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Kian F Wong, James Teng, Michael W L Chee, Kinjal Doshi, Julian Lim
Mindfulness based training (MBT) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to improve general wellbeing through developing enhanced control over metacognitive processes. In this preliminary study, we tested a cohort of 36 nurses (mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.52; 2 male) who participated in an 8-week MBT intervention to examine the improvements in sustained attention and its energetic costs that may result from MBT. Changes in sustained attention were measured using the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and electroencephalography (EEG) was collected both during PVT performance, and during a brief period of meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Gitanjali Narayanan, Shaima Naaz
Recent research points to a shift from categorical diagnoses to a dimensional understanding of psychopathology and mental health disorders. In parallel, there has been a rise in newer psychosocial treatment modalities, which are inherently transdiagnostic. Transdiagnostic approaches are those that identify core vulnerabilities and apply universal principles to therapeutic treatment. As treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) must invariably accommodate such vulnerabilities, clinicians are finding such interventions useful...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Mathilde Sacher, Andrei-Cristian Tudorache, David Clarys, Mohamed Boudjarane, Lionel Landré, Wissam El-Hage
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently associated with episodic memory deficits. To some extent, these deficits could be related to an impairment of metamemory in individuals with PTSD. This research consequently aims at investigating prospective (feeling-of-knowing, FOK) and retrospective (confidence) metamemory judgments for episodic information in PTSD. METHOD: Twenty participants with PTSD and without depression were compared to 30 healthy comparison participants on metamemory judgments during an episodic memory task...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Joanne Rechdan, Lorraine Hope, James D Sauer, Melanie Sauerland, James Ost, Harald Merckelbach
We examined the influence of co-witness discussion on the metacognitive regulation of memory reports. Participants (N = 92) watched a crime video. Later, a confederate confidently agreed with (gave confirming feedback), disagreed with (gave disconfirming feedback), or gave no feedback (control) regarding participants' answers to questions about the video. Participants who received disconfirming feedback reported fewer fine-grain details than participants in the confirming and control conditions on a subsequent, individual recall test for a different question set...
March 13, 2018: Memory
Paul T Cirino, Yusra Ahmed, Jeremy Miciak, W Pat Taylor, Elyssa H Gerst, Marcia A Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Executive function (EF) is a commonly used but difficult to operationalize construct. In this study, we considered EF and related components as they are commonly presented in the neuropsychological literature, as well as the literatures of developmental, educational, and cognitive psychology. These components have not previously been examined simultaneously, particularly with this level of comprehensiveness, and/or at this age range or with this sample size. We expected that the EF components would be separate but related, and that a bifactor model would best represent the data relative to alternative models...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau, Stephen M Fleming
Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains, e.g. memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks, or whether self-evaluative processes are domain-specific. Here we directly investigated this issue by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
B Rosello-Miranda, C Berenguer-Forner, A Miranda-Casas
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present difficulties in adaptive functioning and learning, possibly associated with failures in executive functioning characteristic of both disorders. AIM: To analyze the impact of executive functioning in the adaptive behaviors of socialization and daily life and in learning behaviors in children with ASD and children with ADHD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The participants were 124 children matched in age and intellectual quotient: 37 children with typical development, 52 children with ASD and 35 children with ADHD...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Jack Cotter, Sandra Bucci, Richard J Drake, Alison R Yung, Rebekah Carney, Dawn Edge
AIM: Many young people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis exhibit marked and persistent impairments in social and occupational functioning. We aimed to explore UHR patients' subjective experiences of these difficulties and their causes. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 UHR individuals recruited from Early Detection and Intervention Teams in Northwest England. Topics covered included how participants spent their time, their interpersonal relationships, academic and occupational performance, premorbid functioning and clinical treatment...
March 7, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Hans M Nordahl, Joar Øveraas Halvorsen, Odin Hjemdal, Mimoza Rrusta Ternava, Adrian Wells
TRIALS (2018) 19: 16. HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.1186/S13063-017-2404-7: In the original publication of this article [1] the SPIRIT figure for the study protocol was not included. In this Correction Article the SPIRIT figure (Fig. 1) is published. The original publication has been updated with the SPIRIT figure.
March 6, 2018: Trials
Kaitlyn N Egan, L Adelyn Cohen, Christine Limbers
Despite its widespread use, a minimal amount is known regarding the agreement between parent and youth ratings of youth's executive functioning on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) in typically developing youth. The present study examined parent-child agreement on the BRIEF with a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Ninety-seven parent-child dyads (Mage  = 13.91 years; SD = .52) completed the BRIEF self- and parent-report forms and a demographic questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Douglas S Mennin, David M Fresco, Mia Skytte O'Toole, Richard G Heimberg
OBJECTIVE: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depression (MDD), especially when they co-occur, are associated with suboptimal treatment response. One common feature of these disorders is negative self-referential processing (NSRP; i.e., worry, rumination), which worsens treatment outcome. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates principles from affect science with traditional and contemporary cognitive-behavioral treatments to identify and modify the functional nature of NSRP by targeting motivational and regulatory mechanisms, as well as behavioral consequences...
March 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Anne M Cleary, Alexander B Claxton
Déjà vu is beginning to be scientifically understood as a memory phenomenon. Despite recent scientific advances, a remaining puzzle is the purported association between déjà vu and feelings of premonition. Building on research showing that déjà vu can be driven by an unrecalled memory of a past experience that relates to the current situation, we sought evidence of memory-based predictive ability during déjà vu states. Déjà vu did not lead to above-chance ability to predict the next turn in a navigational path resembling a previously experienced but unrecalled path (although such resemblance increased reports of déjà vu)...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Henrik Nordahl, Hans M Nordahl, Patrick A Vogel, Adrian Wells
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a major risk factor for developing symptoms of depression. Severity of social anxiety has previously been identified as a risk factor, and cognitive models emphasize dysfunctional schemas and self-processing as the key vulnerability factors underlying general distress in SAD. However, in the metacognitive model, depressive and other symptoms are related to metacognitive beliefs. The aim of this study was therefore to test the relative contribution of metacognitions when controlling for SAD severity and factors postulated in cognitive models...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Yu-Chen Liu, Chia-Chun Tang, Tsai-Tzu Hung, Pei-Ching Tsai, Mei-Feng Lin
BACKGROUND: Metacognitive training (MCT) was developed in 2007 and widely used to modify the delusions for patient with schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness remains unclear. AIMS: To investigate the overall effectiveness of MCT for delusion in schizophrenia patients from 2007 to 2016, and to investigate the variables (intervention approach, intervention dose, and participant factors) of an MCT study that could influence the effect size. METHODS: Parallel-arm design of MCT for delusions published from 2007 to 2016 were collected and then cross-referenced using these keywords: delusion (psychosis or psychotic or schizophrenia) and metacognitive (training or therapy or intervention)...
February 28, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Geoff Davies, Charlotte L Rae, Sarah N Garfinkel, Anil K Seth, Nick Medford, Hugo D Critchley, Kathryn Greenwood
INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, or "thinking about thinking", is a higher-order thought process that allows for the evaluation of perceptual processes for accuracy. Metacognitive accuracy is associated with the grey matter volume (GMV) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area also impacted in schizophrenia. The present study set out to investigate whether deficits in metacognitive accuracy are present in the early stages of psychosis. METHODS: Metacognitive accuracy in first-episode psychosis (FEP) was assessed on a perceptual decision-making task and their performance compared to matched healthy control participants (N = 18)...
February 27, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Ye Wang, Julia A Silvestri, Laudan B Jahromi
The purpose of the study was to identify factors related to reading comprehension, and to compare similarities and differences in the reading processes of deaf and hearing adults. The sample included four groups, each consisting of 15 adults. The groups were identified as (a) deaf high-achieving readers, (b) deaf low-achieving readers, (c) hearing high-achieving readers, and (d) hearing low-achieving readers. Measurement instruments included a demographic form along with assessments of reading comprehension, phonological skills, and metacognition, the latter of which contained both a making-inferences measure and a think-aloud discussion with a reading strategies checklist...
2018: American Annals of the Deaf
Jenine Wenn, Moira O'Connor, Lauren J Breen, Clare S Rees
Despite research examining the role of metacognitive beliefs about coping processes in maintaining psychological disorders, to date, no studies have explored their role in the maintenance of prolonged grief. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with bereavement specialists and bereaved people with elevated grief to identify metacognitive beliefs about coping processes relevant to prolonged grief. Analysis revealed several metacognitive beliefs potentially driving maladaptive coping processes used by people with prolonged grief symptomatology...
February 23, 2018: Death Studies
Joanne Murray, Helen Scott, Claire Connolly, Adrian Wells
The ability to delay gratification at a young age is a predictor of psychological, cognitive, health, and academic later-life outcomes. This study aimed to extend earlier research and explore whether a metacognitive intervention, Wells' (1990) Attention Training Technique (ATT), could improve young children's ability to delay gratification compared to an active-control (Progressive Muscle Relaxation: PMR), and no-intervention group. One hundred and one children aged 5-6 years old were recruited from schools...
February 15, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Hasan Huseyin Mutlu, F Isil Bilican, Hacer Hicran Mutlu, Mahmut Gumus
OBJECTIVE: Research examining the relationship between metacognitions and cancer has only recently begun to emerge. This study attempted to compare the metacognitions of the patients with and without cancer. The effects of stage of cancer, type of cancer, treatment modality (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, operation) on metacognitions were investigated. Patients with cancer were hypothesized to have higher levels of negative metacognitions. METHODS: Participants were patients with cancer (N=279) and patients without cancer (control group, N=212)...
February 21, 2018: Psycho-oncology
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