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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092765/cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-evaluation-of-surface-waters-from-a-coal-exploration-region
#1
Cynthia Silva Porta, Débora Lemes Dos Santos, Hélio Vieira Bernardes, Bruno Corrêa Bellagamba, Anaí Duarte, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Mauricio Lehmann, Juliana da Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Coal mining generates a considerable amount of waste, which is disposed of in piles or dams near mining sites. As a result, leachates may reach rivers and streams, promoting the wide dispersion of contaminants in solution and as particulate matter. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic action of surface waters collected around a thermoelectric power plant and the largest mining area in Brazil (Candiota). Four sites in Candiota stream were selected, and samples were collected in winter and summer...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000072/genotoxicity-of-citrate-coated-silver-nanoparticles-to-human-keratinocytes-assessed-by-the-comet-assay-and-cytokinesis-blocked-micronucleus-assay
#2
V Bastos, I F Duarte, C Santos, H Oliveira
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in industrial, cosmetic, and biomedical products, and humans are frequently exposed to these products through the skin. It is widely recognized that the characteristics of AgNPs (e.g., size, coating) may influence their cytotoxic effects, but their correlation with DNA damage and mitotic disorders remains poorly explored. In this study, human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were exposed to well-characterized 30 nm AgNPs coated with citrate, and their effects on viability, DNA fragmentation (assessed by the comet assay), and micronuclei (MNi) induction (assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays, CBMN) were investigated...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959887/increased-micronucleus-frequency-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-predicts-the-risk-of-bladder-cancer
#3
Barbara Pardini, Clara Viberti, Alessio Naccarati, Alessandra Allione, Marco Oderda, Rossana Critelli, Mirko Preto, Andrea Zijno, Giuseppina Cucchiarale, Paolo Gontero, Paolo Vineis, Carlotta Sacerdote, Giuseppe Matullo
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most common malignancies worldwide. The identification of new biomarkers for early BC detection, recurrence/progression is urgently needed. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) evaluates chromosome damage in cultured human lymphocytes and micronuclei (MN) provide a convenient and reliable index of both chromosome breakage and loss. METHODS: Chromosomal damage (expressed as frequencies of MN, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds (NBUD)) was evaluated by CBMN assay in cryopreserved lymphocytes from 158 age/smoking-matched pairs of cases and controls in relation to BC risk, recurrence or progression...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894694/the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cbmn-assay-in-human-populations-exposed-to-styrene-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Solange Costa, Marcello Ceppi, Carla Costa, Susana Silva, Cristiana Pereira, Blanca Laffon, Stefano Bonassi, João Paulo Teixeira
Styrene is a building-block of several compounds used in a wide array of materials and products. The most important human exposure to this substance occurs in industrial settings, especially among reinforced-plastics industry workers. The effect of occupational exposure to styrene on cytogenetics biomarkers has been previously reviewed with positive association observed for chromosomal aberrations, and inconclusive data for the micronucleus assay. Some limitations were noted in those studies, including inadequate exposure assessment and poor epidemiological design...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894692/the-ex-vivo-l-cbmn-assay-detects-significant-human-exposure-to-butadiene
#5
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
1,3-Butadiene (BD), an important industrial chemical used in the production of synthetic rubber and resins and a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, was classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. BD requires metabolic activation to different epoxides that are known to bind to DNA, inducing also DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks. The DNA damage leading to mutations has been identified as the mode of action of BD. Experimental studies in rodents revealed widely different BD carcinogenic/mutagenic potency in rat and mice, associated to differences in BD metabolism...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894691/application-of-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-to-populations-exposed-to-petroleum-and-its-derivatives-results-from-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Sabrina Angelini, Justo Lorenzo Bermejo, Gloria Ravegnini, Giulia Sammarini, Patrizia Hrelia
The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is applied in many different in vivo biomonitoring studies of human exposure to genotoxic chemicals. Among extensively chemicals investigated, we identified petroleum and its derivatives, in particular benzene and the most common mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene. Although conflicting results have been reported on the effects of benzene exposure, the number of positive findings in independent studies suggests that occupational exposure to benzene causes DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894690/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-occupational-exposure-to-formaldehyde-and-effects-on-chromosomal-dna-damage-measured-using-the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-in-lymphocytes
#7
REVIEW
Michael Fenech, Armen Nersesyan, Siegfried Knasmueller
Formaldehyde (FAL) is classified as a Class I carcinogen by the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer. Therefore, there is a need to validate appropriate methods for detecting its genotoxic effects in vivo in humans. One of the most commonly used methods to measure the genotoxic effects of exposure to environmental chemicals is the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (L-CBMN assay). We performed a systematic review and statistical analysis of the results from all of the published studies in which the L-CBMN assay was used to measure the genotoxic effects of human exposure to FAL...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894689/occupational-exposure-to-cytostatic-antineoplastic-drugs-and-cytogenetic-damage-measured-using-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
M Villarini, V Gianfredi, S Levorato, S Vannini, T Salvatori, M Moretti
Many studies have reported the occurrence of work-environment contamination by antineoplastic drugs (ANPD), with significant incorporation of trace amounts of these hazardous drugs in hospital personnel. Given the ability of most ANPD to actively bind DNA, thus inducing genotoxic effects, it is of pivotal importance to assess the degree of genotoxic damage (i.e., residual genotoxic risk) in occupationally exposed subjects. The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (L-CBMN) assay is largely used for biological effect monitoring in subjects occupationally exposed to ANPD...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894688/dna-and-chromosomal-damage-in-medical-workers-exposed-to-anaesthetic-gases-assessed-by-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cbmn-assay-a-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Pavel Vodicka, Ludovit Musak, Giovanni Fiorito, Veronika Vymetalkova, Ludmila Vodickova, Alessio Naccarati
The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay has been applied in hundreds of in vivo biomonitoring studies of humans exposed either environmentally or occupationally to genotoxic chemicals. However, there is an emerging need to re-evaluate the use of MN and other biomarkers within the lymphocyte CBMN cytome assay as quantitative indicators of exposure to main classes of chemical genotoxins. The main aim of the present report is to systematically review published studies investigating the use of the lymphocyte CBMN assay to determine DNA damage in subjects exposed to anaesthetic gases...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894686/the-use-of-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-for-monitoring-pesticide-exposed-populations
#10
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Nina Holland
Pesticides are widely used around the world, and hundreds of millions of people are exposed annually in occupational and environmental settings. Numerous studies have demonstrated relationships between pesticide exposure and increased risk of cancers, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, respiratory diseases and diabetes. Assessment of genotoxicity of pesticides and biomonitoring their effect in exposed populations is critical for a better regulation and protection, but it can be complicated because pesticides are often used as complex mixtures...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894685/dna-damage-induced-by-occupational-and-environmental-exposure-to-miscellaneous-chemicals
#11
REVIEW
Juliana da Silva
Epidemiological studies for hazardous situations resulting from the risk of environmental and/or occupational exposure to miscellaneous chemicals present several difficulties. Biomonitoring of human populations can provide an early detection system for the initiation of cell dysregulation in the development of cancer, which would help develop an efficient prevention program. Recently, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in lymphocyte cells has become an important tool for assessing DNA damage in exposed populations...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894684/systematic-review-of-the-use-of-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-to-measure-dna-damage-induced-by-exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#12
REVIEW
Radim J Sram, Vlasta Svecova, Andrea Rossnerova
The effect of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to induce micronuclei (MN) measured using the lymphocytes cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay were evaluated in 34 studies according to the exposure: 20 studies in coke oven workers, 7 studies in different occupational exposures as alluminium industry workers, rubber factory workers, road construction workers, airport workers and diesel exposed workers, 6 studies on environmentaly exposed groups as police, volunteers and children. Reviewed papers indicate that the CBMN assay is a sensitive biomarker of PAHs exposure in polluted air...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894682/molecular-mechanisms-by-which-in-vivo-exposure-to-exogenous-chemical-genotoxic-agents-can-lead-to-micronucleus-formation-in-lymphocytes-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-in-humans
#13
REVIEW
Michael Fenech, Siegfried Knasmueller, Claudia Bolognesi, Stefano Bonassi, Nina Holland, Lucia Migliore, Fabrizio Palitti, Adayapalam T Natarajan, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
The purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which in vivo exposure to exogenous chemical genotoxins in humans induces micronuclei (MNi) and other nuclear anomalies in lymphocytes in vivo and ex vivo after nuclear division in vitro. MNi originate from acentric chromosome fragments and/or whole chromosomes that are unable to engage with the mitotic spindle and/or fail to segregate properly to the daughter nuclei during anaphase. The lagging fragments or whole chromosomes are surrounded by membrane and become MNi...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894680/frequency-of-micronuclei-and-other-biomarkers-of-dna-damage-in-populations-exposed-to-dusts-asbestos-and-other-fibers-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Stefano Bonassi, Mirta Milić, Monica Neri
Airborne particles are small, solid particles projected into the air either by natural forces, or by mechanical or man-made processes, and include fibers and dusts. Their toxicity is usually subsequent to inhalation and can lead to pulmonary dysfunctions and diseases, including cancer. Cytochalasin B blocked micronucleus assay in lymphocytes (L-CBMN) has been shown as a sensitive and reliable technique in assessing genotoxic exposure, An extensive search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases allowed retrieval of 18 articles on occupational or environmental exposure evaluating L-CBMN in subjects exposed to fibers or dusts (asbestos, silica, rockwool, beryllium, tobacco, and wood)...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894679/use-of-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-in-occupational-biomonitoring-of-genome-damage-caused-by-in-vivo-exposure-to-chemical-genotoxins-past-present-and-future
#15
REVIEW
Armen Nersesyan, Michael Fenech, Claudia Bolognesi, Miroslav Mišík, Tahereh Setayesh, Georg Wultsch, Stefano Bonassi, Philip Thomas, Siegfried Knasmüller
This article concerns the use of the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in biomonitoring of occupational and environmental exposures to genotoxic agents. Furthermore, we evaluated the use of this method in different exposure scenarios, in comparison to other DNA damage biomarkers and its regional distribution. So far ca. 400 studies have been published and the number increased substantially in the last years. The most frequently investigated groups are hospital personnel, followed by workers in the chemical industry and agricultural workers...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881793/a-cytogenetic-biomonitoring-of-industrial-radiographers-occupationally-exposed-to-low-levels-of-ionizing-radiation-by-using-cbmn-assay
#16
Mahsa Shakeri, Farideh Zakeri, Vahid Changizi, Mohammad Reza Rajabpour, Mohammad Reza Farshidpour
Industrial radiography is the process of using either gamma-emitting radionuclide sources or X-ray machines to examine the safety of industrial materials. The average annual effective dose in industrial radiography is one of the highest among radiation workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 60 industrial radiographers and 40 non-exposed individuals as the control group by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay...
November 23, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866426/comparative-study-on-the-induction-of-complex-genomic-alterations-after-exposure-of-mammalian-cells-to-carboplatin-and-oxaliplatin
#17
Ana Paula de Souza, Mauricio Lehmann, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Metal complexes are still broadly used as the first line of the treatment for different types of tumors nowadays. Carboplatin and oxaliplatin were authorized for clinical use, even though there is little information on the mutagenic profile associated to their usage. This study evaluated the cytostatic effects and the induction of complex genomic alterations after 24-h treatment of CHO-K1 cells to concentrations of 12.5-800 μM of carboplatin and oxaliplatin in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN-Cyt)...
November 20, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831478/radio-adaptive-response-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-individuals-residing-in-high-level-natural-radiation-areas-of-kerala-in-the-southwest-coast-of-india
#18
E N Ramachandran, C V Karuppasamy, V Anil Kumar, D C Soren, P R Vivek Kumar, P K M Koya, G Jaikrishan, Birajalaxmi Das
The present study investigates whether the chronic low-dose radiation exposure induces an in vivo radio-adaptive response in individuals from high-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of the Kerala coast. Peripheral blood samples from 54 adult male individuals aged between 26 and 65 years were collected for the study with written informed consent. Each of the whole blood sample was divided into three, one was sham irradiated, second and third was exposed to challenging doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma radiation, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757196/rh-factor-is-associated-with-individual-radiosensitivity-a-cytogenetic-study
#19
Meysam Khosravifarsani, Ali Shabestani Monfared, Sajad Borzoueisileh
INTRODUCTION: Radiosensitivity is an inherent trait, associated with a raised reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. In radiotherapy and radiation protection fields, individualization of the patient's treatment is one of the main topics. With the goal of determining biomarkers capable of anticipating normal tissue side reactions, we studied the association between the Rh factor and radiosensitivity. METHODS: This experimental study was carried out from January to June 2014 among 50 normal responders with A blood group (25Rh+ and 25Rh-) between the ages of 22 and 23 in Babol, Iran...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692296/the-radioprotective-effect-of-metformin-against-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-induced-by-ionizing-radiation-in-cultured-human-blood-lymphocytes
#20
Mohsen Cheki, Alireza Shirazi, Aziz Mahmoudzadeh, Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the radioprotective effect of metformin was investigated against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Human lymphocytes were treated with metformin at concentrations 10 and 50μM for 2h and irradiated with 6MV X-rays. The radiation antagonistic potential of metformin was assessed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiaozolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide] assay, chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis, cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay, and flow cytometry...
October 2016: Mutation Research
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