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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346369/the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-new-texas
#1
REVIEW
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345964/immune-response-to-dengue-and-zika
#2
Annie Elong Ngono, Sujan Shresta
Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. In contrast, decades of DENV research implicate a dual role for the immune system in protection against and pathogenesis of DENV infection...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343583/structural-study-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-non-structural-protein-1-from-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#3
Thanalai Poonsiri, Gareth S A Wright, Michael S Diamond, Lance Turtle, Tom Solomon, Svetlana V Antonyuk
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens including dengue, West Nile (WNV) and Zika viruses. JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases worldwide each year. In this study, we present a 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal β-ladder domain of JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1-C)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336697/understanding-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-toward-west-nile-virus-prevention-a-survey-of-high-risk-adults-in-maryland
#4
Kimberly C Mitchell, Patricia Ryan, Donna E Howard, Katherine A Feldman
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward West Nile virus (WNV) prevention among Maryland adults ≥60 years old who are at increased risk of severe WNV disease utilizing the health belief model. METHODS: Using a stratified random sample of households from zip codes with ≥2 human WNV cases, we conducted a telephone survey of 211 Maryland adults ≥60 years old between October and December 2012. RESULTS: Participants expressing worry about WNV were over thrice more likely to use insect repellent in the prior 90 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330974/nucleic-acid-amplification-test-for-detection-of-west-nile-virus-infection-in-pakistani-blood-donors
#5
Saifullah Khan Niazi, Maqbool Alam, Muhammad Sajid Yazdani, Eijaz Ghani, Muhammad Ali Rathore
BACKGROUND: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). METHODS: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330423/t-cell-immunity-to-zika-virus-targets-immunodominant-epitopes-that-show-cross-reactivity-with-other-flaviviruses
#6
C J Reynolds, O M Suleyman, A M Ortega-Prieto, J K Skelton, P Bonnesoeur, A Blohm, V Carregaro, J S Silva, E A James, B Maillère, M Dorner, R J Boyton, D M Altmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) Infection has several outcomes from asymptomatic exposure to rash, conjunctivitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome or congenital Zika syndrome. Analysis of ZIKV immunity is confounded by the fact that several related Flaviviruses infect humans, including Dengue virus 1-4, West Nile virus and Yellow Fever virus. HLA class II restricted T cell cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other Flaviviruses infection(s) or vaccination may contribute to protection or to enhanced immunopathology. We mapped immunodominant, HLA class II restricted, CD4 epitopes from ZIKV Envelope (Env), and Non-structural (NS) NS1, NS3 and NS5 antigens in HLA class II transgenic mice...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324834/experimental-transmission-of-west-nile-virus-and-rift-valley-fever-virus-by-culex-pipiens-from-lebanon
#7
Renée Zakhia, Laurence Mousson, Marie Vazeille, Nabil Haddad, Anna-Bella Failloux
West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) are two emerging arboviruses transmitted by Culex pipiens species that includes two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. In Lebanon, human cases caused by WNV and RVFV have never been reported. However, the introduction of these viruses in the country is likely to occur through the migratory birds and animal trades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Cx. pipiens, a predominant mosquito species in urban and rural regions in Lebanon, to transmit WNV and RVFV...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324725/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2016
#8
Alexis Burakoff, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Nicole P Lindsey
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2016 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323278/structural-biology-of-zika-virus-and-other-flaviviruses
#9
REVIEW
S Saif Hasan, Madhumati Sevvana, Richard J Kuhn, Michael G Rossmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped, icosahedral flavivirus that has structural and functional similarities to other human flavivirus pathogens such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) viruses. ZIKV infections have been linked to fetal microcephaly and the paralytic Guillain-Barré syndrome. This review provides a comparative structural analysis of the assembly, maturation and host-cell entry of ZIKV with other flaviviruses, especially DENV. We also discuss the mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322922/analysis-of-viral-diversity-for-vaccine-target-discovery
#10
Asif M Khan, Yongli Hu, Olivo Miotto, Natascha M Thevasagayam, Rashmi Sukumaran, Hadia Syahirah Abd Raman, Vladimir Brusic, Tin Wee Tan, J Thomas August
BACKGROUND: Viral vaccine target discovery requires understanding the diversity of both the virus and the human immune system. The readily available and rapidly growing pool of viral sequence data in the public domain enable the identification and characterization of immune targets relevant to adaptive immunity. A systematic bioinformatics approach is necessary to facilitate the analysis of such large datasets for selection of potential candidate vaccine targets. RESULTS: This work describes a computational methodology to achieve this analysis, with data of dengue, West Nile, hepatitis A, HIV-1, and influenza A viruses as examples...
December 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322674/exposure-to-west-nile-virus-and-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-dogs-in-spain
#11
I García-Bocanegra, E Jurado-Tarifa, D Cano-Terriza, R Martínez, J E Pérez-Marín, S Lecollinet
In the past decade, the spread of emerging zoonotic flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) has been reported in many regions worldwide, representing a threat to both human and animal health. A serosurvey was carried out to assess exposure and risk factors associated with antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), in dogs in Spain. Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 39 of 815 dogs (4.8%; 95% CI: 3.3-6...
January 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320394/neurological-respiratory-failure
#12
Mohan Rudrappa, Laxmi Kokatnur, Oleg Chernyshev
West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy...
January 10, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317714/mechanism-and-structural-diversity-of-exoribonuclease-resistant-rna-structures-in-flaviviral-rnas
#13
Andrea MacFadden, Zoe O'Donoghue, Patricia A G C Silva, Erich G Chapman, René C Olsthoorn, Mark G Sterken, Gorben P Pijlman, Peter J Bredenbeek, Jeffrey S Kieft
Flaviviruses such as Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile, and Zika generate disease-linked viral noncoding RNAs called subgenomic flavivirus RNAs. Subgenomic flavivirus RNAs result when the 5'-3' progression of cellular exoribonuclease Xrn1 is blocked by RNA elements called Xrn1-resistant RNAs located within the viral genome's 3'-untranslated region that operate without protein co-factors. Here, we show that Xrn1-resistant RNAs can halt diverse exoribonucleases, revealing a mechanism in which they act as general mechanical blocks that 'brace' against an enzyme's surface, presenting an unfolding problem that confounds further enzyme progression...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309636/transmission-of-west-nile-virus-through-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#14
Melanie G Kitagawa, Nick Ettinger, Day Breen, Jennifer Erklauer, Emmanuel Chang, Honey Herce, Katherine King, Swati Naik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305089/how-do-virus-mosquito-interactions-lead-to-viral-emergence
#15
REVIEW
Claudia Rückert, Gregory D Ebel
Arboviruses such as West Nile, Zika, chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever viruses have become highly significant global pathogens through unexpected, explosive outbreaks. While the rapid progression and frequency of recent arbovirus outbreaks is associated with long-term changes in human behavior (globalization, urbanization, climate change), there are direct mosquito-virus interactions which drive shifts in host range and alter virus transmission. This review summarizes how virus-mosquito interactions are critical for these viruses to become global pathogens at molecular, physiological, evolutionary, and epidemiological scales...
January 2, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302776/epidemiological-situation-of-transboundary-animal-diseases-in-north-african-countries-proposition-of-a-regional-control-strategy
#16
REVIEW
Moustafa Kardjadj
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) defined transboundary animal diseases (TADs) as those that are of significant economic, trade, and food security importance for a considerable number of countries. TADs can easily spread to other countries, reach epidemic proportions, and where control, management, or exclusion is required cooperation between several countries. The North African countries are vulnerable to several TADs by virtue of its geographical location, its borders with the Sahel region, and peculiar control constraints on the budgets of the national veterinary services of each country and on the livelihoods of livestock owners across the region...
January 5, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301567/population-genetic-structure-of-the-culex-pipiens-diptera-culicidae-complex-vectors-of-west-nile-virus-in-five-habitats
#17
Andrea L Joyce, Etienne Melese, Phuong-Thao Ha, Allan Inman
BACKGROUND: The Culex pipiens complex consists of several morphologically similar, closely related species. In the United States, Cx. pipiens L. is distributed North of 39° latitude, while Cx. quinquefasciatus Say occurs South of 36° latitude; a hybrid zone occurs between these two latitudes including in the Central Valley of California. Members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their hybrids are vectors for West Nile virus (WNv). Hybrid offspring of Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus have been found to have enhanced transmission rates of WNv over those of pure populations of each species...
January 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301071/attenuation-of-west-nile-virus-ns2b-ns3-protease-by-amino-terminal-copper-and-nickel-bind-ing-atcun-peptides
#18
Andrew M Pinkham, Zhen Yu, James A Cowan
West Nile Virus NS2B/NS3 protease (WNVP) is a viable target for the development of antiviral com-pounds. To that end, catalytic metallopeptides that incorporate the copper-binding ATCUN motif into either the N- or C-terminus of known WNVP targeting peptides have been developed as new families of peptide-based inhibitors. Each metallopeptide was evaluated based on its inhibitory constant (KI), time-dependent inactivation of the protein, Michaelis-Menten parameters, and the ability to oxidatively modi-fy WNVP...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300779/exosomes-serve-as-novel-modes-of-tick-borne-flavivirus-transmission-from-arthropod-to-human-cells-and-facilitates-dissemination-of-viral-rna-and-proteins-to-the-vertebrate-neuronal-cells
#19
Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Biswas Neupane, Fengwei Bai, Michael B Sherman, Kyung H Choi, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
Molecular determinants and mechanisms of arthropod-borne flavivirus transmission to the vertebrate host are poorly understood. In this study, we show for the first time that a cell line from medically important arthropods, such as ticks, secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes that mediate transmission of flavivirus RNA and proteins to the human cells. Our study shows that tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a model pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), profusely uses arthropod exosomes for transmission of viral RNA and proteins to the human- skin keratinocytes and blood endothelial cells...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297801/low-prevalence-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-select-northern-california-owl-species-2007-2014
#20
Nicole Captanian, Michelle G Hawkins, Christine Fiorello, Mary Thurber, William K Reisen
The objective of this study was to determine evidence of previous West Nile virus (WNV) infection in northern California owls. Owl serum samples were collected from birds presenting to a veterinary medical teaching hospital between 2007 and 2014 and were screened for the presence of WNV antibodies by an indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Only one of 71 samples (1.41%) tested was positive by EIA and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test; it was the most recent sample collected. The reason for the low prevalence of WNV in these California owls despite a high prevalence in sympatric avian species in the same region is unknown and should be a topic for further research...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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