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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214373/improved-detection-of-zika-virus-rna-in-human-and-animal-specimens-by-a-novel-highly-sensitive-and-specific-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-zika-virus
#1
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Kah-Meng Tee, Zheng Zhu, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Terance Gi-Wai Tsang, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Siddharth Sridhar, Feifei Yin, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Sandy Ka-Yee Chau, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We developed and evaluated five novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting conserved regions in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), envelope (E'), non-structural protein 2A (NS2A), NS5, and 3'-UTR of the ZIKV genome. RESULTS: The ZIKV-5'-UTR assay exhibited the lowest in-vitro limit of detection (5-10 RNA copies/reaction and 3.0×10(-1) plaque-forming units/ml). Compared to the modified version of a widely adopted RT-PCR assay targeting the ZIKV-E gene, the ZIKV-5'-UTR assay showed better sensitivity in human clinical specimens, and representative mouse specimens, including many organs which are known to be involved in human ZIKV infection but difficult to obtain in clinical settings...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212847/risk-mapping-of-west-nile-virus-circulation-in-spain-2015
#2
Amaya Sánchez-Gómez, Carmen Amela, Eduardo Fernández-Carrión, Marta Martínez-Avilés, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, María José Sierra-Moros
West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#3
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207910/a-single-mutation-in-the-envelope-protein-modulates-flavivirus-antigenicity-stability-and-pathogenesis
#4
Leslie Goo, Laura A VanBlargan, Kimberly A Dowd, Michael S Diamond, Theodore C Pierson
The structural flexibility or 'breathing' of the envelope (E) protein of flaviviruses allows virions to sample an ensemble of conformations at equilibrium. The molecular basis and functional consequences of virus conformational dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we identified a single mutation at residue 198 (T198F) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein domain I-II hinge that regulates virus breathing. The T198F mutation resulted in a ~70-fold increase in sensitivity to neutralization by a monoclonal antibody targeting a cryptic epitope in the fusion loop...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207838/viperin-interaction-with-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-limits-viperin-mediated-inhibition-of-the-interferon-response-in-macrophages
#5
Jia Shee Hee, Peter Cresswell
Viperin is an antiviral protein that is upregulated by interferons and by ligands for a variety of innate immune receptors. It possesses diverse capabilities and functions in an array of viral infections. Studies have shown that it appears to be particularly important in defence against RNA viruses, such as West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya viruses, although the specific mechanisms involved are not well understood at the molecular level. Here we identify the mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein MAVS as a novel viperin interaction partner, most likely in mitochondria associated membranes, and characterize a more central, overarching role of viperin as a negative regulator of the interferon response, an ability that can be regulated by the viperin-MAVS interaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206859/evaluation-and-adaptation-of-attractive-toxic-sugar-baits-for-culex-tarsalis-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-control-in-the-coachella-valley-southern-california
#6
Whitney A Qualls, Jodi Scott-Fiorenzano, Gunter C Müller, Kristopher L Arheart, John C Beier, Rui-De Xue
The project goal was to determine how a new vector control strategy that targets the sugar-feeding behavior of mosquitoes, attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), can be used to more effectively control West Nile virus (WNV) vectors in the Coachella Valley, California. Three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the utility of this method for control against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis : 1) efficacy evaluations of 2 formulations of ATSB, microencapsulated garlic oil, and a combination of microencapsulated garlic oil and 1% boric acid; 2) choice assays to determine the attractiveness of ATSB with the microencapsulated garlic oil against attractive sugar baits (ASB; the attractant alone; without toxin) and a 10% sucrose solution; and 3) vegetation efficacy tests on 3 common plant species in the Coachella Valley, Atriplex lentiformis, Tamarix ramosissima , and Pluchea sericea...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202375/generation-and-characterization-of-west-nile-pseudo-infectious-reporter-virus-for-antiviral-screening
#7
Hong-Lei Zhang, Han-Qing Ye, Cheng-Lin Deng, Si-Qing Liu, Pei-Yong Shi, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhi-Ming Yuan, Bo Zhang
West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is an important neurotropic human pathogen. As a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) agent, WNV is strictly to BSL-3 laboratories for experimentations, thus greatly hindering the development of vaccine and antiviral drug. Here, we developed a novel pseudo-infectious WNV reporter virus expressing the Gaussia luciferase (Gluc). A stable 293TNS1 cell line expressing NS1 was selected for trans-supplying NS1 protein to support the replication of WNV-ΔNS1 virus and WNV-ΔNS1-Gluc reporter virus with large-fragment deletion of NS1...
February 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198446/a-mutation-identified-in-neonatal-microcephaly-destabilizes-zika-virus-ns1-assembly-in-vitro
#8
Deping Wang, Cheng Chen, Shengnan Liu, Han Zhou, Kailin Yang, Qi Zhao, Xiaoyun Ji, Chen Chen, Wei Xie, Zefang Wang, Li-Zhi Mi, Haitao Yang
An unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection had spread to South and Central America. ZIKV infection was recently confirmed by CDC (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to cause neonatal microcephaly, which posed a significant public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to fight ZIKV infection. ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plays an essential role in viral replication and immune evasion. We determined the crystal structure of ZIKV NS1172-352, which forms a head-to-head, symmetric dimer with a unique 14-stranded β-ladder conserved among flaviviruses...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192048/a-serosurvey-of-diseases-of-free-ranging-gray-wolves-canis-lupus-in-minnesota
#9
Michelle Carstensen, John H Giudice, Erik C Hildebrand, J P Dubey, John Erb, Dan Stark, John Hart, Shannon Barber-Meyer, L David Mech, Steve K Windels, Andrew J Edwards
We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192043/serosurvey-for-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-steller-s-jays-cyanocitta-stelleri-captured-in-coastal-california
#10
Elena West, Erik Hofmeister, M Zach Peery
West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in New York in 1999 and, during its expansion across the continental US, southern Canada, and Mexico, members of the Corvidae (ravens, crows, magpies, and jays) were frequently infected and highly susceptible to the virus. As part of a behavioral study of Steller's Jays ( Cyanocitta stelleri ) conducted from 2011-2014 in the coastal California counties of San Mateo and Santa Cruz, 380 Steller's Jays were captured and tested for antibodies to WNV. Using the wild bird IgG enzyme linked immunoassay, we failed to detect antibodies to WNV, indicating either that there was no previous exposure to the virus or that exposed birds had died...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191786/quantifying-the-potential-pathways-and-locations-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-entry-into-the-united-states
#11
A J Golnar, R C Kading, G L Hamer
The global invasion of West Nile virus, chikungunya virus and Zika virus in the past two decades suggests an increasing rate of mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) dispersal. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus identified as a high-consequence threat to the United States (USA) because of the severe economic and health consequences associated with disease. Numerous studies demonstrate that the USA is receptive to RVFV transmission based on the widespread presence of competent mosquito species and vertebrate species...
February 12, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188791/structure-and-sequence-based-functional-annotation-of-zika-virus-ns2b-protein-computational-insights
#12
Daniel Aguilera-Pesantes, Miguel A Méndez
While Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks are a growing concern for global health, a deep understanding about the virus is lacking. Here we report a contribution to the basic science on the virus- a detailed computational analysis of the non structural protein NS2b. This protein acts as a cofactor for the NS3 protease (NS3Pro) domain that is important on the viral life cycle, and is an interesting target for drug development. We found that ZIKV NS2b cofactor is highly similar to other virus within the Flavivirus genus, especially to West Nile Virus, suggesting that it is completely necessary for the protease complex activity...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187808/diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-encephalitis
#13
J J Halperin
Encephalitis is typically viral (approximately half of diagnosed cases) or autoimmune (about a quarter) with the remainder remaining undiagnosable at this time. All require general supportive care but only a minority requires intensive care admission - in these intubation, to protect the airway or to treat status epilepticus with anesthetic drugs, may be needed. In some dysautonomia with wide blood pressure fluctuations is the principal concern. Remarkably, in addition to supportive care, specific treatment options are available for the majority - immune-modulating therapy for those with autoimmune disorders, antiviral therapy for herpes simplex 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster encephalitis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187142/mosquito-cell-derived-west-nile-virus-replicon-particles-mimic-arbovirus-inoculum-and-have-reduced-spread-in-mice
#14
Brendan T Boylan, Fernando R Moreira, Tim W Carlson, Kristen A Bernard
Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. The insect cell-derived particles differ in the glycosylation of virus structural proteins and the lipid content of the envelope, as well as their induction of cytokines...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187130/detection-of-the-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses-west-nile-dengue-saint-louis-encephalitis-ilheus-bussuquara-and-yellow-fever-in-free-ranging-black-howlers-alouatta-caraya-of-northeastern-argentina
#15
María A Morales, Cintia M Fabbri, Gabriel E Zunino, Martín M Kowalewski, Victoria C Luppo, Delia A Enría, Silvana C Levis, Gladys E Calderón
Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179512/drought-and-immunity-determine-the-intensity-of-west-nile-virus-epidemics-and-climate-change-impacts
#16
Sara H Paull, Daniel E Horton, Moetasim Ashfaq, Deeksha Rastogi, Laura D Kramer, Noah S Diffenbaugh, A Marm Kilpatrick
The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of continental-scale West Nile virus epidemics, including an empirically derived mechanistic relationship between temperature and transmission potential that accounts for spatial variability in vectors...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179396/the-antigenic-structure-of-zika-virus-and-its-relation-to-other-flaviviruses-implications-for-infection-and-immunoprophylaxis
#17
REVIEW
Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168223/effects-of-organic-amendments-on-microbiota-associated-with-the-culex-nigripalpus-mosquito-vector-of-the-saint-louis-encephalitis-and-west-nile-viruses
#18
Dagne Duguma, Michael W Hall, Chelsea T Smartt, Josh D Neufeld
Pollution from nutrients in aquatic habitats has been linked to increases in disease vectors, including mosquitoes and other pestiferous insects. One possibility is that changes in mosquito microbiomes are impacted by nutrient enrichments and that these changes affect various traits, including larval development, susceptibility to larval control agents, and susceptibility of the adult mosquitoes to pathogens. We tested this hypothesis using field mesocosms supplemented with low- and high-organic-nutrient regimens and then sampled microbial communities associated with the naturally colonizing Culex nigripalpus mosquito vector...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167751/axl-dependent-infection-of-human-fetal-endothelial-cells-distinguishes-zika-virus-from-other-pathogenic-flaviviruses
#19
Audrey Stéphanie Richard, Byoung-Shik Shim, Young-Chan Kwon, Rong Zhang, Yuka Otsuka, Kimberly Schmitt, Fatma Berri, Michael S Diamond, Hyeryun Choe
Although a causal relationship between Zika virus (ZIKV) and microcephaly has been established, it remains unclear why ZIKV, but not other pathogenic flaviviruses, causes congenital defects. Here we show that when viruses are produced in mammalian cells, ZIKV, but not the closely related dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV), can efficiently infect key placental barrier cells that directly contact the fetal bloodstream. We show that AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is the primary ZIKV entry cofactor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and that ZIKV uses AXL with much greater efficiency than does DENV or WNV...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164314/a-probable-case-of-west-nile-virus-transfusion-transmission
#20
Jamel A Groves, Hedyeh Shafi, Jim H Nomura, Ross M Herron, Devin Baez, Roger Y Dodd, Susan L Stramer
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus (WNV) infection is infrequent as a result of minipool (MP) and individual-donation (ID) nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood donations. ID-NAT is triggered on the basis of local WNV activity identified by MP-NAT. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A 78-year-old male patient who was treated for cardiac disease received 14 blood components from 30 donors in August 2016. He was discharged 7 days after aortic valve replacement and coronary bypass surgery, but was re-admitted on Day 12 with symptoms of viral infection, and eventually was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis...
February 5, 2017: Transfusion
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