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coronary calcium score

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436385/cholesterol-efflux-capacity-does-not-associate-with-coronary-calcium-plaque-vulnerability-and-telomere-length-in-healthy-octogenarians
#1
Francesca Zimetti, Wladimir M Freitas, Alessandra M Campos, Mauricio Daher, Maria Pia Adorni, Franco Bernini, Andrei C Sposito, Ilaria Zanotti
Several studies revealed that traditional risk factors are less effective in predicting CVD risk in the elderly, suggesting the need to identify new biomarkers. Here we evaluated the association between serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an atheroprotective property of HDL recently identified as a novel marker of CVD risk, and atherosclerotic burden in a cohort of very old, healthy individuals. Serum CEC values were not significantly correlated neither with calcium score nor with markers of vulnerable plaque, such as positive remodeling, hypodensity, spotty calcification or napking-ring sign...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435665/coronary-artery-calcium-scoring-in-young-adults-evidence-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Marwan Saad, Naga Venkata Pothineni, Joseph Thomas, Richa Parikh, Swathi Kovelamudi, Dina Elsayed, Ramez Nairooz, Frederick Feit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the evidence and challenges of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring as a screening tool for coronary artery disease (CAD) in young adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Several cohort studies have highlighted the value of CAC scoring in CAD risk assessment in young adults. The largest study to date is the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. The study examined patients at 18-30 years of age and demonstrated that the presence of any degree of CAC was associated with a higher risk of coronary events compared to zero CAC, with an incremental increase in the risk of events with higher scores...
February 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432592/ultra-low-dose-coronary-artery-calcium-scoring-using-novel-scoring-thresholds-for-low-tube-voltage-protocols-a-pilot-study
#3
Christoph Gräni, Jan Vontobel, Dominik C Benz, Sara Bacanovic, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Michael Messerli, Marvin Grossmann, Cathérine Gebhard, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Oliver Gaemperli, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel
Aims: To determine if tube-adapted thresholds for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring by computed tomography at 80 kilovolt-peak (kVp) tube voltage and 70-kVp yield comparable results to the standard 120-kVp protocol. Methods and results: We prospectively included 103 patients who underwent standard scanning with 120-kVp tube voltage and additional scans with 80 kVp and 70 kVp. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.9 ± 5.1 kg/m2. For the lowered tube voltages, we applied novel kVp-adapted thresholds for calculation of CAC scores and compared them with standard 120-kVp scans using intraclass correlation and Bland-Altman (BA) analysis...
February 8, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420547/coronary-artery-calcium-before-and-after-hospitalization-with-pneumonia-the-mesa-study
#4
Vicente F Corrales-Medina, Girish Dwivedi, Monica Taljaard, William Petrcich, Joao A Lima, Sachin Yende, Richard A Kronmal, Julio A Chirinos
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological analyses demonstrate that pneumonia survivors have a higher risk of myocardial infarction than people with similar load of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) but without pneumonia. This may be due to a higher baseline burden of ASCVD in patients with pneumonia that is not captured by the accounting of known ASCVD risk factors in epidemiological analyses or to unfavorable accelerating effects of pneumonia on atherosclerosis. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415207/progression-of-calcium-density-in-the-ascending-thoracic-aorta-is-inversely-associated-with-incident-cardiovascular-disease-events
#5
Isac C Thomas, Robyn L McClelland, Matthew A Allison, Joachim H Ix, Erin D Michos, Nketi I Forbang, Wendy S Post, Nathan D Wong, Matthew J Budoff, Michael H Criqui
Aims: Little is known regarding the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) conferred by changes in the volume and density of ascending thoracic aorta calcium (ATAC) over time. We evaluated changes in ATAC volume and density scores and incident ASCVD events. Methods and results: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study of individuals without baseline clinical ASCVD. Ascending thoracic aorta calcium was measured from baseline and follow-up (mean interval 2...
February 5, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408789/automatic-calcium-scoring-in-low-dose-chest-ct-using-deep-neural-networks-with-dilated-convolutions
#6
Nikolas Lessmann, Bram van Ginneken, Majd Zreik, Pim A de Jong, Bob D de Vos, Max A Viergever, Ivana Isgum
Heavy smokers undergoing screening with low-dose chest CT are affected by cardiovascular disease as much as by lung cancer. Low-dose chest CT scans acquired in screening enable quantification of atherosclerotic calcifications and thus enable identification of subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of coronary artery, thoracic aorta, and cardiac valve calcifications in low-dose chest CT using two consecutive convolutional neural networks. The first network identifies and labels potential calcifications according to their anatomical location and the second network identifies true calcifications among the detected candidates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406941/cardiac-imaging-modalities-and-appropriate-use
#7
REVIEW
Paul Gabriel Peterson, Michael Berge, John P Lichtenberger, Maureen N Hood, Vincent B Ho
Cardiovascular imaging with calcium scoring computed tomography (CT), coronary CT angiography (CCTA), and cardiac MRI (CMR) have advanced rapidly over recent years. These imaging modalities have increased in availability, accessibility, and clinical practicality due to technological advances allowing for significant radiation dose reduction for high-quality CCTA and for rapid and reliable imaging techniques in CMR. Hardware and software developments are continually increasing efficiency and accuracy of postprocessing...
March 2018: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406041/geographic-and-individual-correlates-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-an-asymptomatic-rural-appalachian-population
#8
Hadii M Mamudu, Antwan Jones, Timir Paul, Pooja Subedi, Liang Wang, Arsham Alamian, Ali E Alamin, Gerald Blackwell, Matthew Budoff
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the association between subclinical atherosclerosis (ascertained as coronary artery calcium [CAC]) in asymptomatic individuals in the Central Appalachian region of the United States and individual- and geographic-level factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from participants in CAC screening between 2012 and 2016. CAC score was assessed as CAC = 0 (no plaque), 1 ≤ CAC ≤ 99 (mild plaque), 100 ≤ CAC ≤ 399 (moderate plaque) and CAC ≥ 400 (severe plaque)...
February 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404770/high-pitch-low-voltage-ct-coronary-artery-calcium-scoring-with-tin-filtration-accuracy-and-radiation-dose-reduction
#9
Georg Apfaltrer, Moritz H Albrecht, U Joseph Schoepf, Taylor M Duguay, Carlo N De Cecco, John W Nance, Domenico De Santis, Paul Apfaltrer, Marwen H Eid, Chelsea D Eason, Zachary M Thompson, Maximilian J Bauer, Akos Varga-Szemes, Brian E Jacobs, Erich Sorantin, Christian Tesche
OBJECTIVES: To investigate diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of high-pitch CT coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) with tin filtration (Sn100kVp) versus standard 120kVp high-pitch acquisition. METHODS: 78 patients (58% male, 61.5±9.1 years) were prospectively enrolled. Subjects underwent clinical 120kVp high-pitch CACS using third-generation dual-source CT followed by additional high-pitch Sn100kVp acquisition. Agatston scores, calcium volume scores, Agatston score categories, percentile-based risk categorization and radiation metrics were compared...
February 5, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402648/treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-elderly-residents-of-long-term-care-facilities
#10
Anna Kańtoch, Barbara Gryglewska, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach, Piotr Heczko, Tomasz Grodzicki
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among nursing home residents is high but little is known whether pharmacologic therapy recommended by actual medication guidelines is followed by facility's staff. AIM: To evaluate the adherence to actual guidelines for treatment of cardiovascular diseases among older adult residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was performed from December 2009 to November 2010 among 189 elderly residents aged ≥60 years in 3 LTC facilities in Poland: 1 long-term care hospital (LTCH) and 2 nursing homes (NHs)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402323/equivocal-tests-after-contrast-stress-echocardiography-compared-with-invasive-coronary-angiography-or-with-ct-angiography-ct-calcium-score-in-mildly-positive-tests-may-spare-unnecessary-coronary-angiograms
#11
Nicola Gaibazzi, Guido Pastorini, Andrea Biagi, Francesco Tafuni, Claudia Buffa, Silvia Garibaldi, Francesca Boffetti, Giorgio Benatti
BACKGROUND: Imaging stress tests are not ideally accurate to predict anatomically obstructive CAD, leading to a non-trivial rate of unnecessary iCA. This may depend on the threshold used to indicate iCA, and maybe CTA or, one step earlier, CT calcium score could spare most unnecessary iCA in only mildly positive cSE. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of contrast stress-echocardiography (cSE) in comparison with invasive coronary angiography (iCA), and CT angiography (CTA) only in case of equivocal tests, to find hints helping reduce falsely positive cSE in the suspicion of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398567/quantification-of-coronary-low-attenuation-plaque-volume-for-long-term-prediction-of-cardiac-events-and-reclassification-of-patients
#12
S Deseive, R Straub, M Kupke, A Broersen, P H Kitslaar, S Massberg, M Hadamitzky, J Hausleiter
BACKGROUND: To investigate the incremental prognostic value of low-attenuation plaque volume (LAPV) from coronary CT angiography datasets. METHODS: Quantification of LAPV was performed using dedicated software equipped with an adaptive plaque tissue algorithm in 1577 patients with suspected CAD. A combination of death and acute coronary syndrome was defined as primary endpoint. To assess the incremental prognostic value of LAPV, parameters were added to a baseline model including clinical risk and obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), a baseline model including clinical risk and calcium scoring (CACS) and a baseline model including clinical risk and segment involvement score (SIS)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397274/enhanced-coronary-calcium-visualization-and-detection-from-dual-energy-chest-x-rays-with-sliding-organ-registration
#13
Di Wen, Katelyn Nye, Bo Zhou, Robert C Gilkeson, Amit Gupta, Shiraz Ranim, Spencer Couturier, David L Wilson
We have developed a technique to image coronary calcium, an excellent biomarker for atherosclerotic disease, using low cost, low radiation dual energy (DE) chest radiography, with potential for widespread screening from an already ordered exam. Our dual energy coronary calcium (DECC) processing method included automatic heart silhouette segmentation, sliding organ registration and scatter removal to create a bone-image-like, coronary calcium image with significant reduction in motion artifacts and improved calcium conspicuity compared to standard, clinically available DE processing...
January 11, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396281/erectile-dysfunction-and-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Martin Miner, Sharon J Parish, Kevin L Billups, Mark Paulos, Mark Sigman, Michael J Blaha
BACKGROUND: An association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) has long been recognized, and studies suggest that ED is an independent marker of CVD risk. More significantly, ED is a marker for both obstructive and non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and may reveal the presence of subclinical CAD in otherwise asymptomatic men. AIM: To discuss the role of ED as an early marker of subclinical CVD; describe an approach to quantifying that burden; and propose an algorithm for the evaluation and management of CV risk in men 40-60 years of age with vasculogenic ED, those presumed to have the highest risk for a CV event...
January 27, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395796/adaptive-iterative-dose-reduction-3d-integrated-with-automatic-tube-current-modulation-for-ct-coronary-artery-calcium-quantification-comparison-to-traditional-filtered-back-projection-in-an-anthropomorphic-phantom-and-patients
#15
Ya-Chun Tang, Yuan-Chang Liu, Ming-Yi Hsu, Hui-Yu Tsai, Chien-Ming Chen
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate integrated adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) algorithm in automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) for the quantification of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and cardiac risk stratification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thoracic phantom with calcium inserts of known densities was scanned with filtered back projection (FBP) and AIDR 3D algorithms in small- and medium-sized phantoms. Twenty-four patients underwent two consecutive scans of CACS with FBP and AIDR 3D algorithms...
January 26, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387923/association-between-histological-features-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-coronary-plaque-characteristics-on-computed-tomography-angiography
#16
Atsuhiro Senoo, Toshiro Kitagawa, Shinya Torimaki, Hideya Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Sentani, Shinya Takahashi, Yumiko Kubo, Wataru Yasui, Taijiro Sueda, Yasuki Kihara
The means by which epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could influence coronary plaque progression biologically remain unclear. We investigated the association between the histological findings of EAT and coronary plaque characteristics assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We enrolled 34 patients in whom one or more coronary plaques containing non-calcified components were detected on CCTA before cardiac surgery [coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or non-CABG]. We evaluated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, EAT volume, and coronary plaque characteristics including minimum computed tomography density (CTD) and vascular Remodeling Index (RI)...
January 31, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383526/leveraging-the-coronary-calcium-scan-beyond-the-coronary-calcium-score
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Bos, Maarten J G Leening
Non-contrast cardiac computed tomography in order to obtain the coronary artery calcium score has become an established diagnostic procedure in the clinical setting, and is commonly employed in clinical and population-based research. This state-of-the-art review paper highlights the potential gain in information that can be obtained from the non-contrast coronary calcium scans without any necessary modifications to the scan protocol. This includes markers of cardio-metabolic health, such as the amount of epicardial fat and liver fat, but also markers of general health including bone density and lung density...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372272/combined-evaluation-of-regional-coronary-artery-calcium-and-myocardial-perfusion-by-82rb-pet-ct-in-the-identification-of-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Emilia Zampella, Wanda Acampa, Roberta Assante, Carmela Nappi, Valeria Gaudieri, Ciro Gabriele Mainolfi, Roberta Green, Valeria Cantoni, Mariarosaria Panico, Michele Klain, Mario Petretta, Piotr J Slomka, Alberto Cuocolo
PURPOSE: Cardiac imaging with PET/CT allows measurement of coronary artery calcium (CAC), myocardial perfusion and coronary vascular function. We investigated whether the combined assessment of regional CAC score, ischemic total perfusion deficit (ITPD) and quantitative coronary vascular function would further improve the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We analyzed 113 patients with suspected CAD referred to 82Rb PET/CT myocardial perfusion imaging with available coronary angiographic data...
January 25, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370468/association-of-ambulatory-blood-pressure-variability-with-coronary-artery-calcium
#19
Bailey DeBarmore, Feng-Chang Lin, Laura A Tuttle, Emily Olsson, Alan Hinderliter, Jeffrey L Klein, Anthony J Viera
Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with progression to clinical atherosclerosis. The evidence is inconclusive if BP variability predicts cardiovascular outcomes in low-risk populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of 24-hour BP variability with coronary artery calcium (CAC) among a group of individuals without coronary artery disease. The Masked Hypertension Study targeted patients with borderline high BP (120-149 mm Hg systolic and/or 80-95 mm Hg diastolic). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed at two time-points, 8 days apart...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366027/coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-and-coronary-artery-calcium-score-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-undergoing-trans-femoral-amputation-in-2013-in-different-clinical-groups
#20
Evgeniya Shalaeva, Bakhtiyor Janabaev, Azam Bobabekov, Ulugbek Kasimov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
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