is induced within the central nervous system (CNS) after WNV infection leading to entry of activated peripheral immune cells. We utilized ex vivo spinal cord slice cultures (SCSC) to demonstrate that anti-inflammatory mechanisms may also play a role in WNV-induced pathology and/or recovery. Microglia are a type of macrophage that function as resident CNS immune cells...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877682/epidemiologic-and-clinical-parameters-of-west-nile-virus-infections-in-humans-a-scoping-review
#8
Man Wah Yeung, Emily Shing, Mark Nelder, Beate Sander
BACKGROUND: Clinical syndromes associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection range from fever to neuroinvasive disease. Understanding WNV epidemiology and disease history is important for guiding patient care and healthcare decision-making. The objective of this review was to characterize the existing body of peer-reviewed and surveillance literature on WNV syndromes and summarize epidemiologic and clinical parameters. METHODS: We followed scoping review methodology described by the Joanna Briggs Institute...
September 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874392/zika-virus-has-oncolytic-activity-against-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#9
Zhe Zhu, Matthew J Gorman, Lisa D McKenzie, Jiani N Chai, Christopher G Hubert, Briana C Prager, Estefania Fernandez, Justin M Richner, Rong Zhang, Chao Shan, Eric Tycksen, Xiuxing Wang, Pei-Yong Shi, Michael S Diamond, Jeremy N Rich, Milan G Chheda
Glioblastoma is a highly lethal brain cancer that frequently recurs in proximity to the original resection cavity. We explored the use of oncolytic virus therapy against glioblastoma with Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus that induces cell death and differentiation of neural precursor cells in the developing fetus. ZIKV preferentially infected and killed glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) relative to differentiated tumor progeny or normal neuronal cells. The effects against GSCs were not a general property of neurotropic flaviviruses, as West Nile virus indiscriminately killed both tumor and normal neural cells...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874015/arboviruses-isolated-from-mosquitoes-collected-in-uganda-2008-2012
#10
Eric C Mossel, Mary B Crabtree, John-Paul Mutebi, Julius J Lutwama, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Barry R Miller
A large number of arthropod-borne viruses are endemic to East Africa. As a part of the process of undertaking a systematic characterization of the mosquito fauna of Uganda, we examined mosquitoes collected from 2008 through early 2012 for known and novel viruses. In all, 8,288 mosquito pools containing 157,554 mosquitoes were tested. Twenty-nine isolations of 11 different viruses were made from mosquitoes of nine distinct species and from pools identified only to genus Culex. Identified viruses were from family Togaviridae, alphaviruses Sindbis and Babanki viruses; family Rhabdoviridae, hapaviruses Mossuril and Kamese viruses; family Flaviviridae, flaviviruses West Nile and Usutu viruses; family Phenuiviridae, phlebovirus Arumowot virus; and family Peribunyaviridae, orthobunyaviruses Witwatersrand, Pongola, and Germiston viruses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873423/an-immunosignature-test-distinguishes-trypanosoma-cruzi-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-west-nile-virus-seropositivity-among-asymptomatic-blood-donors
#11
Michael Rowe, Jonathan Melnick, Robert Gerwien, Joseph B Legutki, Jessica Pfeilsticker, Theodore M Tarasow, Kathryn F Sykes
BACKGROUND: The complexity of the eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma (T.) cruzi manifests in its highly dynamic genome, multi-host life cycle, progressive morphologies and immune-evasion mechanisms. Accurate determination of infection or Chagas' disease activity and prognosis continues to challenge researchers. We hypothesized that a diagnostic platform with higher ligand complexity than previously employed may hold value. METHODOLOGY: We applied the ImmunoSignature Technology (IST) for the detection of T...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873035/potential-reservoir-and-associated-factors-for-west-nile-virus-in-three-distinct-climatological-zones
#12
Christine DeCarlo, Anwar H Omar, Mohammod I Haroun, Laura Bigler, Mohamad N Bin Rais, Jalila Abu, Abdul Rahman Omar, Hussni O Mohammed
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic single-strand RNA arbovirus (family Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted among avian hosts in enzootic cycles by a mosquito vector. The virus has a significant disease effect on humans and equines when it bridges into a cycle with various sequelae with epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify the potential spectrum of WNV hosts in three geographic areas with climatologically distinct features: Malaysia, Qatar, and the United States of America (U.S.). Serum samples were collected from avian and mammal species suspected to be reservoirs for the virus at these areas in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study...
September 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869941/identifying-attenuating-mutations-tools-for-a-new-vaccine-design-against-flaviviruses
#13
Cécile Khou, Nathalie Pardigon
Emerging Flaviviruses pose an increasing threat to global human health. To date, human vaccines against yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) exist. However, there is no human vaccine against other Flaviviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV). In order to restrict their spread and to protect populations against the diseases they induce, vaccines against these emerging viruses must be designed. Obtaining new live attenuated Flavivirus vaccines using molecular biology methods is now possible...
September 5, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861067/transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-differential-gene-expression-of-immune-and-cell-death-pathways-in-the-brains-of-mice-infected-with-west-nile-virus-and-chikungunya-virus
#14
Stephanie M Lim, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Minoushka Oduber, Eurydice Martina, Fatiha Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Jeroen M Roose, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Arno C Andeweg, Penelope Koraka, Byron E E Martina
West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that are constantly (re-)emerging and expanding their territory. Both viruses often cause a mild form of disease, but severe forms of the disease can consist of neurological symptoms, most often observed in the elderly and young children, respectively, for which the mechanisms are poorly understood. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for end-stage WNV and CHIKV neuroinvasive disease, we used transcriptomics to compare the induction of effector pathways in the brain during the early and late stage of disease in young mice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859086/dengue-west-nile-virus-chikungunya-zika-and-now-mayaro
#15
EDITORIAL
Peter J Hotez, Kristy O Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854109/vectortest%C3%A2-west-nile-virus-antigen-assay-in-an-inhibition-platform-as-field-screening-tool-for-flavivirus-group-specific-antibodies-in-brazilian-equines
#16
Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa, Nicholas Komar
Current methods for detecting Flavivirus antibodies are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and neutralization tests, both of which require laboratories and trained staff. We evaluated the VectorTest™ West Nile Virus Antigen Assay in an inhibition platform (VecTest-inhibition assay [VIA]) as a simpler screening method for detecting antibodies for a variety of flaviviruses among a population of equines from Brazil. We found that the VIA is a field-deployable rapid method with 100% sensitivity and 64% specificity compared with blocking ELISA for the detection of group-specific Flavivirus antibodies in equine serum samples...
September 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846635/regulation-of-apoptosis-during-flavivirus-infection
#17
REVIEW
Toru Okamoto, Tatsuya Suzuki, Shinji Kusakabe, Makoto Tokunaga, Junki Hirano, Yuka Miyata, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death that regulates cellular homeostasis by removing damaged or unnecessary cells. Its importance in host defenses is highlighted by the observation that many viruses evade, obstruct, or subvert apoptosis, thereby blunting the host immune response. Infection with Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) has been shown to activate several signaling pathways such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and AKT/PI3K pathway, resulting in activation or suppression of apoptosis in virus-infected cells...
August 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846489/zika-chikungunya-and-other-emerging-vector-borne-viral-diseases
#18
Scott C Weaver, Caroline Charlier, Nikos Vasilakis, Marc Lecuit
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of emerging to infect humans, but during recent decades, they have been spreading more widely and affecting larger populations. This is due to several factors, including increased air travel and uncontrolled mosquito vector populations. Emergence can involve simple spillover from enzootic (wildlife) cycles, as in the case of West Nile virus accompanying geographic expansion into the Americas; secondary amplification in domesticated animals, as seen with Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever viruses; and urbanization, in which humans become the amplification hosts and peridomestic mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, mediate human-to-human transmission...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840835/skin-innate-immune-response-to-flaviviral-infection
#19
Magali Garcia, Michel Wehbe, Nicolas Lévêque, Charles Bodet
Skin is a complex organ and the largest interface of the human body exposed to numerous stress and pathogens. Skin is composed of different cell types that together perform essential functions such as pathogen sensing, barrier maintenance and immunity, at once providing the first line of defense against microbial infections and ensuring skin homeostasis. Being inoculated directly through the epidermis and the dermis during a vector blood meal, emerging Dengue, Zika and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses lead to the initiation of the innate immune response in resident skin cells and to the activation of dendritic cells, which migrate to the draining lymph node to elicit an adaptive response...
June 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835296/characterizing-environmental-risk-factors-for-west-nile-virus-in-quebec-canada-using-clinical-data-in-humans-and-serology-in-pet-dogs
#20
J P Rocheleau, P Michel, L R Lindsay, M Drebot, A Dibernardo, N H Ogden, A Fortin, J Arsenault
The identification of specific environments sustaining emerging arbovirus amplification and transmission to humans is a key component of public health intervention planning. This study aimed at identifying environmental factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infections in southern Quebec, Canada, by modelling and jointly interpreting aggregated clinical data in humans and serological data in pet dogs. Environmental risk factors were estimated in humans by negative binomial regression based on a dataset of 191 human WNV clinical cases reported in the study area between 2011 and 2014...
August 24, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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