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Metacognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926003/age-of-first-exposure-to-american-football-and-long-term-neuropsychiatric-and-cognitive-outcomes
#1
M L Alosco, A B Kasimis, J M Stamm, A S Chua, C M Baugh, D H Daneshvar, C A Robbins, M Mariani, J Hayden, S Conneely, R Au, A Torres, M D McClean, A C McKee, R C Cantu, J Mez, C J Nowinski, B M Martin, C E Chaisson, Y Tripodis, R A Stern
Previous research suggests that age of first exposure (AFE) to football before age 12 may have long-term clinical implications; however, this relationship has only been examined in small samples of former professional football players. We examined the association between AFE to football and behavior, mood and cognition in a large cohort of former amateur and professional football players. The sample included 214 former football players without other contact sport history. Participants completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT), and self-reported measures of executive function and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Metacognition Index (MI), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI)), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) and apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES))...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922467/intelligence-and-neurophysiological-markers-of-error-monitoring-relate-to-children-s-intellectual-humility
#2
Judith H Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z Hambrick, Jason Moser
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922004/behavioral-activation-in-the-treatment-of-metacognitive-dysfunctions-in-inhibited-type-personality-disorders
#3
Keely Gordon-King, Robert D Schweitzer, Giancarlo Dimaggio
Behavioral interventions are proposed as a critical treatment component in psychotherapy for personality disorders. The current study explores behavioral interventions as a mechanism of change in Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy, an integrative psychotherapy for personality disorders. The goals and implementation of behavioral principles are illustrated through the single case study of Roger, a 57-year-old man diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder and depressive personality disorder. Transcripts of interviews and therapy sessions illustrate the role of behavioral interventions, including behavioral activation, in Roger's treatment...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916521/behavioural-modeling-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-supramodality-in-human-metacognition
#4
Nathan Faivre, Elisa Filevich, Guillermo Solovey, Simone Kühn, Olaf Blanke
Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915244/metacognitive-monitoring-and-control-in-visual-change-detection-implications-for-situation-awareness-and-cognitive-control
#5
Ken I McAnally, Adam P Morris, Christopher Best
Metacognitive monitoring and control of situation awareness (SA) are important for a range of safety-critical roles (e.g., air traffic control, military command and control). We examined the factors affecting these processes using a visual change detection task that included representative tactical displays. SA was assessed by asking novice observers to detect changes to a tactical display. Metacognitive monitoring was assessed by asking observers to estimate the probability that they would correctly detect a change, either after study of the display and before the change (judgement of learning; JOL) or after the change and detection response (judgement of performance; JOP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910178/interpersonal-and-intrapersonal-differences-among-adolescent-nonsmokers-ex-smokers-and-smokers
#6
Salvatore Ioverno, Roberto Baiocco, Fiorenzo Laghi, Valeria Verrastro, Carmen Odorifero, Marcella Dittrich
BACKGROUND: A large body of research has traced tobacco dependence among adolescents to a series of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors. However, there are remaining questions regarding the differences on these factors related to tobacco use. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate intrapersonal and interpersonal differences among adolescent nonsmokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. METHODS: We used data from a 3-year project designed to investigate and address tobacco dependence among 1071 students (Mage = 15...
September 14, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904648/metacognition-modules-a-scaffolded-series-of-online-assignments-designed-to-improve-students-study-skills
#7
Jean A Cardinale, Bethany C Johnson
Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students' lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students' inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903787/a-preliminary-investigation-of-metacognitive-therapy-and-habit-reversal-as-a-treatment-for-trichotillomania
#8
Hossein Shareh
BACKGROUND: Not all patients suffering from trichotillomania (TTM) recover completely using CBT and of those that do, only a few maintain their recovery over time. AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of metacognitive methods combined with habit reversal (MCT/HRT) in trichotillomania with a relatively long-term follow-up. METHOD: A case series (n = 8) and a randomized wait-list controlled trial (n = 34) design were conducted in this study...
September 14, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902439/promoting-mastery-of-complex-biological-mechanisms
#9
William S Bradshaw, Kathryn J Groneman, Jennifer Nelson, John D Bell
This article describes efforts aimed at improving comprehension and retention of complex molecular mechanisms commonly studied in undergraduate biology and biochemistry courses. The focus is on the design of appropriate assessments, an active classroom emphasizing formative practice, and more effective out-of-class study habits. Assessments that require students to articulate their understanding through writing are the most effective. Frequent formative practice improves performance on problems that require intellectual transfer, the ability to apply conceptual principles in novel settings...
September 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893150/poor-metacognitive-awareness-of-belief-change
#10
Michael B Wolfe, Todd J Williams
When people change beliefs as a result of reading a text, are they aware of these changes? This question was examined for beliefs about spanking as an effective means of discipline. In two experiments, subjects reported beliefs about spanking effectiveness during a prescreening session. In a subsequent experimental session, subjects read a one-sided text that advocated a belief consistent or inconsistent position on the topic. After reading, subjects reported their current beliefs and attempted to recollect their initial beliefs...
September 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892885/an-analysis-into-metacognition-and-family-history-of-diabetes-mellitus-among-first-year-medical-students
#11
Ak Sunitha Priya, Rose Babu, Pallavi Panchu, Biju Bahuleyan
INTRODUCTION: Medical course requires immense effort by the students to deal with vast curriculum and hence, the need to adopt metacognitive skill to cope up. Diabetes mellitus has an impact on cognition. Metacognition, being a component of cognition, is likely to be affected by diabetes. Children of diabetic parents have demonstrated insulin resistance which may contribute to metacognitive dysfunction. Hence, it is important to focus into the link between family history of diabetes and metacognition...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890704/computer-mediated-social-comparative-feedback-does-not-affect-metacognitive-regulation-of-memory-reports
#12
Joanne Rechdan, James D Sauer, Lorraine Hope, Melanie Sauerland, James Ost, Harald Merckelbach
In two experiments, we investigated how social comparative feedback affects the metacognitive regulation of eyewitness memory reports. In Experiment 1, 87 participants received negative, positive, or no feedback about a co-witness's performance on a task querying recall of a crime video. Participants then completed the task individually. There were no significant differences between negative and positive feedback groups on any measure. However, participants in both of these conditions volunteered more fine-grain details than participants in the control condition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887491/the-aging-of-the-social-mind-differential-effects-on-components-of-social-understanding
#13
Andrea M F Reiter, Philipp Kanske, Ben Eppinger, Shu-Chen Li
Research in younger adults dissociates cognitive from affective facets of social information processing, rather than promoting a monolithic view of social intelligence. An influential theory on adult development suggests differential effects of aging on cognitive and affective functions. However, this dissociation has not been directly tested in the social domain. Employing a newly developed naturalistic paradigm that disentangles facets of the social mind within an individual, we show multi-directionality of age-related differences...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883523/information-seeking-about-tool-properties-in-great-apes
#14
Manuel Bohn, Matthias Allritz, Josep Call, Christoph J Völter
Evidence suggests that great apes engage in metacognitive information seeking for food items. To support the claim that a domain-general cognitive process underlies ape metacognition one needs to show that selective information seeking extends to non-food items. In this study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) either had to determine the location of a desired food item or a property of a non-food item (length of a tool). We manipulated whether subjects received prior information about the item's location or property...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882828/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-factors-that-help-or-hinder-treatment-decision-making-capacity-in-psychosis
#15
REVIEW
Amanda Larkin, Paul Hutton
BackgroundThe evidence on factors that may influence treatment decisional capacity ('capacity') in psychosis has yet to be comprehensively synthesised, which limits the development of effective strategies to improve or support it.AimsTo determine the direction, magnitude and reliability of the relationship between capacity in psychosis and a range of clinical, demographic and treatment-related factors, thus providing a thorough synthesis of current knowledge.MethodWe conducted a systematic review, meta-analytical and narrative synthesis of factors that help or hinder treatment decision-making capacity in psychosis, assessing the direction, magnitude, significance and reliability of reported associations...
September 7, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878068/a-metacognitive-illusion-in-monkeys
#16
Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell, Jessica F Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something is to see) when making metacognitive judgements...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866988/a-new-generation-computerised-metacognitive-cognitive-remediation-programme-for-schizophrenia-circuits-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
C Reeder, V Huddy, M Cella, R Taylor, K Greenwood, S Landau, T Wykes
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation (CR) is a psychological therapy, which improves cognitive and social functioning in people with schizophrenia. It is now being implemented within routine clinical services and mechanisms of change are being explored. We designed a new generation computerised CR programme, CIRCuiTS (Computerised Interactive Remediation of Cognition - a Training for Schizophrenia), to enhance strategic and metacognitive processing, with an integrated focus on the transfer of cognitive skills to daily living...
September 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863314/when-do-you-know-what-you-know-the-emergence-of-memory-monitoring
#18
Yan Liu, Yanjie Su, Guoqing Xu, Meng Pei
Recent research on comparative metacognition shows that animals, like humans, can differentiate between what they know and what they do not know. However, not much is known about the metacognitive behaviors of human children during their early years. To explore the emergence of memory-monitoring skills, two experiments were conducted using nonverbal tasks adapted from the work of Kornell, Son, and Terrace (2007) and Hampton (2001). Experiment 1 endeavored to determine when children began to show the ability to monitor their memories retrospectively...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857758/greater-metacognition-and-lower-fear-of-negative-evaluation-potential-factors-contributing-to-improved-stigma-resistance-among-individuals-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia
#19
Ruth L Firmin, Lauren Luther, Michelle P Salyers, Kelly D Buck, Paul H Lysaker
BACKGROUND: Stigma resistance, one's ability to block the internalization of stigma, appears to be a key domain of recovery. However, the conditions in which one is most likely to resist stigma have not been identified, and models of stigma resistance have yet to incorporate one's ability to consider the mind of others. The present study investigated the impact of the interaction between metacognition, or one's ability to form an integrated representation of oneself, others, and the world, and fear of negative evaluation on one's ability to resist stigma...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857347/improving-functional-outcome-in-bipolar-disorder-a-pilot-study-on-metacognitive-training
#20
Paula Haffner, Esther Quinlivan, Jana Fiebig, Lene-Marie Sondergeld, Elisa Sophie Strasser, Mazda Adli, Steffen Moritz, Thomas Josef Stamm
BACKGROUND: Effective group psychological interventions in bipolar disorder are rare. In this study, we present "metacognitive training (MCT) for bipolar disorder"-an adaption of a group intervention that has proven effective in other severe psychiatric disorders. MCT is a structured, interactive approach that addresses cognitive biases, social cognition, and self-esteem. In this pilot study, we investigated psychosocial functioning as primary outcome measure, as well as the feasibility of MCT and its acceptance among bipolar patients...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
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