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Metacognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532359/visual-confidence
#1
Pascal Mamassian
Visual confidence refers to an observer's ability to judge the accuracy of her perceptual decisions. Even though confidence judgments have been recorded since the early days of psychophysics, only recently have they been recognized as essential for a deeper understanding of visual perception. The reluctance to study visual confidence may have come in part from obtaining convincing experimental evidence in favor of metacognitive abilities rather than just perceptual sensitivity. Some effort has thus been dedicated to offer different experimental paradigms to study visual confidence in humans and nonhuman animals...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523991/response-to-socially-mediated-metacognition-for-understanding-science-of-learning-in-medical-education
#2
Holly C Gooding, Elizabeth Armstrong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522984/applicability-of-the-compensatory-encoding-model-in-foreign-language-reading-an-investigation-with-chinese-college-english-language-learners
#3
Feifei Han
While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521557/metacognitive-verb-production-in-adolescents-the-link-to-complex-syntax
#4
Marilyn A Nippold, Laura M Vigeland, Megan W Frantz-Kaspar
Metacognitive verbs (MCVs) such as believe, know and think allow a speaker to describe the thoughts, feelings and perspectives of the self and others. As such, these words reflect the speaker's awareness of differing mental events and activities, or Theory of Mind (ToM). This study investigated the use of MCVs in adolescents with typical language development in relation to the production of complex sentences. It was of interest to determine the frequency with which adolescents used MCVs and to explore the links between MCVs and different types of subordinate clauses...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515551/combining-metacognitive-strategies-with-traditional-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-case-illustration
#5
Paulomi M Sudhir, Systla Rukmini, Mahendra Prakash Sharma
CONTEXT: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a challenging clinical condition to manage. Recent psychological models of GAD emphasis on the need to focus on metacognitive processes in addition to symptom reduction. AIMS: We examined the application of metacognitive strategies in addition to conventional cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) techniques in an adult patient with GAD. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: Asingle case design with pre- and post-assessments on clinician-rated scales was adopted...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504530/framing-affects-scale-usage-for-judgments-of-learning-not-confidence-in-memory
#6
Benjamin D England, Francesca R Ortegren, Michael J Serra
Framing metacognitive judgments of learning (JOLs) in terms of the likelihood of forgetting rather than remembering consistently yields a counterintuitive outcome: The mean of participants' forget-framed JOLs is often higher (after reverse-scoring) than the mean of their remember-framed JOLs, suggesting greater confidence in memory. In the present experiments, we tested 2 competing explanations for this pattern of results. The optimistic-anchoring hypothesis suggests that forget-framed JOLs are associated with greater optimism about memory than are remember-framed JOLs, which leads to their greater magnitude...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503157/a-review-of-self-regulated-learning-six-models-and-four-directions-for-research
#7
REVIEW
Ernesto Panadero
Self-regulated learning (SRL) includes the cognitive, metacognitive, behavioral, motivational, and emotional/affective aspects of learning. It is, therefore, an extraordinary umbrella under which a considerable number of variables that influence learning (e.g., self-efficacy, volition, cognitive strategies) are studied within a comprehensive and holistic approach. For that reason, SRL has become one of the most important areas of research within educational psychology. In this paper, six models of SRL are analyzed and compared; that is, Zimmerman; Boekaerts; Winne and Hadwin; Pintrich; Efklides; and Hadwin, Järvelä and Miller...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503028/the-unintentional-procrastination-scale
#8
Bruce A Fernie, Zinnia Bharucha, Ana V Nikčević, Marcantonio M Spada
Procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of a task or decision and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that procrastination could be delineated into two domains: intentional and unintentional. In this two-study paper, we aimed to develop a measure of unintentional procrastination (named the Unintentional Procrastination Scale or the 'UPS') and test whether this would be a stronger marker of psychopathology than intentional and general procrastination...
2017: Journal of Rational-emotive and Cognitive-behavior Therapy: RET
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499257/distinguishing-the-cognitive-processes-of-mindfulness-developing-a-standardised-mindfulness-technique-for-use-in-longitudinal-randomised-control-trials
#9
REVIEW
Ben Isbel, Mathew J Summers
A capacity model of mindfulness is adopted to differentiate the cognitive faculty of mindfulness from the metacognitive processes required to cultivate this faculty in mindfulness training. The model provides an explanatory framework incorporating both the developmental progression from focussed attention to open monitoring styles of mindfulness practice, along with the development of equanimity and insight. A standardised technique for activating these processes without the addition of secondary components is then introduced...
May 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498982/using-self-assessment-to-develop-metacognition-and-self-regulated-learners
#10
Amy Siegesmund
Student success is too often challenged by a lack of metacognition and ability to self-regulate learning. This commentary argues that the use of self-assessment to increase student metacognition positively impacts student learning and self-regulation. In addition, several strategies for incorporating self-assessment will be presented.
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496274/student-self-assessment-and-faculty-assessment-of-performance-in-an-interprofessional-error-disclosure-simulation-training-program
#11
Therese I Poirier, Junvie Pailden, Ray Jhala, Katie Ronald, Miranda Wilhelm, Jingyang Fan
Objectives. To conduct a prospective evaluation for effectiveness of an error disclosure assessment tool and video recordings to enhance student learning and metacognitive skills while assessing the IPEC competencies. Design. The instruments for assessing performance (planning, communication, process, and team dynamics) in interprofessional error disclosure were developed. Student self-assessment of performance before and after viewing the recordings of their encounters were obtained. Faculty used a similar instrument to conduct real-time assessments...
April 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495935/metacognition-in-upper-division-biology-students-awareness-does-not-always-lead-to-control
#12
Kathryn Morris Dye, Julie Dangremond Stanton
Students with awareness and control of their own thinking can learn more and perform better than students who are not metacognitive. Metacognitive regulation is how you control your thinking in order to learn. It includes the skill of evaluation, which is the ability to appraise your approaches to learning and then modify future plans based on those appraisals. We asked when, why, and how upper-division biology students evaluated their approaches to learning. We used self-evaluation assignments to identify students with potentially high metacognition and conducted semistructured interviews to collect rich qualitative data from them...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495934/how-should-i-study-for-the-exam-self-regulated-learning-strategies-and-achievement-in-introductory-biology
#13
Amanda J Sebesta, Elena Bray Speth
In college introductory science courses, students are challenged with mastering large amounts of disciplinary content while developing as autonomous and effective learners. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the process of setting learning goals, monitoring progress toward them, and applying appropriate study strategies. SRL characterizes successful, "expert" learners, and develops with time and practice. In a large, undergraduate introductory biology course, we investigated: 1) what SRL strategies students reported using the most when studying for exams, 2) which strategies were associated with higher achievement and with grade improvement on exams, and 3) what study approaches students proposed to use for future exams...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490290/high-confidence-in-falsely-recognizing-prototypical-faces
#14
Cristina Sampaio, Victoria Reinke, Jeffrey Mathews, Alexandra Swart, Stephen Wallinger
We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes, thus it was contingent on the nature of the items used...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489001/noradrenaline-blockade-specifically-enhances-metacognitive-performance
#15
Tobias U Hauser, Micah Allen, Nina Purg, Michael Moutoussis, Geraint Rees, Raymond J Dolan
Impairments in metacognition, the ability to accurately report one's performance, are common in patients with psychiatric disorders, where a putative neuromodulatory dysregulation provides the rationale for pharmacological interventions. Previously, we have shown how unexpected arousal modulates metacognition (Allen et al., 2016). Here, we report a double-blind, placebo-controlled, study that examined specific effects of noradrenaline and dopamine on both metacognition and perceptual decision making. Signal theoretic analysis of a global motion discrimination task with adaptive performance staircasing revealed that noradrenergic blockade (40 mg propranolol) significantly increased metacognitive performance (type-II area under the curve, AUROC2), but had no impact on perceptual decision making performance...
May 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487626/continuous-auditory-feedback-of-eye-movements-an-exploratory-study-toward-improving-oculomotor-control
#16
Eric O Boyer, Arthur Portron, Frederic Bevilacqua, Jean Lorenceau
As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485704/the-power-of-suggestion-posthypnotically-induced-changes-in-the-temporal-binding-of-intentional-action-outcomes
#17
Peter Lush, Emilie A Caspar, Axel Cleeremans, Patrick Haggard, Pedro Alexandre Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Zoltan Dienes
The sense of agency is the experience of initiating and controlling one's voluntary actions and their outcomes. Intentional binding (i.e., when voluntary actions and their outcomes are perceived to occur closer together in time than involuntary actions and their outcomes) is increased in intentional action but requires no explicit reflection on agency. The reported experience of involuntariness is central to hypnotic responding, during which strategic action is experienced as involuntary. We report reduced intentional binding in a hypnotically induced experience of involuntariness, providing an objective correlate of reports of involuntariness...
May 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485659/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-treat-impaired-learning-and-memory-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-self-gen-trial
#18
Yael Goverover, Nancy Chiaravalloti, Helen Genova, John DeLuca
BACKGROUND: Difficulties in learning and memory are among the most persistent and frequently reported cognitive symptoms in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of the self-generation learning program ( self-GEN trial) that consist of behavioral intervention sessions, teaching self-generation technique while using metacognitive strategies to improve learning and memory abilities in persons with MS. Additionally, the treatment aimed to address generalization of the treatment to activities of daily living...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483271/-mindful-neuropsychology-mindfulness-based-cognitive-remediation
#19
E Bulzacka, S Lavault, A Pelissolo, C Bagnis Isnard
OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction...
May 5, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479981/is-behavioural-flexibility-evidence-of-cognitive-complexity-how-evolution-can-inform-comparative-cognition
#20
Irina Mikhalevich, Russell Powell, Corina Logan
Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to 'deflationary' challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer putatively simpler explanations of equal explanatory power...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
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