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Metacognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632013/task-demands-in-osces-influence-learning-strategies
#1
Alexandre Lafleur, Jonathan Laflamme, Jimmie Leppink, Luc Côté
THEORY: Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis")...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630519/strategies-for-improving-learner-metacognition-in-health-professional-education
#2
REVIEW
Melissa S Medina, Ashley N Castleberry, Adam M Persky
Metacognition is an essential skill in critical thinking and self-regulated, lifelong learning. It is important for learners to have skills in metacognition because they are used to monitor and regulate reasoning, comprehension, and problem-solving, which are fundamental components/outcomes of pharmacy curricula. Instructors can help learners develop metacognitive skills within the classroom and experiential setting by carefully designing learning activities within courses and the curriculum. These skills are developed through intentional questioning, modeling techniques, and reflection...
May 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628763/patients-perspectives-on-treatment-with-metacognitive-training-for-depression-d-mct-results-on-acceptability
#3
Lena Jelinek, Steffen Moritz, Marit Hauschildt
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of how patients perceive and evaluate treatment for depression is scarce. Because dropout rates are high among individuals in treatment for depression, it is necessary to expand the focus of research to patients' perspectives on the treatment they receive. The aim of the two studies presented was to evaluate patient acceptance of Metacognitive Training for Depression (D-MCT), a highly standardized group intervention. METHODS: Acceptability was evaluated in an open case series (Study 1, N = 70) and a randomized controlled trial (RCT; Study 2, N = 84)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625355/meta-reasoning-monitoring-and-control-of-thinking-and-reasoning
#4
REVIEW
Rakefet Ackerman, Valerie A Thompson
Meta-Reasoning refers to the processes that monitor the progress of our reasoning and problem-solving activities and regulate the time and effort devoted to them. Monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of certainty or uncertainty about how well a process has, or will, unfold. These feelings are based on heuristic cues, which are not necessarily reliable. Nevertheless, we rely on these feelings of (un)certainty to regulate our mental effort. Most metacognitive research has focused on memorization and knowledge retrieval, with little attention paid to more complex processes, such as reasoning and problem solving...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621083/metacognition-in-speech-and-language-therapy-for-children-with-social-pragmatic-communication-disorders-implications-for-a-theory-of-therapy
#5
Jacqueline Gaile, Catherine Adams
BACKGROUND: Metacognition is a significant component of complex interventions for children who have developmental language disorders. Research into how metacognition operates in the content or process of developmental language therapy delivery is limited. Identification and description of proposed active therapy components, such as metacognition, may contribute to our understanding of how to deliver complex communication interventions in an optimal manner. AIMS: To analyse aspects of metacognition during therapy derived from a manualized speech and language intervention (the Social Communication Intervention Programme-SCIP) as delivered to children who have social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD) and to examine the dynamic process of delivering therapy...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621035/cyberchondria-examining-relations-with-problematic-internet-use-and-metacognitive-beliefs
#6
Thomas A Fergus, Marcantonio M Spada
Cyberchondria refers to the repeated use of the Internet to search for health-related information, which leads to negative consequences. This two-part study provides the first known examination of how cyberchondria relates to (a) problematic Internet use and (b) metacognitive beliefs. Participants were U.S. community adults who reported using the Internet to search for health-related information (Study 1: N = 337, Study 2: N = 260). In Study 1, cyberchondria shared a strong association with problematic Internet use, and that association was unaccounted for by age, gender, current reported medical status, negative affect, or health anxiety...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620338/worry-and-metacognitions-as-predictors-of-anxiety-symptoms-a-prospective-study
#7
Truls Ryum, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, Odin Hjemdal, Roger Hagen, Joar Øveraas Halvorsen, Stian Solem
Both worry and metacognitive beliefs have been found to be related to the development of anxiety, but metacognitive theory (Wells and Matthews, 1994; Wells, 2009) suggest that metacognitive beliefs may play a more prominent role. The aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether worry, metacognitive beliefs or the interaction between worry and metacognitive beliefs, were the best predictor of anxiety over time, utilizing a longitudinal, prospective study design. An undergraduate student sample (N = 190) was assessed on measures of worry (PSWQ), metacognitive beliefs (MCQ-30) and anxiety (BAI) at three points in time over a 7-month period...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618314/the-metacognitions-about-self-critical-rumination-questionnaire
#8
Daniel C Kolubinski, Ana V Nikčević, Jacqueline A Lawrence, Marcantonio M Spada
BACKGROUND: Self-criticism refers to a series of persistent and negative self-judgements, often involuntary, that an individual makes about themselves. Recent research has explored the possibility that self-criticism can lead to a more perseverative style of thinking called self-critical rumination. There is evidence that self-critical rumination may be a separate construct from other forms of rumination, such as depressive rumination and post-event processing. Research has indicated that metacognitions, beliefs that individuals have about their internal experiences and how to control them, may play a role in self-critical rumination...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618018/executive-functions-memory-and-social-cognitive-deficits-and-recovery-in-chronic-alcoholism-a-critical-review-to-inform-future-research
#9
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan
Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision-making, success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions...
June 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617373/-a-psychological-content-of-social-phobia-syndrome
#10
O A Sagalakova, D V Truevtsev, I Ya Stoyanova
AIM: To perform a psychological analysis of social phobia syndrome. The subject area of research is the structure of mental activity and behavior in social activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 32 patients with symptoms of social phobia (ICD-10 F40.1) and 29 healthy people (controls). A complex of psychological methods (questionnaires; pathopsychological experiment) was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Early maladaptive schemes and a tendency to mental rigidity can be a premorbid basis of the syndrome...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616824/detecting-and-identifying-offset-gaze
#11
Tarryn Balsdon, Colin W G Clifford
A number of experiments have demonstrated that observers can accurately identify stimuli that they fail to detect (Rollman and Nachmias, 1972; Harris and Fahle, 1995; Allik et al. 1982, 2014). Using a 2x2AFC double judgements procedure, we demonstrated an analogous pattern of performance in making judgements about the direction of eye gaze. Participants were shown two faces in succession: one with direct gaze and one with gaze offset to the left or right. We found that they could identify the direction of gaze offset (left/right) better than they could detect which face contained the offset gaze...
June 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615651/cognitive-and-metacognitive-mechanisms-of-change-in-metacognitive-training-for-depression
#12
Lena Jelinek, Niels Van Quaquebeke, Steffen Moritz
Metacognitive Training for Depression (D-MCT), a low-threshold group intervention, has been shown to improve depressive symptoms. It aims at the reduction of depression by changing dysfunctional cognitive as well as metacognitive beliefs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the mechanisms of change in D-MCT are cognitive (and thus primarily concern the content of cognition) or metacognitive in nature. Eighty-four outpatients with depression were included in a randomized controlled trial comparing D-MCT to an active control intervention...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606061/a-pilot-study-on-feasibility-acceptance-and-effectiveness-of-metacognitive-oriented-social-skills-training-in-schizophrenia
#13
Felix Inchausti, Nancy V García-Poveda, Alejandro Ballesteros-Prados, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Sergio Sánchez-Reales, Javier Prado-Abril, José Antonio Aldaz-Armendáriz, Joe Mole
BACKGROUND: In preparation for a randomized controlled trial, a pilot study was conducted to investigate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a psychotherapy group based on metacognitive-oriented social skills training (MOSST). METHODS: Twelve outpatients with schizophrenia were offered 16 group-sessions of MOSST. Effect sizes were calculated for changes from baseline to treatment end for both psychosocial functioning and metacognitive abilities measured by the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) and the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A) respectively...
June 12, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603848/how-restudy-decisions-affect-overall-comprehension-for-seventh-grade-students
#14
Keith W Thiede, Joshua S Redford, Jennifer Wiley, Thomas D Griffin
BACKGROUND: Self-regulated learning requires accurate monitoring and effective regulation of study. Little is known about how effectively younger readers regulate their study. AIMS: We examined how decisions about which text to restudy affect overall comprehension for seventh-grade students. In addition to a Participant's Choice condition where students were allowed to pick texts for restudy on their own, we compared learning gains in two other conditions in which texts were selected for them...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602116/rehabilitation-goal-setting-with-community-dwelling-adults-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-theoretical-framework-derived-from-clinicians-reflections-on-practice
#15
Sarah Prescott, Jennifer Fleming, Emmah Doig
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore clinicians' experiences of implementing goal setting with community dwelling clients with acquired brain injury, to develop a goal setting practice framework. METHOD: Grounded theory methodology was employed. Clinicians, representing six disciplines across seven services, were recruited and interviewed until theoretical saturation was achieved. A total of 22 clinicians were interviewed. RESULTS: A theoretical framework was developed to explain how clinicians support clients to actively engage in goal setting in routine practice...
June 11, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599165/modelling-the-contribution-of-negative-affect-outcome-expectancies-and-metacognitions-to-cigarette-use-and-nicotine-dependence
#16
Ana V Nikčević, Leyla Alma, Claudia Marino, Daniel Kolubinski, Adviye Esin Yılmaz-Samancı, Gabriele Caselli, Marcantonio M Spada
BACKGROUND: Both positive smoking outcome expectancies and metacognitions about smoking have been found to be positively associated with cigarette use and nicotine dependence. The goal of this study was to test a model including nicotine dependence and number of daily cigarettes as dependent variables, anxiety and depression as independent variables, and smoking outcome expectancies and metacognitions about smoking as mediators between the independents and dependents. METHODS: The sample consisted of 524 self-declared smokers who scored 3 or above on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND: Uysal et al...
June 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593830/the-development-and-evaluation-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-negative-beliefs-about-post-event-processing-scale
#17
Hayley Rodriguez, Kellie Kissell, Lloyd Lucas, Brian Fisak
BACKGROUND: Although negative beliefs have been found to be associated with worry symptoms and depressive rumination, negative beliefs have yet to be examined in relation to post-event processing and social anxiety symptoms. AIMS: The purpose of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Negative Beliefs about Post-Event Processing Questionnaire (NB-PEPQ). METHOD: A large, non-referred undergraduate sample completed the NB-PEPQ along with validation measures, including a measure of post-event processing and social anxiety symptoms...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580229/mindfulness-reduces-reactivity-to-food-cues-underlying-mechanisms-and-applications-in-daily-life
#18
REVIEW
Mike Keesman, Henk Aarts, Michael Häfner, Esther K Papies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mindfulness-based interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to facilitate healthy eating. We suggest that the decentering component of mindfulness, which is the metacognitive insight that all experiences are impermanent, plays an especially important role in such interventions. To facilitate the application of decentering, we address its psychological mechanism to reduce reactivity to food cues, proposing that it makes thoughts and simulations in response to food cues less compelling...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575231/everyday-multitasking-abilities-in-older-hiv-adults-neurobehavioral-correlates-and-the-mediating-role-of-metacognition
#19
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, S P Woods, A Umlauf, J C Scott, D J Moore
Objective: The prevalence of older adults living with HIV is rising, as is their risk for everyday functioning problems associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Multitasking, the ability to maintain and carry out subgoals in support of a larger goal, is a multidimensional skill ubiquitous during most real-life tasks and associated with prefrontal networks that are vulnerable in HIV. Understanding factors associated with multitasking will improve characterization of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
May 31, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562209/the-phenomenal-contents-and-neural-correlates-of-spontaneous-thoughts-across-wakefulness-nrem-sleep-and-rem-sleep
#20
Lampros Perogamvros, Benjamin Baird, Mitja Seibold, Brady Riedner, Melanie Boly, Giulio Tononi
Thoughts occur during wake as well as during dreaming sleep. Using experience sampling combined with high-density EEG, we investigated the phenomenal qualities and neural correlates of spontaneously occurring thoughts across wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and REM sleep. Across all states, thoughts were associated with activation of a region of the midcingulate cortex. Thoughts during wakefulness additionally involved a medial prefrontal region, which was associated with metacognitive thoughts during wake...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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