keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Metacognition

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352540/insight-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-relationship-with-behavior-mood-and-perceived-quality-of-life-underlying-causes-and-emerging-treatments
#1
Paul H Lysaker, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt, Scott Phelps, Jenifer L Vohs
Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348407/error-related-cardiac-response-as-information-for-visibility-judgements
#2
Marta Łukowska, Michał Sznajder, Michał Wierzchoń
Interoception provides information about the saliency of external or internal sensory events and thus may inform perceptual decision-making. Error in performance is an example of a motivationally significant internal event that evokes autonomic nervous system response resembling the orienting response: heart rate deceleration, increased skin conductance response, and pupil dilation. Here, we investigate whether error-related cardiac activity may serve as a source of information when making metacognitive judgments in an orientation discrimination backward masking task...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336688/beliefs-about-memory-as-a-mediator-of-relations-between-metacognitive-beliefs-and-actual-memory-performance
#3
Metehan Irak, Dicle Çapan
The goal of the present study was to investigate relationships between personal beliefs about memory, metacognitive beliefs, and actual memory performance. One hundred thirty-seven participants' (aged 20 to 60 years) metacognitive beliefs were measured using the Metacognition Questionnaire (MCQ-30), memory beliefs were measured using the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (PBMI), and an episodic memory task was used to measure actual memory performance, memory predictions, and postdictions. Younger adults had lower scores on the positive beliefs subfactor of the MCQ-30, higher scores on retrospective change and control subfactors of the PBMI, and outperformed middle-aged adults on recall and recall postdiction...
January 16, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330595/consistency-not-speed-temporal-regularity-as-a-metacognitive-cue
#4
Lisa M Stevenson, Richard A Carlson
We examined the hypothesis that skilled performance is monitored on the basis of fluency, where fluency is operationally defined as temporal regularity or rhythmicity rather than speed. Since error is often associated with variable timing, we tested the possibility that people use varied timing as a metacognitive cue. Using a sequential counting task, which may be representative of the broader class of skilled, multi-step tasks, we found that shifting between irregular and regular timing led to greater confidence ratings when the timing associated with the task was regular...
January 12, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327336/simultaneous-utilization-of-multiple-cues-in-judgments-of-learning
#5
Monika Undorf, Anke Söllner, Arndt Bröder
There is much evidence that metacognitive judgments, such as people's predictions of their future memory performance (judgments of learning, JOLs), are inferences based on cues and heuristics. However, relatively little is known about whether and when people integrate multiple cues in one metacognitive judgment or focus on a single cue without integrating further information. The current set of experiments systematically addressed whether and to what degree people integrate multiple extrinsic and intrinsic cues in JOLs...
January 11, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320929/metacognitive-reflection-as-a-moderator-of-attitude-strength-versus-attitude-bolstering-implications-for-attitude-similarity-and-attraction
#6
Vanessa Sawicki, Duane T Wegener
"Strong" attitudes often have greater impact than "weak" attitudes. However, emerging research suggests that weak (uncertain) attitudes can substantially influence thinking or behavior. We propose metacognitive reflection as a moderator between traditional strength patterns and these emerging attitude bolstering patterns. Across six studies, research participants encountered a target person who agreed or disagreed with participants' attitudes. When focused on evaluating the target, attitudes predicted target evaluations better when the attitude was held with certainty (Study 1A), or after certainty had been primed (Studies 2A and 3; strength effects)...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314591/relationship-between-metacognitive-beliefs-and-psychosocial-performance-in-at-risk-states-of-psychosis-and-patients-with-first-psychotic-episodes
#7
Martin Brüne, Kim-Alisha Drommelschmidt, Seza Krüger-Özgürdal, Georg Juckel
AIMS: Improving diagnostic batteries to identify individuals at-risk for developing psychotic disorders as early as possible is an ongoing challenge in schizophrenia research. Here, we sought to explore whether metacognition in at-risk of developing psychosis would differ from that of first episode psychosis and unaffected controls and whether dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs would be associated with psychosocial functioning in the clinical groups. METHODS: Twenty-three subjects at-risk of psychosis were compared with a group of 15 first psychotic episode patients and 21 healthy controls with regard to their metacognitive beliefs and psychosocial functioning...
January 4, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313400/gofar-improving-attention-behavior-and-adaptive-functioning-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-brief-report
#8
Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Elles Taddeo, Dorothy Strickland
OBJECTIVE: This brief report describes the GoFAR intervention designed to improve attention, behavior, and adaptive functioning in children with FASD, ages 5 to 10 years. METHODS: Thirty children were randomized to one of three conditions: GoFAR; FACELAND, and CONTROL; 25 completed the interventions. Over 10 sessions children and caregivers learned a metacognitive strategy (FAR) designed to improve cognitive control of behavior and adaptive functioning and practiced it during behavior analog therapy...
January 9, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310718/metacognitive-therapy-vs-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-superiority-trial
#9
Hans M Nordahl, Joar Øveraas Halvorsen, Odin Hjemdal, Mimoza Rrusta Ternava, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: The psychological treatment of choice for patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is cognitive behavioural exposure therapy or Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR). Whilst these are the most effective treatments, approximately 30-45% of the patients show no significant improvements and follow-up data are sparse. Furthermore, a proportion of patients with severe trauma does not benefit or avoid exposure therapy due to the potential to overwhelm them...
January 8, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302850/the-reliability-and-validity-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-metacognitions-about-health-questionnaire-in-college-students
#10
Lisha Dai, Robin Bailey, Yunlong Deng
PURPOSE: In order to explain the potential mechanism that might motivate and maintain health anxiety (HA), researchers have developed several measures to assess the level of HA and to identify related cognitions and personality features. However, such instruments typically measure general metacognitions [e.g., the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30)], thereby compromising the degree of sensitivity and specificity of measurement as applied to HA-related metacognitions. To address that issue, the Metacognitions about Health Questionnaire (MCQ-HA) was designed especially for measuring metacognitive beliefs specific to HA...
January 4, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283588/do-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-apella-know-the-contents-of-memory-traces-a-study-of-metamemory-for-compound-stimuli
#11
Saho Takagi, Kazuo Fujita
Whereas evidence has accumulated that nonhuman animals have access to the strength of their memory trace, it is unclear whether such metamemory contains components, as proposed by Hampton (2005). We assessed whether capuchin monkeys could recognize details of memorized items using a delayed matching-to-sample task. We used compound stimuli separable into 2 dimensions, "what" and "where." Two monkeys were trained to memorize both "what" and "where" a sample was and answer both/either "what" and/or "where" the sample was depending on each task after a delay...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282346/-modulation-of-metacognition-with-decoded-neurofeedback
#12
Ai Koizumi, Aurelio Cortese, Kaoru Amano, Mitsuo Kawato, Hakwan Lau
Humans often assess their confidence in their own perception, e.g., feeling "confident" or "certain" of having seen a friend, or feeling "uncertain" about whether the phone rang. The neural mechanism underlying the metacognitive function that reflects subjective perception still remains under debate. We have previously used decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) to demonstrate that manipulating the multivoxel activation patterns in the frontoparietal network modulates perceptual confidence without affecting perceptual performance...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280756/creating-structured-opportunities-for-social-engagement-to-promote-well-being-and-reduce-burnout-in-medical-students-and-residents
#13
Roy C Ziegelstein
Increasing attention is being paid to medical student and resident well-being, as well as to enhancing resilience and avoiding burnout in medical trainees. Medical schools and residency programs are implementing wellness initiatives that often include meditation and other mindfulness activities, self-reflection, journaling, and lectures or workshops on resilience tools such as metacognition and cognitive restructuring. These interventions have in common the creation of opportunities for trainees to become more aware of their experiences, to better recognize stressors, and to regulate their thoughts and feelings so that stressors are less likely to have harmful effects...
December 26, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280755/using-relational-reasoning-strategies-to-help-improve-clinical-reasoning-practice
#14
Denis Dumas, Dario M Torre, Steven J Durning
Clinical reasoning-the steps up to and including establishing a diagnosis and/or therapy-is a fundamentally important mental process for physicians. Unfortunately, mounting evidence suggests that errors in clinical reasoning lead to substantial problems for medical professionals and patients alike, including suboptimal care, malpractice claims, and rising health care costs. For this reason, cognitive strategies by which clinical reasoning may be improved-and that many expert clinicians are already utilizing-are highly relevant for all medical professionals, educators, and learners...
December 26, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278776/the-development-and-evolution-of-a-computerized-testing-system-for-primates-cognition-welfare-and-the-rumbaughx
#15
Bonnie M Perdue, Michael J Beran, David A Washburn
Innovations in apparatus technology come about for a variety of reasons such as the need to use the same methodology with various species, the opportunity to present dynamic and carefully controlled stimuli, the goal of using automation to make data collection more precise or efficient, and the need to control for and/or eliminate the presence of experimenters in the testing context. At the Language Research Center (LRC) of Georgia State University, a computer-based system has been developed and used extensively with nonhuman primate species...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275790/the-clinical-utility-of-metacognitive-beliefs-and-processes-in-emotional-distress-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Philip Heffer-Rahn, Peter L Fisher
AIM: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease that poses significant life challenges. Depression and anxiety often occur in people with MS (PwMS). An information processing model of psychopathology, the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs play a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of distress. The model also asserts that a style of thinking known as the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS), which consists of worry and rumination, focusing on sources of threat, and unhelpful coping responses, is common across all psychological conditions...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273969/within-person-adaptivity-in-frugal-judgments-from-memory
#17
Elisa Filevich, Sebastian S Horn, Simone Kühn
Humans can exploit recognition memory as a simple cue for judgment. The utility of recognition depends on the interplay with the environment, particularly on its predictive power (validity) in a domain. It is, therefore, an important question whether people are sensitive to differences in recognition validity between domains. Strategic, intra-individual changes in the reliance on recognition have not been investigated so far. The present study fills this gap by scrutinizing within-person changes in using a frugal strategy, the recognition heuristic (RH), across two task domains that differed in recognition validity...
December 22, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258370/the-effect-of-thought-importance-on-stress-responses-a-test-of-the-metacognitive-model
#18
Lora Capobianco, Anthony P Morrison, Adrian Wells
Negative metacognitive beliefs are central determinants of distress in the metacognitive model of psychological vulnerability to stress. The current study tested this assertion in 75 undergraduate students assigned to either experimental (metacognitive belief manipulation) or control (no metacognitive belief manipulation) condition. All participants underwent a fake EEG, where they were told that the EEG would detect negative thoughts. The experimental subjects were informed that if they had a negative thought they may be exposed to a contingent burst of loud noise, while the control condition was told that they may be exposed to a burst of loud noise at random...
December 19, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247750/attentional-responses-to-stimuli-associated-with-a-reward-can-occur-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-of-their-predictive-values
#19
Mateo Leganes Fonteneau, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243535/ease-of-learning-judgments-are-based-on-both-processing-fluency-and-beliefs
#20
Andreas Jemstedt, Bennett L Schwartz, Fredrik U Jönsson
Processing fluency influences many types of judgments. Some metacognitive research suggests that the influence of processing fluency may be mediated by participants' beliefs. The current study explores the influence of processing fluency and beliefs on ease-of-learning (EOL) judgments. In two experiments (Exp 1: n = 94; Exp 2: n = 146), participants made EOL judgments on 24 six-letter concrete nouns, presented in either a constant condition (high fluency) with upper-case letters (e.g., BUCKET) or an alternating condition (low fluency) with mixed upper- and lower-case letters (e...
December 15, 2017: Memory
keyword
keyword
33056
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"