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Timothy L Dunn, Connor Gaspar, Evan F Risko
Based on a recent metacognitive account, cognitive effort is the result of an inferential evaluation made over explicitly available cues. Following from this account, we present here a pre-registered experiment that tested the specific hypothesis that explicit awareness of cues that are aligned with cognitive demand is a prerequisite in avoiding effortful lines of action. We attempted to modulate levels of effort avoidance behavior by introducing an incentive (between-subjects) to monitor two lines of action that, unbeknownst to individuals, varied in the probability of a task switch...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Natasha E Garcia-Willingham, Abbey R Roach, Edward J Kasarskis, Suzanne C Segerstrom
OBJECTIVE: Disease progression varies widely among patients with motor neuron disease (MND). Patients with MND and coexisting dementia have shorter survival. However, implications of mild cognitive and behavioral difficulties are unclear. The present study examined the relative contribution of executive functioning and self-regulation difficulties on survival over a 6-year period among patients with MND, who scored largely within normal limits on cognitive and behavioral indices. METHODS: Patients with MND (N=37, age=59...
May 16, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Daniel C McFarlane, Alexa K Doig, James A Agutter, Lara M Brewer, Noah D Syroid, Ranjeev Mittu
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the potential for improving patient safety by introducing a metacognitive attention aid that enables clinicians to more easily access and use existing alarm/alert information. It is hypothesized that this introduction will enable clinicians to easily triage alarm/alert events and quickly recognize emergent opportunities to adapt care delivery. The resulting faster response to clinically important alarms/alerts has the potential to prevent adverse events and reduce healthcare costs...
2018: PloS One
Erik Hessen, Kristin Å Alfstad, Halvor Torgersen, Morten I Lossius
Objectives: Executive problems in children and youth with epilepsy influence their ability to handle important aspects of daily life activities. The present study sought to explore factors associated with executive problems for patients with epilepsy in this age group. Methods: The cohort consisted of 97 consecutive patients at the National Centre for Epilepsy in Norway, aged 10-19 years, with focal or genetic generalized epilepsy. All underwent tests of executive functions (D-KEFS), the Behavior Rating Inventory for Executive Function (BRIEF), and screening for psychiatric symptoms, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jun Jiang, Camile M Correa, Jesse Geerts, Simon van Gaal
Cognitive control over conflict, mediated by the prefrontal cortex, is an important skill for successful decision-making. Although it has been shown that cognitive control may operate unconsciously, it has recently been proposed that control operations may be driven by the metacognitive awareness of conflict, e.g. arising from the feeling of task difficulty or the ease of action selection, and therefore crucially depends on conflict awareness. Behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) data are presented from 64 subjects performing a masked priming paradigm to test this hypothesis...
May 8, 2018: NeuroImage
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Objectifying the subjective: Building blocks of metacognitive experiences in conflict tasks" by Laurence Questienne, Anne Atas, Boris Burle and Wim Gevers ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 2018[Jan], Vol 147[1], 125-131). In this article, the second sentence of the second paragraph of the Data Processing section is incorrect due to a production error. The second sentence should read as follows: RTs slower/shorter than Median 3 Median Absolute Deviations computed by participant were removed...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
E R Palser, A Fotopoulou, E Pellicano, J M Kilner
Anxiety is a major associated feature of autism spectrum disorders. The incidence of anxiety symptoms in this population has been associated with altered interoceptive processing. Here, we investigated whether recent findings of impaired interoceptive accuracy (quantified using heartbeat detection tasks) and exaggerated interoceptive sensibility (subjective sensitivity to internal sensations on self-report questionnaires) in autistic adults, can be extended into a school-age sample of children and adolescents (n = 75)...
May 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
Eugene Ruby, Brian Maniscalco, Megan A K Peters
Rounis, Maniscalco, Rothwell, Passingham, and Lau (2010) reported that stimulation of prefrontal cortex impairs visual metacognition. Bor, Schwartzman, Barrett, and Seth (2017) attempted to replicate this result, but adopted an experimental design that reduced their chanceof obtaining positive findings. Despite that, their results appeared initially consistent with those of Rounis et al., but they subsequently claimed it was necessary to discard ∼30% of their subjects, after which they reported a null result...
April 30, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Jesse C Niebaum, Nicolas Chevalier, Ryan M Guild, Yuko Munakata
Young adults adaptively coordinate their behavior to avoid demands placed on cognitive control. We investigated how this adaptive coordination develops by having 6-7- and 11-12-year-olds and young adults complete a demand selection task, in which participants could select between two tasks that varied in cognitive control demands via differences in rule switch frequency. Adults and older children exhibited significant preference for selecting the less demanding task, as well as a metacognitive signal guiding adaptive demand avoidance behavior across a variety of behavioral and self-report assessments...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Bonnie M Hagerty, Melissa A Bathish, Emily Kuchman
Self-regulation is a strategy for self-management of depression. Study aims were to (1) describe development of an intervention based on metacognition and self-regulation, (2) test intervention feasibility and utility, and (3) determine its effectiveness in reducing depressive symptoms. The Self-Regulated Illness Management of Depression intervention was developed and taught to 22 participants with recurrent depression. There was no attrition 6 months post intervention. At 6 months, there was a significant decrease in depressive symptoms ( M = 10...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Medha Shekhar, Dobromir Rahnev
Visual metacognition depends on regions within the prefrontal cortex. Two areas in particular have been repeatedly implicated: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). However, it is still unclear what the function of each of these areas is and how they differ from each other. To establish the specific roles of DLPFC and aPFC in metacognition, we employed online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally interfere with their functioning during confidence generation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Joseph R Pauszek, Bradley S Gibson
Here we propose a rational analysis account of voluntary symbolic attention control-the Least Costs Hypothesis (LCH)-that construes voluntary control as a decision between intentional cue use and unguided search. Consistent with the LCH, the present study showed that this decision is sensitive to variations in cue processing efficiency. In Experiment 1, observers demonstrated a robust preference for using "easy-to-process" arrow cues but not "hard-to-process" spatial word cues to satisfy an easy visual search goal; Experiment 2 showed that this preference persisted even when the temporal costs of cue processing were neutralized...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Henrik Nordahl, Adrian Wells
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for Social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, factors additional to those emphasised in CBT are the primary cause of psychological disorder according to the metacognitive model. Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) aims to target a perseverative thinking style named the cognitive attentional syndrome and its underlying metacognitive beliefs (beliefs about cognition). The present study aimed to explore the effects of generic MCT for SAD. Treatment related effects were evaluated using direct replication single case (A-B) methodology across three patients with different subtypes of SAD; performance type, generalised and generalised plus avoidant personality disorder, representing increasing SAD severity/complexity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Michał Folwarczny, Magdalena C Kaczmarek, Dariusz Doliński, Remigiusz Szczepanowski
This research investigated the cognitive mechanisms that underlie impairments in human reasoning triggered by the emotional see-saw technique. It has previously been stated that such manipulation is effective as it presumably induces a mindless state and cognitive deficits in compliant individuals. Based on the dual-system architecture of reasoning (system 2) and affective decision-making (system 1), we challenged the previous theoretical account by indicating that the main source of compliance is impairment of the meta-reasoning system when rapid affective changes occur...
April 26, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Stella Fragkiadaki, Ion N Beratis, Dionysia Kontaxopoulou, Dimosthenis Pavlou, Nikolaos Andronas, Andrew Papanicolaou, Alexandra Economou, George Yannis, Sokratis G Papageorgiou
INTRODUCTION: According to latest research, a percentage of cognitively impaired drivers fail to recognize their areas of weakness and overestimate their driving abilities. METHODS: Twenty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 26 healthy elderly drivers participated in a driving simulator study. After the driving assessment, participants were asked to self-evaluate their performance in comparison with what they considered as average for people of similar age and educational level...
April 26, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Steven de Jong, Rozanne van Donkersgoed, Selwyn Renard, Sarah Carter, Hein Bokern, Paul Lysaker, Mark van der Gaag, André Aleman, Gerdina Hendrika Maria Pijnenborg
It has been proposed that mixed findings in studies investigating social cognition as a risk factor for violence in psychosis may be explained by utilizing a framework distinguishing between social-cognitive tests which measure relatively more basic operations (e.g. facial affect recognition) and measures of more complex operations (mentalizing, metacognition). The current study investigated which social cognitive and metacognitive processes are related to a violent history over and above illness-related deficits...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Indrit Sinanaj, Rebekah Blakemore, Julian Klug, Yann Cojan, Silvio Galli, Alexandre Berney, Selma Aybek, Patrik Vuilleumier
Motor conversion disorder (CD) entails genuine disturbances in the subjective experience of patients who maintain they are unable to perform a motor function, despite lack of apparent neurological damage. Abilities by which individuals assess their own capacities during performance in a task are called metacognitive, and distinctive impairment of such abilities is observed in several disorders of self-awareness such as blindsight and anosognosia. In CD, previous research has focused on the recruitment of motor and emotional brain systems, generally linking symptoms to altered limbic-motor interactions; however, metacognitive function has not been studied to our knowledge...
April 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Bethany L Leonhardt, Paul H Lysaker, Jenifer L Vohs, Alison V James, Louanne W Davis
BACKGROUND: Anger experience and expression are a common issue in those experiencing PTSD. However, it remains unclear what variables affect anger and its expression in PTSD. AIMS: To explore the relationships of synthetic forms of metacognition and metacognitive beliefs with anger experience and expression in PTSD, independent of the effects hyperarousal and depression symptoms. METHOD: Participants were 51 veterans with diagnosed with PTSD...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Monika Undorf, Malte F Zimdahl
Words printed in a larger 48-point font are judged to be more memorable than words printed in a smaller 18-point font, although font size does not affect actual memory. To clarify the basis of this font size effect on metamemory and memory, 4 experiments investigated how presenting words in 48 (Experiment 1) or 4 (Experiments 2 to 4) font sizes between 6 point and 500 point affected judgments of learning (JOLs) and recall performance. Response times in lexical decision tasks were used to measure perceptual fluency...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Alfredo Ardila
BACKGROUND: Since the mid 19th century, cognitive and behavioral neurosciences have attempted to find the neurological bases of intellectual abilities. During the early 20th century the psychometric concept of "intelligence" was coined; and toward the end of the 20th century the neuropsychological concept of "executive functions" was introduced. Controversies, however, remain about the unity or heterogeneity of so-called executive functions. METHODS: It is proposed that two major executive functions could be separated: metacognitive -or intelectual- and emotional/motivational...
May 2018: Psicothema
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