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Ayşe Yavuz Kocaman, Müge Güzelkokar
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is one of the most important medicinal plants, which is widely used throughout the world both in traditional and contemporary medical industries. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential genotoxic activity of G. glabra methanolic root extract, and its possible antigenotoxic properties against mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA damage in in vitro chromosome aberrations (CAs) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)...
February 15, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Aneela Jamil, Amir Rashid, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Asifa Majeed
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between serum amyloid A-low density lipoprotein (SAA-LDL) and genotoxicity in smokers. STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from June 2014 to February 2015. METHODOLOGY: Seventy healthy Sprague Dawley rats were purchased from NIH and exposed to cigarette smoke in smoke chamber for three months...
February 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
Karlo Jurica, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Vesna Benković, Nevenka Kopjar
This study investigated the mechanisms of hydroquinone toxicity and assessed the relationships between its cytotoxic, genotoxic, and cytogenetic effects tested at 8, 140, and 280 μg mL-1 in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed for 24 h. The outcomes of the treatments were evaluated using the apoptosis/necrosis assay, the alkaline comet assay, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay. The tested hydroquinone concentrations produced relatively weak cytotoxicity in resting lymphocytes, which mostly died via apoptosis...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Devrim Güzel Bayülken, R Beklem Bostancıoğlu, A Tansu Koparal, Berrin Ayaz Tüylü, Aydan Dağ, Kadriye Benkli
Trimethoprim, a commonly used antibacterial agent, is widely applied in the treatment of variety of infections in human. A few studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of man to antibiotics, but there is still a lack of data for cytotoxic effects including nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, hematotoxicity, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity. The main purpose behind this study was to determine cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of trimethoprim (1), trimethoprim with maleic acid (2) and trimethoprim in conjugation with oxalic acid dihydrate (3)...
January 15, 2018: Cytotechnology
Michelle D Karpman, Ronald Eldridge, Jack L Follis, Carol J Etzel, Sanjay Shete, Randa A El-Zein
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Kursat Gundogan, Hamiyet Donmez-Altuntas, Zuhal Hamurcu, Ismail Hakkı Akbudak, Murat Sungur, Nazmiye Bitgen, Gulden Baskol, Fahri Bayram
Pesticides are commonly used compounds in agriculture. Especially, organophosphates (OPs) are among the extensively used pesticides. Therefore, OPs poisoning is common, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. Primary aim of this study was to research the effects of acute OPs poisoning on genome instability in the individuals' lymphocytes with acute OPs poisoning both by using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-cyt) assay to examine chromosome/genome damage, cell proliferation index and cell death rate and by using the plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels to determine oxidative DNA damage...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Devrim Güzel Bayülken, Berrin Ayaz Tüylü, Handan Sinan, Hülya Sivas
Paraben is a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid extensively used as preservatives in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its antimicrobial characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxic effects of paraben in human lymphocyte cultures. Cells were analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN), chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and comet tests. For CBMN, CA, and SCE assays, the human lymphocytes were isolated from healthy donors and incubated with 500, 250, 100, and 50 µg/mL of paraben for 24 and 48 h, and for comet assay, cells were exposed to 1000, 750, 500, and 250 µg/mL of paraben for an hour...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yanan Du, Yan Wang, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Kaihua Ji, Jinhan Wang, Qiang Liu
In this data article, 146 villagers (exposed group) were randomly selected from the workers who involved in the e-wastes recycling directly as a daily job in Tianjin. Control group, including 121 villagers, came from another town without e-waste disposal sites. Chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus (CBMN) were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%), tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes and spermatozoa...
December 21, 2017: Environment International
Carina Sperotto Librelotto, Daniel Simon, Ana Paula de Souza, Mário Reis Álvares-da-Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Ribavirin is an important component of the treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and, in combination with the new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, comprises the major current therapeutic regimens. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and chromosomal instability induced by ribavirin using the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay in two cell lines with different expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes: human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells...
December 4, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Claudia Bolognesi, Marco Bruzzone, Marcello Ceppi, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
Vinyl chloride (VC) is widely used in industry in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is used to manufacture a large variety of materials. VC was classified as a known (Group 1) human carcinogen by IARC on the basis of increased risk for liver angiosarcoma and hepatocellular cancer, and the carcinogenicity of VC was shown to be mediated by a genotoxic mechanism. Following inhalation, the compound is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in the liver to the electrophilic metabolites chloroethylene-oxide and chloroacetaldehyde, which form DNA adducts that can be processed into point mutations in cancer-related genes detected in humans and rats exposed to VC...
October 2017: Mutation Research
Shrikant L Patil, K Swaroop, Nilesh Kakde, H M Somashekarappa
Purpose of the Study: Rutin (RUT) and quercetin (QRT) which are dietary compounds were investigated for their ability to protect against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: The radiation antagonistic potential of RUT and QRT was assessed by alkaline comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Results: Treatment of lymphocytes with RUT and QRT (25 μg/ml) prior exposure to 2 Gy gamma radiation resulted in a significant reduction of frequency of micronuclei as compared to the control set of cells evaluated by CBMN assay...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Akin Çayir, Mahmut Coskun, Munevver Coskun, Hayal Cobanoglu
Pesticides widely used in agriculture and other applications have been linked to cancer and other diseases through several potential mechanisms. The goals of this study were to assess DNA damage in lymphocytes by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN), and to measure circulating cell free DNA (ccf-DNA) in the blood of pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers and matched controls living in the same area. CBMN was applied to peripheral blood lymphocyte samples taken at different times (spring and autumn) for each individual...
November 11, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Goran Gajski, Marko Gerić, Višnja Oreščanin, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay was used to evaluate the baseline frequency of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the general population (average age, 38.28 ± 12.83 years) in relation to age, sex, body mass index, seasonal variations (season of sampling, period of sampling and different meteorological parameters) and lifestyle factors (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, exposure to medications and diagnostic radiation, physical activity, and family history of cancer)...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lyda Espitia-Pérez, Juliana da Silva, Pedro Espitia-Pérez, Hugo Brango, Shirley Salcedo-Arteaga, Luz Stella Hoyos-Giraldo, Claudia T de Souza, Johnny F Dias, Dayana Agudelo-Castañeda, Ana Valdés Toscano, Miguel Gómez-Pérez, João A P Henriques
Epidemiological studies indicate that living in proximity to coal mines is correlated with numerous diseases including cancer, and that exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 components could be associated with this phenomenon. However, the understanding of the mechanisms by which PM exerts its adverse effects is still incomplete and comes mainly from studies in occupationally exposed populations. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes assessing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) parameters; (2) identify aneugenic or clastogenic effects in lymphocytes of exposed populations using CREST immunostaining for micronuclei; (3) evaluate multi-elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter; and (4) verify relation between the DNA damage and PM2...
November 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Victoria Jaramillo-García, Cristiano Trindade, Elisiane Lima, Temenouga N Guecheva, Izabel Villela, Wilner Martinez-Lopez, Dione S Corrêa, Alexandre de B F Ferraz, Sidnei Moura, Milton Quintana Sosa, Juliana Da Silva, João Antônio Pegas Henriques
PHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Baccharis trinervis (Lam, Persoon) leaves are used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of high fevers, edema, inflammation, sores and muscle cramps, snakebites and as antiseptic. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of extracts and fractions of B. trinervis from Brazil and Colombia in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, and to examine the mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts (AE) of aerial parts of B...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Carolina Hilgert Jacobsen-Pereira, Claudia Regina Dos Santos, Flora Troina Maraslis, Luisi Pimentel, Ana Júlia Lobo Feijó, Clarice Iomara Silva, Guilherme da Silva de Medeiros, Rodrigo Costa Zeferino, Rozangela Curi Pedrosa, Sharbel Weidner Maluf
The effects of chronic exposure to pesticides can lead to the development of several diseases, including different types of cancer, since the genotoxic and mutagenic capacity of these substances can be observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples from 50 rural workers (41 men and 9 women) exposed to pesticides, 46 controls (20 men and 26 women) from the same city (Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina state, Brazil) and 29 controls (15 men and 14 women) from another city (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil), were evaluated using the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) technique for genetic damage, and the test of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity for the oxidative stress...
October 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Amal A A Alotaibi, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Justin D Davies, Adolf Baumgartner, Diana Anderson
Chemotherapy drugs usually inflict a lethal dose to tumour cells with the consequence that these cells are being killed by cell death. However, each round of chemotherapy also causes damage to normal somatic cells. The DNA cross-linking agent oxaliplatin (OXP), which causes DNA double-strand breaks, and vinflunine (VFN), which disrupts the mitotic spindle, are two of these chemotherapy drugs which were evaluated in vitro using peripheral lymphocytes from colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals to determine any differential response...
October 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
Gordon K Livingston, Maria Escalona, Alvis Foster, Adayabalam S Balajee
Our previous studies demonstrated the cytogenetic effects in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a 34-year-old male patient who received ablative radioactive 131iodine therapy (RIT) on two different occasions in 1992 and 1994. Assessment of RIT-induced chromosomal damage by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) showed the persistence of elevated micronucleus frequency in this patient for more than two decades since the first RIT. Subsequent cytogenetic analysis performed in 2012 revealed both stable and unstable aberrations, whose frequencies were higher than the baseline reported in the literature...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Marcos Felipe de Oliveira Galvão, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Paula Anastácia Ferreira, Sofia Caumo, Pérola de Castro Vasconcellos, Paulo Artaxo, Sandra de Souza Hacon, Deborah Arnsdorff Roubicek, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo de Medeiros
Emissions from burning of biomass in the Amazon region have adverse effects on the environment and human health. Herein, particulate matter (PM) emitted from biomass burning in the Amazon region during two different periods, namely intense and moderate, was investigated. This study focused on: i) organic characterization of nitro- and oxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); ii) assessment of the excess lifetime cancer risk (LCR); and iii) assessment of the in vitro mutagenic effects of extractable organic matter (EOM)...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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