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Meysam Khosravifarsani, Ali Shabestani Monfared, Sajad Borzoueisileh
INTRODUCTION: Radiosensitivity is an inherent trait, associated with a raised reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. In radiotherapy and radiation protection fields, individualization of the patient's treatment is one of the main topics. With the goal of determining biomarkers capable of anticipating normal tissue side reactions, we studied the association between the Rh factor and radiosensitivity. METHODS: This experimental study was carried out from January to June 2014 among 50 normal responders with A blood group (25Rh+ and 25Rh-) between the ages of 22 and 23 in Babol, Iran...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Mohsen Cheki, Alireza Shirazi, Aziz Mahmoudzadeh, Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the radioprotective effect of metformin was investigated against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Human lymphocytes were treated with metformin at concentrations 10 and 50μM for 2h and irradiated with 6MV X-rays. The radiation antagonistic potential of metformin was assessed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiaozolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide] assay, chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis, cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay, and flow cytometry...
October 2016: Mutation Research
Mansi Patel, Priti Mehta, Sonal Bakshi, Shikha Tewari
The ionizing radiation is a known carcinogen as well as cancer therapeutic agent however, the side effect on normal tissue is a limiting factor and inadequate doses necessitates search for an ideal radioprotective agent. Bamboo species are rich source of antioxidants hence have therapeutic value in many free radical mediated diseases. This is the first report regarding in vitro protective effect of bamboo leaf extract against radiation induced genetic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by cytokinesis blocked micronuclei (CBMN) assay...
July 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Dimitris Vlastos, Stefanos Dailianis, Aggeliki Kindou, Maria Antonopoulou, Areti Gianni, Ierotheos Zacharias
Lakes, representing major freshwater resources, play a crucial role for both humans and ecosystems. Based on the increasing international interest in the contamination of water resources by genotoxic compounds, the present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of surface water samples collected from the five (5) lakes (Amvrakia, Lysimachia, Ozeros, Trichonida, Kastraki) located in Aitoloakarnania regional unit (Western Greece). The genotoxic potential of surface water samples was evaluated by employing the Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN) assay in cultured human lymphocytes...
September 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Lyda Espitia-Pérez, Milton Quintana Sosa, Shirley Salcedo-Arteaga, Grethel León-Mejía, Luz Stella Hoyos-Giraldo, Hugo Brango, Katia Kvitko, Juliana da Silva, João A P Henriques
Increasing evidence suggest that occupational exposure to open-cast coal mining residues like dust particles, heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause a wide range of DNA damage and genomic instability that could be associated to initial steps in cancer development and other work-related diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate if key polymorphisms in metabolism genes CYP1A1Msp1, GSTM1Null, GSTT1Null and DNA repair genes XRCC1Arg194Trp and hOGG1Ser326Cys could modify individual susceptibility to adverse coal exposure effects, considering the DNA damage (Comet assay) and micronucleus formation in lymphocytes (CBMN) and buccal mucosa cells (BMNCyt) as endpoints for genotoxicity...
September 15, 2016: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Evangelos Giannakopoulos, Dimitris Vlastos, Demetrios P Matthopoulos
The interaction of pesticides with environmental factors, such as pH, may result in alterations of their physicochemical properties and should be taken into consideration in regard to their classification. This study investigates the genotoxicity of methidathion and its alkaline hydrolysis by-products in cultured human lymphocytes, using the square-wave voltammetry (square wave-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (SW-AdCSV) technique) and the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). According to the SW-AdCSV data the alkaline hydrolysis of methidathion results in two new molecules, one non-electro-active and a second electro-active which is more genotoxic than methidathion itself in cultured human lymphocytes, inducing higher micronuclei frequencies...
September 1, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Gabriel Brolio Pavão, Vinícius Paula Venâncio, Ana Ligia Leandrini de Oliveira, Lívia Cristina Hernandes, Mara Ribeiro Almeida, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes, Hosana Maria Debonsi
Phomoxanthone A (PhoA) is a compound isolated from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla, associated with marine algae Bostrychia radicans. Although this metabolite was previously described regarding its high biological potential, there are no reports concerning the effects of this compound on DNA integrity. This study aimed to evaluate, in lymphocytes and promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells, the cytotoxicity of this compound through MTT and neutral red (NR) assays, as well as its genotoxicity and mutagenicity by alkaline comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-Cyt), respectively...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Maxim Yu Sinitsky, Varvara I Minina, Nikolay I Gafarov, Maxim A Asanov, Aleksey V Larionov, Anastasia V Ponasenko, Valentin P Volobaev, Vladimir G Druzhinin
Coal miners are exposed to coal dust, containing mineral particles, inorganic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and to ionizing radiation. These factors can induce oxidative stress and promote inflammation that leads to DNA damage. The aim of this investigation is to analyse the degree of DNA damage in miners working in underground coal mines in Kemerovo Region (Russian Federation) using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The exposed group included 143 coal miners (mean age = 50...
August 16, 2016: Mutagenesis
J G Froder, D Dupeyrón, J C T Carvalho, E L Maistro
Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent included in one of the most commonly used drug classes worldwide. The use of this drug results in certain side effects, including gastrointestinal complications. Therefore, there exists a need to develop better methods for the delivery of such drugs into the body, such as those employing nanoparticles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of indomethacin-loaded Eudragit(®) L 100 nanocapsules (NI; based on methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate) on cells unable (lymphocytes) and able to metabolize drugs (HepG2 cells), using comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays in vitro...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Yingnan Han, Na Li, Yoshimitsu Oda, Mei Ma, Kaifeng Rao, Zijian Wang, Wei Jin, Gang Hong, Zhiguo Li, Yi Luo
With the burgeoning contamination of surface waters threatening human health, the genotoxic effects of surface waters have received much attention. Because mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds in water cause tumors by different mechanisms, a battery of bioassays that each indicate a different mode of action (MOA) is required to evaluate the genotoxic effects of contaminants in water samples. In this study, 15 water samples from two source water reservoirs and surrounding rivers in Shijiazhuang city of China were evaluated for genotoxic effects...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rajiv Sundaramoorthy, Yuvaraj Velusamy, A P B Balaji, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran
The research on the novel pesticides such as nanopesticides has become inevitable to control the mosquito population. Nanopermethrin (NP), one of such kind was formulated in pesticide loaded oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion by rapid evaporation. Even though NP possess improved efficacy against the target pests, the toxicological investigation on the human or mammalian system remains unexplored. So, the present study focused on a comparative investigation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of NP in vitro and its commercial parental bulk form of permethrin (BP) on human peripheral erythrocyte/lymphocyte by erythrocyte morphology analysis, cell viability assay, and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay...
September 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
M A Rodrigues, C E Probst, L A Beaton-Green, R C Wilkins
In cases of overexposure to ionizing radiation, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay can be performed in order to estimate the dose of radiation to an exposed individual. However, in the event of a large-scale radiation accident with many potentially exposed casualties, the assay must be able to generate accurate dose estimates to within ±0.5 Gy as quickly as possible. The assay has been adapted to, validated and optimized on the ImageStream(X) imaging flow cytometer. The ease of running this automated version of the CBMN assay allowed investigation into the accuracy of dose estimates after reducing the volume of whole blood cultured to 200 µl and reducing the culture time to 48 h...
July 15, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Cristina O'Callaghan-Gordo, Manolis Kogevinas, Eleni Fthenou, Marie Pedersen, Ana Espinosa, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Vasiliki Daraki, Eirini Dermitzaki, Ilse Decordier, Vaggelis Georgiou, Domenico Franco Merlo, Theano Roumeliotaki, Kim Vande Loock, Jos Kleinjans, Micheline Kirsch-Volders, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant women and may be associated with several adverse health outcomes including cancer. Micronuclei frequency is a biomarker of early genetic effects and has been used to examine the association between genotoxic exposures and cancer. We examined maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy in associations with micronuclei frequency in maternal blood and in cord blood. METHODS: 173 mothers and 171 newborns born between 2007 and 2008 in Heraklion (Crete, Greece) were included in the study...
June 27, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Xiayu Wu, Weijiang Xu, Tao Zhou, Neng Cao, Juan Ni, Tianning Zou, Ziqing Liang, Xu Wang, Michael Fenech
Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene-nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mahdieh Salimi, Behrouz Broumand, Hossein Mozdarani
The increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus globally has increased the incidence of diabetes-associated complications such as nephropathy. DNA damage induced by oxidative stress might be one of the important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Two hundred Iranian individuals with the conditions of type 2 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and nephropathy patients with no sign of diabetes and normal unaffected sex- and age-matched controls (50 in each group) were enrolled in the study...
June 22, 2016: Mutagenesis
Li Ping Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Hua Wei Duan, Tao Meng, Yong Niu, Chuan Feng Huang, Wei Min Gao, Shan Fa Yu, Yu Xin Zheng
To clarify the effects of lung function following exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) , we recruited 137 diesel engine testing workers exposed to DEE and 127 non-DEE-exposed workers as study subjects. We performed lung function tests and measured cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome index and levels of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites. There was a significant decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/ FVC), maximal mid expiratory flow curve (MMF), forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50%), and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75%) in the DEE-exposed workers than non-DEE-exposed workers (all p<0...
June 23, 2016: Industrial Health
Gökçe Taner, Deniz Özkan Vardar, Sevtap Aydin, Zeki Aytaç, Ahmet Başaran, Nurşen Başaran
Vanillic acid (VA) found in vanilla and cinnamic acid (CA) the precursor of flavonoids and found in cinnamon oil, are natural plant phenolic acids which are secondary aromatic plant products suggested to possess many physiological and pharmacological functions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that phenolic acids exhibit powerful effects on biological responses by scavenging free radicals and eliciting antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity of VA and CA by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, cytotoxicity by neutral red uptake (NRU) assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and also the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of these phenolic acids using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) and the alkaline comet assays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes...
June 16, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Xin Gao, Huadong Xu, Jing Shang, Lan Yuan, Yongming Zhang, Lele Wang, Wenxiao Zhang, Xianguo Luan, Guiping Hu, Hongqian Chu, Tong Zhu, Guang Jia
Black carbon and tropospheric ozone (O3 ), which are major air pollutants in China, are hazardous to humans following inhalation. Black carbon can be oxidized by O3 forming secondary particles of which the health effects are unknown. The present study utilized carbon black as a representative of black carbon to characterize the cytotoxicity induced by secondary particles in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) and C57BL/6J mice, and to investigate the implicated molecular pathways. Two types of carbon black including untreated carbon black (UCB) and ozonized carbon black (OCB) were presented...
June 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
M A Rodrigues, C E Probst, L A Beaton-Green, R C Wilkins
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is a well-established technique that can be employed in triage radiation biodosimetry to estimate whole body doses of radiation to potentially exposed individuals through quantitation of the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in binucleated lymphocyte cells (BNCs). The assay has been partially automated using traditional microscope-based methods and most recently has been modified for application on the ImageStream(X) (IS(X) ) imaging flow cytometer. This modification has allowed for a similar number of BNCs to be automatically scored as compared to traditional microscopy in a much shorter time period...
July 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
L da Cunha Menezes Souza, L A da Cruz, E de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Jrc Meireles
The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown among practitioners of recreational bodybuilding, with significant contributions of designer steroids, aiming muscle hypertrophy in healthy subjects. The abusive use of AAS in general is associated with adverse effects; one of the most worrisome is cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) test in human lymphocytes in identifying risk groups for cancer development in users of AAS...
May 18, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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