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Louise Goupil, Sid Kouider
Humans adapt their behavior not only by observing the consequences of their actions but also by internally monitoring their performance. This capacity, termed metacognitive sensitivity [1, 2], has traditionally been denied to young children because they have poor capacities in verbally reporting their own mental states [3-5]. Yet, these observations might reflect children's limited capacities for explicit self-reports, rather than limitations in metacognition per se. Indeed, metacognitive sensitivity has been shown to reflect simple computational mechanisms [1, 6-8], and can be found in various non-verbal species [7-10]...
October 18, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Sarah Genon, Jessica Simon, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Fabienne Collette, Céline Souchay, Mathieu Jaspar, Christine Bastin, Eric Salmon
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show impairment of episodic memory and related metacognitive processes. The present study examined subjective metacognitive judgments preceding objective memory retrieval and investigated the neural correlates of pessimistic predictions for successfully retrieved memories in AD patients. AD patients and healthy older (HO) participants provided predictive judgments on their recognition performance before retrieval of famous (semantic) and recently learned (episodic) names...
October 1, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Joshua L Fiechter, Aaron S Benjamin
In five experiments, we investigated whether expected retention intervals affect subjects' encoding strategies. In the first four experiments, our subjects studied paired associates consisting of words from the Graduate Record Exam and a synonym. They were told to expect a test on a word pair after either a short or a longer interval. Subjects were tested on most pairs after the expected retention interval. For some pairs, however, subjects were tested after the other retention interval, allowing for a comparison of performance at a given retention interval conditional upon the expected retention interval...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Laurence Questienne, Filip Van Opstal, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Wim Gevers
Cognitive control allows adapting our behaviour to improve performance. A behavioural signature of cognitive control is the Gratton effect. This effect is observed in conflict tasks and indicates smaller congruency effects after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. Metacognitive experience may play a role in this effect: when participants introspect on their conflict experience, the Gratton effect follows the conflict introspection instead of the stimulus congruency (Desender, Van Opstal, & Van den Bussche, 2014)...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Allison P O'Leary, Vladimir M Sloutsky
Two experiments investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring and control, and conditions under which children engage these processes. In Experiment 1, 5-year-olds (N = 30) and 7-year-olds (N = 30), unlike adults (N = 30), showed little evidence of either monitoring or control. In Experiment 2, 5-year-olds (N = 90) were given performance feedback (aimed at improving monitoring), instruction to follow a particular strategy (aimed at improving control), or both. Across conditions, feedback improved children's monitoring, and instruction improved both monitoring and control...
October 19, 2016: Child Development
Kylee Trevillion, Jill Domoney, Andrew Pickles, Debra Bick, Sarah Byford, Margaret Heslin, Jeannette Milgrom, Rachel Mycroft, Carmine Pariante, Elizabeth Ryan, Myra Hunter, Louise Michele Howard
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common antenatal mental disorder and is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on the fetus and significant morbidity for the mother; if untreated it can also continue into the post-natal period and affect mother-infant interactions. There has been little research evaluating the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of antenatal psychological interventions for antenatal depression, particularly for mild to moderate disorders. International guidelines recommend a stepped care approach starting with Guided Self Help, and the aim of this exploratory trial is to investigate Guided Self Help modified for pregnancy...
October 18, 2016: Trials
Maria Teresa Turano, Maria Pia Viggiano
The relationship between face recognition ability and socioemotional functioning has been widely explored. However, how aging modulates this association regarding both objective performance and subjective-perception is still neglected. Participants, aged between 18 and 81 years, performed a face memory test and completed subjective face recognition and socioemotional questionnaires. General and social anxiety, and neuroticism traits account for the individual variation in face recognition abilities during adulthood...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Stephanie Cosentino, Carolyn Zhu, Elodie Bertrand, Janet Metcalfe, Sarah Janicki, Sarah Cines
Disordered awareness of memory loss (i.e., anosognosia) is a frequent and clinically relevant symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The metacognitive errors which characterize anosognosia in AD, however, have not been fully articulated. The current study examined metamemory performance as a function of clinically defined awareness groups using different task conditions to examine the extent to which specific metacognitive deficits (i.e., detecting, integrating, or being explicitly aware of errors) contribute to anosognosia in AD (n = 49)...
August 13, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Felix Inchausti, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Nancy V García-Poveda, Alejandro Ballesteros-Prados
BACKGROUND: The term metacognition reflects a spectrum of psychological activities that allows people to form and integrate representations about their own mental states and those of others. The main goal of this study was to examine whether people with substance abuse disorders (SUDs), and treated in therapeutic community regime, displayed specific patterns of metacognitive deficits on Self-reflectivity, Understanding others’ mind, Decentration, and Mastery, comparing their scores with two clinical groups of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and anxiety disorders...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Hartmut Blank
Non-believed autobiographical memories [e.g. Mazzoni, G., Scoboria, A., & Harvey, L. (2010). Nonbelieved memories. Psychological Science, 21, 1334-1340] are striking examples of divergences between recollective experiences and beliefs in their correspondence to real events. After reviewing a broader range of similar phenomena, I argue that recollection-belief divergences can arise from normal, "healthy" metacognitive monitoring and control processes that balance memory recollections and reality constraints...
October 15, 2016: Memory
Sverre U Johnson, Asle Hoffart
We aimed to systematically evaluate a generic model of metacognitive therapy (MCT) with a highly comorbid anxiety disorder patient, that had been treated with diagnosis-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) without significant effect. Traditionally, CBT has progressed within a disorder-specific approach, however, it has been suggested that this could be less optimal with highly comorbid patients. To address comorbidity, transdiagnostic treatment models have been emerging. This case study used an AB-design with repeated assessments during each therapy session and a 1-year follow-up assessment to evaluate the effectiveness of MCT...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Weijian Li, Haojie Ji, Fengying Li, Ping Li, Yuchi Zhang, Xinyu Li
BACKGROUND: Like adults, children need to allocate study time and endeavour optimally in order to enhance learning effectiveness. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the development of shifting from habitual to agenda-based processes on study decisions. SAMPLE: The participants were 309 children in the second, fourth, and sixth grades. METHODS: We adopted the research paradigm proposed by Ariel and Dunlosky (, Mem...
October 14, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Valnea Žauhar, Igor Bajšanski, Dražen Domijan
In two experiments, we examined the correspondence between the dynamics of metacognitive judgments and classification accuracy when participants were asked to learn category structures of different levels of complexity, i.e., to learn tasks of types I, II, and III according to Shepard et al. (1961). The stimuli were simple geometrical figures varying in the following three dimensions: color, shape, and size. In Experiment 1, we found moderate positive correlations between confidence and accuracy in task type II and weaker correlation in task type I and III...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Stina Cornell Kärnekull, Artin Arshamian, Mats E Nilsson, Maria Larsson
Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nathan A Illman, Steven Kemp, Céline Souchay, Robin G Morris, Chris J A Moulin
Previous research has pointed to a deficit in associative recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Associative recognition tasks require discrimination between various combinations of words which have and have not been seen previously (such as old-old or old-new pairs). People with TLE tend to respond to rearranged old-old pairs as if they are "intact" old-old pairs, which has been interpreted as a failure to use a recollection strategy to overcome the familiarity of two recombined words into a new pairing...
2016: Epilepsy Research and Treatment
Barbara C N Müller, Nike R H Tsalas, Hein T van Schie, Jörg Meinhardt, Joëlle Proust, Beate Sodian, Markus Paulus
Metacognitive assessment of performance has been revealed to be one of the most powerful predictors of human learning success and academic achievement. Yet, little is known about the functional nature of cognitive processes supporting judgments of learning (JOLs). The present study investigated the neural underpinnings of JOLs, using event-related brain potentials. Participants were presented with picture pairs and instructed to learn these pairs. After each pair, participants received a task cue, which instructed them to make a JOL (the likelihood of remembering the target when only presented with the cue) or to make a control judgment...
October 6, 2016: Brain Research
David J Frank, Beatrice G Kuhlmann
Experience-based cues, such as perceptual fluency, have long been thought to influence metacognitive judgments (Kelley & Jacoby, 1996; Koriat, 1997). Studies found that manipulations of perceptual fluency via changes in font and volume alter Judgments of Learning (JOLs) without influencing memory performance (Rhodes & Castel, 2008, 2009). Nonetheless, recent research (Mueller, Tauber, & Dunlosky, 2013; Mueller, Dunlosky, Tauber, & Rhodes, 2014, 2016) has challenged the notion that experience-based cues such as fluency are the primary basis for item-level JOLs, arguing instead that preexisting beliefs about these manipulations are responsible for these effects...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Hanin Rashid, Robert Lebeau, Norma Saks, Anna T Cianciolo, Anthony R Artino, Judy A Shea, Olle Ten Cate
This Conversation Starters article presents a selected research abstract from the 2016 Association of American Medical Colleges Northeast Region Group on Educational Affairs annual spring meeting. The abstract is paired with the integrative commentary of three experts who shared their thoughts stimulated by the pilot study. These thoughts explore the metacognitive, social, and environmental mechanisms whereby advice plays a role in self-regulated learning.
October 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Michael Simons, Timo Daniel Vloet
OBJECTIVE: Emetophobia is the specific fear of vomiting that usually commences during childhood and adolescence. Cognitive behavioral therapy aims to expose patients to vomiting. In this paper, a newly developed metacognitive concept and treatment approach to this disorder is illustrated within a small case series. METHOD: Three adolescent girls with emetophobia were treated with metacognitive therapy (MCT). Measures of anxiety, worry, depression, and metacognitions before and after the treatment were documented...
September 29, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Carol Westby, Barbara Culatta
Purpose: Speech-language pathologists know much more about children's development of fictional narratives than they do about children's development of personal narratives and the role these personal narratives play in academic success, social-emotional development, and self-regulation. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide clinicians with strategies for assessing and developing children's and adolescents' personal narratives. Method: This tutorial reviews the literature on (a) the development of autobiographical event narratives and life stories, (b) factors that contribute to development of these genres, (c) the importance of these genres for the development of sense of self-identity and self-regulation, (d) deficits in personal narrative genres, and (e) strategies for eliciting and assessing event narratives and life stories...
September 27, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
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