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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164524/the-anchoring-effect-in-metamemory-monitoring
#1
Chunliang Yang, Bukuan Sun, David R Shanks
Judgments about future memory performance (metamemory judgments) are known to be susceptible to illusions and bias. Here we asked whether metamemory judgments are affected, like many other forms of judgment, by numerical anchors. Experiment 1 confirmed previous research showing an effect of informative anchors (e.g., past peer performance) on metamemory monitoring. In four further experiments, we then explored the effects of uninformative anchors. All of the experiments obtained significant anchoring effects on metamemory monitoring; in contrast, the anchors had no effect on recall itself...
November 21, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161973/a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review-of-reactivity-to-judgements-of-learning
#2
Kit S Double, Damian P Birney, Sarah A Walker
Judgements of learning (JoL) are often used in memory research as a means for assessing an individual's metacognitive beliefs about their learning. JoL have been shown to reliably predict performance as well as learning behaviours and decisions . Participants may, however, modify their behaviour in response to performing JoL. There has, however, been little consensus as to the reliability and direction of the effect. We report on a meta-analyses that assesses the evidence that memory performance is reactive to JoL...
November 21, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154617/objectifying-the-subjective-building-blocks-of-metacognitive-experiences-in-conflict-tasks
#3
Laurence Questienne, Anne Atas, Boris Burle, Wim Gevers
Metacognitive appraisals are essential for optimizing our information processing. In conflict tasks, metacognitive appraisals can result from different interrelated features (e.g., motor activity, visual awareness, response speed). Thanks to an original approach combining behavioral and electromyographic measures, the current study objectified the contribution of three features (reaction time [RT], motor hesitation with and without response competition, and visual congruency) to the subjective experience of urge-to-err in a priming conflict task...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150139/visual-working-memory-performance-in-aphantasia
#4
Christianne Jacobs, Dietrich S Schwarzkopf, Juha Silvanto
Aphantasia, i.e., the congenital inability to experience voluntary mental imagery, offers a new model for studying the functional role of mental imagery in (visual) cognition. However, until now, there have been no studies investigating whether aphantasia can be linked to specific impairments in cognitive functioning. Here, we assess visual working memory performance in an aphantasic individual. We find that she performs significantly worse than controls on the most difficult (i.e., requiring the highest degree of precision) visual working memory trials...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149998/computational-complexity-and-human-decision-making
#5
REVIEW
Peter Bossaerts, Carsten Murawski
The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145078/the-efficacy-of-group-metacognitive-therapy-for-children-mct-c-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder-an-open-trial
#6
Barbara Hoff Esbjørn, Nicoline Normann, Bianca Munkebo Christiansen, Marie Louise Reinholdt-Dunne
Metacognitive therapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in adults. Studies have demonstrated that the underlying theoretical model is also supported in children. It has therefore been suggested that metacognitive therapy for children may be effective. Our study is an open trial of metacognitive therapy for children with generalized anxiety as their primary disorder. Therapy was provided in groups. Families were interviewed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule - child/parent versions. They reported on the child's anxiety levels using the Revised Childrens Anxiety and Depression Scale - child/parent versions...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122369/preserved-metacognitive-ability-despite-unilateral-or-bilateral-anterior-prefrontal-resection
#7
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau, Gilles Lafargue
Brodmann area 10 (BA10) is thought to be at the summit of the prefrontal cortex's hierarchical organization. It is widely accepted that metacognitive abilities depend on the structural and functional properties of BA10. Our objective was to assess whether metacognition can be maintained after low-grade glioma surgery with BA10 resection. Three groups of participants were recruited: (i) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex, including BA10 (n = 9); (ii) patients having undergone resection of the right prefrontal cortex but not BA10 (n = 10); and (iii) healthy controls (n = 38)...
November 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122190/the-effect-of-metacognitive-monitoring-feedback-on-performance-in-a-computer-based-training-simulation
#8
Jung Hyup Kim
This laboratory experiment was designed to study the effect of metacognitive monitoring feedback on performance in a computer-based training simulation. According to prior research on metacognition, the accurate checking of learning is a critical part of improving the quality of human performance. However, only rarely have researchers studied the learning effects of the accurate checking of retrospective confidence judgments (RCJs) during a computer-based military training simulation. In this study, we provided participants feedback screens after they had completed a warning task and identification task in a radar monitoring simulation...
February 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121888/comparison-of-formula-and-number-right-scoring-in-undergraduate-medical-training-a-rasch-model-analysis
#9
Dario Cecilio-Fernandes, Harro Medema, Carlos Fernando Collares, Lambert Schuwirth, Janke Cohen-Schotanus, René A Tio
BACKGROUND: Progress testing is an assessment tool used to periodically assess all students at the end-of-curriculum level. Because students cannot know everything, it is important that they recognize their lack of knowledge. For that reason, the formula-scoring method has usually been used. However, where partial knowledge needs to be taken into account, the number-right scoring method is used. Research comparing both methods has yielded conflicting results. As far as we know, in all these studies, Classical Test Theory or Generalizability Theory was used to analyze the data...
November 9, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117022/dementia-decision-making-and-capacity
#10
R Ryan Darby, Bradford C Dickerson
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making...
November 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111863/multicomponent-exercise-intervention-and-metacognition-in-obese-preadolescents-a-randomized-controlled-study
#11
Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu, Yu-Kai Chang
This study examines the effect of a 12-week multicomponent exercise intervention on metacognition among preadolescents with obesity. Seventy-five preadolescents were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent exercise group or a reading control group. An exercise intervention consisting of a jumping rope was utilized to develop multifaceted fitness features, with each session lasting for 75 min and three sessions being conducted per week for 12 weeks. Results revealed significant interactions between group and time point for cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, flexibility, and power, as well as for Tower of London task measures, including total move score, total executive time, and total planning-solving time, with better postintervention performances achieved by the exercise group...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110209/agency-attributions-of-mental-effort-during-self-regulated-learning
#12
Asher Koriat
Previous results suggest that the monitoring of one's own performance during self-regulated learning is mediated by self-agency attributions and that these attributions can be influenced by poststudy effort-framing instructions. These results pose a challenge to the study of issues of self-agency in metacognition when the objects of self-regulation are mental operations rather than motor actions that have observable outcomes. When participants studied items in Experiment 1 under time pressure, they invested greater study effort in the easier items in the list...
November 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108671/metacognitive-reflection-and-insight-therapy-for-early-psychosis-a-preliminary-study-of-a-novel-integrative-psychotherapy
#13
Jenifer L Vohs, Bethany L Leonhardt, Alison V James, Michael M Francis, Alan Breier, Nikki Mehdiyoun, Andrew C Visco, Paul H Lysaker
Poor insight impedes treatment in early phase psychosis (EPP). This manuscript outlines preliminary findings of an investigation of the novel metacognitively oriented integrative psychotherapy, Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy, for individuals with early phase psychosis (MERIT-EP). Twenty adults with EPP and poor insight were randomized to either six months of MERIT-EP or treatment as usual (TAU). Therapists were trained and therapy was successfully delivered under routine, outpatient conditions...
November 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106693/embracing-psychosis-a-cognitive-insight-intervention-improves-personal-narratives-and-meaning-making-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Steffen Moritz, Candelaria I Mahlke, Stefan Westermann, Friederike Ruppelt, Paul H Lysaker, Thomas Bock, Christina Andreou
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with unknown and presumably heterogeneous etiology. While the disorder can have various outcomes, research is predominantly "deficit-oriented" emphasizing the hardship that the disorder inflicts on sufferers as well as their families and society. Beyond symptom reduction, imparting patients with hope and meaning in life is increasingly considered an important treatment target, which may raise self-esteem, and reduce self-stigma and suicidal ideation. The present study compared a psychotherapeutic treatment aimed at improving cognitive insight, individualized metacognitive intervention (MCT+), with an active control in order to elucidate if personal meaning-making and hope can be improved in patients with psychosis across time...
July 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104332/metacognitive-therapy-for-emotional-distress-in-adult-cancer-survivors-a-case-series
#15
Peter L Fisher, Angela Byrne, Peter Salmon
Many adult cancer survivors experience persistent emotional distress after completing cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to test the potential of a brief transdiagnostic psychological intervention-metacognitive therapy (MCT)-in reducing emotional distress in adult cancer survivors. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design with 3- and 6-months follow-up was used to evaluate the effects of MCT in four patients consecutively referred to a psycho-oncology service. Each patient received six 1-h sessions of MCT...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096207/avoidant-personality-disorder-and-social-phobia-does-mindreading-make-the-difference
#16
Giovanni Pellecchia, Fabio Moroni, Livia Colle, Antonio Semerari, Antonino Carcione, Teresa Fera, Donatella Fiore, Giuseppe Nicolò, Roberto Pedone, Michele Procacci
OBJECTIVE: Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is closely related to and partially overlaps with social phobia (SP). There is an ongoing debate as to whether AvPD and SP can be classified as separate and distinct disorders or whether these diagnoses rather reflect different degrees of severity of social anxiety. The hypothesis of this study is that in patients with AvPD and in those with AvPD and comorbid SP both interpersonal functioning and metacognitive abilities (the ability to understand mental states) are more severely impaired than they are in patients with SP only...
September 28, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095681/randomized-trial-of-conquerfear-a-novel-theoretically-based-psychosocial-intervention-for-fear-of-cancer-recurrence
#17
Phyllis N Butow, Jane Turner, Jemma Gilchrist, Louise Sharpe, Allan Ben Smith, Joanna E Fardell, Stephanie Tesson, Rachel O'Connell, Afaf Girgis, Val J Gebski, Rebecca Asher, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Melanie L Bell, Karina Grunewald Zola, Jane Beith, Belinda Thewes
Purpose Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is prevalent, distressing, and long lasting. This study evaluated the impact of a theoretically/empirically based intervention (ConquerFear) on FCR. Methods Eligible survivors had curable breast or colorectal cancer or melanoma, had completed treatment (not including endocrine therapy) 2 months to 5 years previously, were age > 18 years, and had scores above the clinical cutoff on the FCR Inventory (FCRI) severity subscale at screening. Participants were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to either five face-to-face sessions of ConquerFear (attention training, metacognitions, acceptance/mindfulness, screening behavior, and values-based goal setting) or an attention control (Taking-it-Easy relaxation therapy)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094989/the-efficacy-of-learners-testing-choices
#18
Jonathan G Tullis, Joshua L Fiechter, Aaron S Benjamin
Practice tests provide large mnemonic benefits over restudying, but learners judge practice tests as less effective than restudying. Consequently, learners infrequently utilize testing when controlling their study and often choose to be tested only on well-learned items. In 5 experiments, we examined whether learners' choices about testing and restudying are effective for improving subsequent memory performance. Learners studied a list of word pairs and chose which items to restudy and which to test. Some of learners' choices were honored (by assigning those items to the chosen activity) and some of learners' choices were dishonored (by assigning those items to the opposite study activity)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091823/do-people-with-psychosis-engage-in-unhelpful-metacognitive-coping-strategies-a-test-of-the-validity-of-the-cognitive-attentional-syndrome-cas-in-a-clinical-sample
#19
Rachel Sellers, Adrian Wells, Sophie Parker, Anthony P Morrison
The Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model assumes that unhelpful metacognitive coping strategies characterised by worry, rumination, threat monitoring and attempts to control thoughts, have a central role in psychological disorders and prolonged negative affect. Collectively, these strategies constitute the Cognitive Attentional Syndrome (CAS). This research aims to test whether a questionnaire designed to capture these responses (the CAS-1: Wells, 2009, p. 268) is a valid assessment tool in clinical psychosis, and to test whether activation of the CAS is associated with positive and negative outcomes...
October 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091237/a-qualitative-analysis-of-metacognition-in-simulation
#20
Jayne M Josephsen
BACKGROUND: Metacognition enables understanding, analysis, and regulation of one's cognition when engaged in learning. Metacognition, epistemic questioning, and self-regulated learning are foundational to the development of critical reasoning and self-reflective practice. METHOD: This pilot qualitative study used observations and interviews to identify metacognitive strategies used by a convenience sample of nursing students prior to and during simulation and debriefing...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
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