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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325677/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-among-lung-cancer-free-smokers-the-importance-of-healthy-controls
#1
Michelle D Karpman, Ronald Eldridge, Jack L Follis, Carol J Etzel, Sanjay Shete, Randa A El-Zein
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307370/evaluation-of-chromosomal-dna-damage-cytotoxicity-cytostasis-oxidative-dna-damage-and-their-relationship-with-endocrine-hormones-in-patients-with-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#2
Kursat Gundogan, Hamiyet Donmez-Altuntas, Zuhal Hamurcu, Ismail Hakkı Akbudak, Murat Sungur, Nazmiye Bitgen, Gulden Baskol, Fahri Bayram
Pesticides are commonly used compounds in agriculture. Especially, organophosphates (OPs) are among the extensively used pesticides. Therefore, OPs poisoning is common, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. Primary aim of this study was to research the effects of acute OPs poisoning on genome instability in the individuals' lymphocytes with acute OPs poisoning both by using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-cyt) assay to examine chromosome/genome damage, cell proliferation index and cell death rate and by using the plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels to determine oxidative DNA damage...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281926/investigation-of-genotoxic-effects-of-paraben-in-cultured-human-lymphocytes
#3
Devrim Güzel Bayülken, Berrin Ayaz Tüylü, Handan Sinan, Hülya Sivas
Paraben is a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid extensively used as preservatives in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its antimicrobial characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic effects of paraben in human lymphocyte cultures. Cells were analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN), chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and comet tests. For CBMN, CA, and SCE assays, the human lymphocytes were isolated from healthy donors and incubated with 500, 250, 100, and 50 µg/mL of paraben for 24 and 48 h, and for comet assay, cells were exposed to 1000, 750, 500, and 250 µg/mL of paraben for an hour...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275243/cytogenetics-alteration-in-adult-men-involved-in-the-recycling-of-electronic-wastes
#4
Yanan Du, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Qiang Liu
In this data article, 146 villagers (exposed group) were randomly selected from the workers who involved in the e-wastes recycling directly as a daily job in Tianjin. Control group, including 121 villagers, came from another town without e-waste disposal sites. Chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus (CBMN) were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%), tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes and spermatozoa...
December 21, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199475/chromosomal-instability-and-cytotoxicity-induced-by-ribavirin-comparative-analysis-in-cell-lines-with-different-drug-metabolizing-profiles
#5
Carina Sperotto Librelotto, Daniel Simon, Ana Paula de Souza, Mário Reis Álvares-da-Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Ribavirin is an important component of the treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and, in combination with the new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, comprises the major current therapeutic regimens. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and chromosomal instability induced by ribavirin using the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay in two cell lines with different expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes: human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells...
December 4, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173494/the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-test-in-human-populations-occupationally-exposed-to-vinyl-chloride-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Marco Bruzzone, Marcello Ceppi, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
Vinyl chloride (VC) is widely used in industry in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is used to manufacture a large variety of materials. VC was classified as a known (Group 1) human carcinogen by IARC on the basis of increased risk for liver angiosarcoma and hepatocellular cancer, and the carcinogenicity of VC was shown to be mediated by a genotoxic mechanism. Following inhalation, the compound is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in the liver to the electrophilic metabolites chloroethylene-oxide and chloroacetaldehyde, which form DNA adducts that can be processed into point mutations in cancer-related genes detected in humans and rats exposed to VC...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142345/in-vitro-protective-effect-of-rutin-and-quercetin-against-radiation-induced-genetic-damage-in-human-lymphocytes
#7
Shrikant L Patil, K Swaroop, Nilesh Kakde, H M Somashekarappa
Purpose of the Study: Rutin (RUT) and quercetin (QRT) which are dietary compounds were investigated for their ability to protect against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: The radiation antagonistic potential of RUT and QRT was assessed by alkaline comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Results: Treatment of lymphocytes with RUT and QRT (25 μg/ml) prior exposure to 2 Gy gamma radiation resulted in a significant reduction of frequency of micronuclei as compared to the control set of cells evaluated by CBMN assay...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130594/dna-damage-and-circulating-cell-free-dna-in-greenhouse-workers-exposed-to-pesticides
#8
Akin Çayir, Mahmut Coskun, Munevver Coskun, Hayal Cobanoglu
Pesticides widely used in agriculture and other applications have been linked to cancer and other diseases through several potential mechanisms. The goals of this study were to assess DNA damage in lymphocytes by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN), and to measure circulating cell free DNA (ccf-DNA) in the blood of pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers and matched controls living in the same area. CBMN was applied to peripheral blood lymphocyte samples taken at different times (spring and autumn) for each individual...
November 11, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127818/cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-parameters-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-the-general-population-contribution-of-age-sex-seasonal-variations-and-lifestyle-factors
#9
Goran Gajski, Marko Gerić, Višnja Oreščanin, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay was used to evaluate the baseline frequency of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the general population (average age, 38.28 ± 12.83 years) in relation to age, sex, body mass index, seasonal variations (season of sampling, period of sampling and different meteorological parameters) and lifestyle factors (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, exposure to medications and diagnostic radiation, physical activity, and family history of cancer)...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102906/cytogenetic-instability-in-populations-with-residential-proximity-to-open-pit-coal-mine-in-northern-colombia-in-relation-to-pm10-and-pm2-5-levels
#10
Lyda Espitia-Pérez, Juliana da Silva, Pedro Espitia-Pérez, Hugo Brango, Shirley Salcedo-Arteaga, Luz Stella Hoyos-Giraldo, Claudia T de Souza, Johnny F Dias, Dayana Agudelo-Castañeda, Ana Valdés Toscano, Miguel Gómez-Pérez, João A P Henriques
Epidemiological studies indicate that living in proximity to coal mines is correlated with numerous diseases including cancer, and that exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 components could be associated with this phenomenon. However, the understanding of the mechanisms by which PM exerts its adverse effects is still incomplete and comes mainly from studies in occupationally exposed populations. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes assessing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) parameters; (2) identify aneugenic or clastogenic effects in lymphocytes of exposed populations using CREST immunostaining for micronuclei; (3) evaluate multi-elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter; and (4) verify relation between the DNA damage and PM2...
November 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100934/chemical-characterization-and-cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-properties-of-baccharis-trinervis-lam-persoon-from-colombia-and-brazil
#11
Victoria Jaramillo-García, Cristiano Trindade, Elisiane Lima, Temenouga N Guecheva, Izabel Villela, Wilner Martinez-Lopez, Dione S Corrêa, Alexandre de B F Ferraz, Sidnei Moura, Milton Quintana Sosa, Juliana Da Silva, João Antônio Pegas Henriques
PHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Baccharis trinervis leaves are used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of high fevers, edema, inflammation, sores and muscle cramps, snakebites and as antiseptics. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of extracts and fractions of B. trinervis from Brazil and Colombia in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, as well as the mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts (AE) of aerial parts of B...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055201/markers-of-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-farmers-exposed-to-pesticides
#12
Carolina Hilgert Jacobsen-Pereira, Claudia Regina Dos Santos, Flora Troina Maraslis, Luisi Pimentel, Ana Júlia Lobo Feijó, Clarice Iomara Silva, Guilherme da Silva de Medeiros, Rodrigo Costa Zeferino, Rozangela Curi Pedrosa, Sharbel Weidner Maluf
The effects of chronic exposure to pesticides can lead to the development of several diseases, including different types of cancer, since the genotoxic and mutagenic capacity of these substances can be observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples from 50 rural workers (41 men and 9 women) exposed to pesticides, 46 controls (20 men and 26 women) from the same city (Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina state, Brazil) and 29 controls (15 men and 14 women) from another city (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil), were evaluated using the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) technique for genetic damage, and the test of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity for the oxidative stress...
October 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040706/inhibition-of-survivin-expression-after-using-oxaliplatin-and-vinflunine-to-induce-cytogenetic-damage-in-vitro-in-lymphocytes-from-colon-cancer-patients-and-healthy-individuals
#13
Amal A A Alotaibi, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Justin D Davies, Adolf Baumgartner, Diana Anderson
Chemotherapy drugs usually inflict a lethal dose to tumour cells with the consequence that these cells are being killed by cell death. However, each round of chemotherapy also causes damage to normal somatic cells. The DNA cross-linking agent oxaliplatin (OXP), which causes DNA double-strand breaks, and vinflunine (VFN), which disrupts the mitotic spindle, are two of these chemotherapy drugs which were evaluated in vitro using peripheral lymphocytes from colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals to determine any differential response...
October 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036595/persistent-in-vivo-cytogenetic-effects-of-radioiodine-therapy-a-21-year-follow-up-study-using-multicolor-fish
#14
Gordon K Livingston, Maria Escalona, Alvis Foster, Adayabalam S Balajee
Our previous studies demonstrated the cytogenetic effects in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a 34-year-old male patient who received ablative radioactive 131iodine therapy (RIT) on two different occasions in 1992 and 1994. Assessment of RIT-induced chromosomal damage by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) showed the persistence of elevated micronucleus frequency in this patient for more than two decades since the first RIT. Subsequent cytogenetic analysis performed in 2012 revealed both stable and unstable aberrations, whose frequencies were higher than the baseline reported in the literature...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031407/biomass-burning-particles-in-the-brazilian-amazon-region-mutagenic-effects-of-nitro-and-oxy-pahs-and-assessment-of-health-risks
#15
Marcos Felipe de Oliveira Galvão, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Paula Anastácia Ferreira, Sofia Caumo, Pérola de Castro Vasconcellos, Paulo Artaxo, Sandra de Souza Hacon, Deborah Arnsdorff Roubicek, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros
Emissions from burning of biomass in the Amazon region have adverse effects on the environment and human health. Herein, particulate matter (PM) emitted from biomass burning in the Amazon region during two different periods, namely intense and moderate, was investigated. This study focused on: i) organic characterization of nitro- and oxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); ii) assessment of the excess lifetime cancer risk (LCR); and iii) assessment of the in vitro mutagenic effects of extractable organic matter (EOM)...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026063/morphological-transformation-induced-by-silver-nanoparticles-in-balb-c-3t3-a31-1-1-mouse-cell-model-to-evaluate-in-vitro-carcinogenic-potential
#16
Wun Hak Choo, Byeonghak Moon, Sulhwa Song, Seung Min Oh
Carcinogenesis is a complex process involving in genotoxic and non-genotoxic pathways. Carcinogenic potential of AgNPs has been predicted by genotoxic effects using several in vitro and in vivo models. However, there is no little information on non-genotoxic effects of AgNPs for carcinogenesis. In vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) can provide specific and sensitive evidence to predict the tumorigenic potential of a chemical, which cannot be supplied by genotoxicity testing. Therefore, we carried out CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs)...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934716/automatic-detection-of-micronuclei-by-cell-microscopic-image-processing
#17
Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Hosein Azimian, Omid Sarrafzadeh, Shokoufeh Mohebbi, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard
With the development and applications of ionizing radiation in medicine, the radiation effects on human health get more and more attention. Ionizing radiation can lead to various forms of cytogenetic damage, including increased frequencies of micronuclei (MNi) and chromosome abnormalities. The cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is widely used method for measuring MNi to determine chromosome mutations or genome instability in cultured human lymphocytes. The visual scoring of MNi is time-consuming and scorer fatigue can lead to inconsistency...
August 12, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903093/chlorination-chloramination-and-ozonation-of-carbamazepine-enhance-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-multi-endpoint-evaluation-and-identification-of-its-genotoxic-transformation-products
#18
Yingnan Han, Mei Ma, Na Li, Rui Hou, Chao Huang, Yoshimitsu Oda, Zijian Wang
Investigations have focused on the removal and transformation of pharmaceuticals during drinking water and wastewater treatment. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the changes of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity based on different modes of action (MoAs) during chlorination, chloramination and ozonation processes of the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ). The results illustrated that ozonation enhanced the cytotoxicity and the chromosome damage effects on CHO-K1 cells detected by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay based on high-content screening technique, though ozonation showed the highest removal efficiency for CBZ...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898877/identification-of-small-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-markers-in-peripheral-blood-using-cytokinesis-blocked-micronucleus-and-spectral-karyotyping-assays
#19
Randa A El-Zein, Shereen Abdel-Rahman, Kyle J Santee, Robert Yu, Sanjay Shete
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer. There is an urgent need to develop tools to identify individuals at high risk of developing SCLC. We have previously reported that the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay is a strong predictor of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we investigate the sensitivity of the CBMN endpoints as predictors of SCLC risk. We conducted the CBMN assay on SCLC patients (n = 216), NSCLC patients (n = 173), and healthy controls (n = 204)...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886142/effects-of-ozone-exposure-on-human-epithelial-adenocarcinoma-and-normal-fibroblasts-cells
#20
Anna Poma, Sabrina Colafarina, Eleonora Aruffo, Osvaldo Zarivi, Antonella Bonfigli, Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Piero Di Carlo
Previous studies show variable ozone cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in cell cultures, laboratory animals and humans directly exposed to tropospheric ozone. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the cyto and genotoxic effects of ozone using adenocarcinoma human alveolar basal epithelial cells A549 and normal human fibroblasts Hs27. A cell culture chamber with controlled atmosphere (a simulation reactor) was built to inject a flow of 120 ppb of ozone, which is two times the threshold value for the protection of human health, fixed by the EU legislation...
2017: PloS One
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