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Malarial fever

Rajesh Deshwal
OBJECTIVE: The clinical presentations and laboratory profile of malaria has been changing over the years. Therefore this study was undertaken to study the clinical profile and laboratory parameters of malarial patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study was undertaken in military hospital with high prevalence of malaria. A total of 320 patients were studied. All patients tested positive by peripheral blood smear or rapid diagnostic test were included...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Praveen K Bharti, Man M Shukla, Pascal Ringwald, Sri Krishna, Pushpendra P Singh, Ajay Yadav, Sweta Mishra, Usha Gahlot, Jai P Malaiya, Amit Kumar, Shambhu Prasad, Pradeep Baghel, Mohan Singh, Jaiprakash Vadadi, Mrigendra P Singh, Maria Dorina G Bustos, Leonard I Ortega, Eva-Maria Christophel, Sher S Kashyotia, Gagan S Sonal, Neeru Singh
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance continues to be a leading threat to malaria control efforts and calls for continued monitoring of waning efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Artesunate + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is used for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India. However, resistance against AS + SP is emerged in northeastern states. Therefore, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the recommended first line treatment for falciparum malaria in north eastern states...
October 13, 2016: Malaria Journal
Rapeephan R Maude, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Lalith Wijedoru, Mahtab Uddin Hassan, Md Amir Hossain, Md Rezaul Karim, Abdullah Abu Sayeed, Stannie van den Ende, Sujat Pal, A S M Zahed, Wahid Rahman, Rifat Karnain, Rezina Islam, Dung Thi Ngoc Tran, Tuyen Thanh Ha, Anh Hong Pham, James I Campbell, H Rogier van Doorn, Richard J Maude, Tom van der Poll, W Joost Wiersinga, Nicholas P J Day, Stephen Baker, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher M Parry, Md Abul Faiz
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh but causative agents, other than malaria, are not routinely investigated. Enteric fever is thought to be common. METHODS: Adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital with a temperature of ≥38.0 °C were investigated using a blood smear for malaria, a blood culture, real-time PCR to detect Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and other pathogens in blood and CSF and an NS1 antigen dengue ELISA...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Uchechukwu M Chukwuocha, Omar Fernández-Rivera, Martha Legorreta-Herrera
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) has been used in traditional medicine as an herbal infusion to treat fever and malaria. Generally, whole plant extracts possess higher biological activity than purified compounds. However, the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant has not been experimentally tested. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of an herbal infusion and the whole Cymbopogon citratus plant in two experimental models of malaria...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Vanderson S Sampaio, Tatiana P Beltrán, Kevin C Kobylinski, Gisely C Melo, José B P Lima, Sara G M Silva, Íria C Rodriguez, Henrique Silveira, Maria G V B Guerra, Quique Bassat, Paulo F P Pimenta, Marcus V G Lacerda, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Strategies designed to advance towards malaria elimination rely on the detection and treatment of infections, rather than fever, and the interruption of malaria transmission between mosquitoes and humans. Mass drug administration with anti-malarials directed at eliminating parasites in blood, either to entire populations or targeting only those with malaria infections, are considered useful strategies to progress towards malaria elimination, but may be insufficient if applied on their own...
2016: Malaria Journal
Sompwe Eric Mukomena, Cilundika Mulenga Philipe, Mashinda Kulimba Désiré, Lutumba Tshindele Pascal, Mapatano Mala Ali, Luboya Numbi Oscar
INTRODUCTION: Long neglected, asymptomatic malaria is currently recognized as a potential threat and obstacle to malaria control. In DR Congo, the prevalence of this parasite is poorly documented. This study aims to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia in children less than 5 years of age as well as in those aged over five years for what concerns ongoing mass control interventions (LLINs). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among school age children, children less than 5 years of age living in the household of Lubumbashi...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Ria R Ghai, Mary I Thurber, Azza El Bakry, Colin A Chapman, Tony L Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Health clinics in rural Africa are typically resource-limited. As a result, many patients presenting with fever are treated with anti-malarial drugs based only on clinical presentation. This is a considerable issue in Uganda, where malaria is routinely over-diagnosed and over-treated, constituting a wastage of resources and an elevated risk of mortality in wrongly diagnosed patients. However, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are increasingly being used in health facilities...
2016: Malaria Journal
Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Melkamu Bedimo Beyene, Yehenew Asmamaw Ebstie, Zelalem Desalegn
BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarials is a major challenge for effective malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. This triggered a need for routine monitoring of the efficacy of the antimalarial drugs every two years in all malaria endemic countries. Chloroquine remained the drug of choice for the treatment of vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Though, a strong scientific evidence of chloroquine resistance to P.vivax that could have brought change of treatment regimen is yet to be established in Ethiopia, continuous and regular monitoring of drug's efficacy is critical for establishing rational anti-malarial drug policies...
2016: PloS One
Hasan Hamze, Rhianna Charchuk, Makelele Katsuva Jean Paul, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Mashukano Léon, Michael T Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Malaria contributes to elevated morbidity and mortality in populations displaced by conflict in tropical zones. In an attempt to reduce malaria transmission in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we tested a strategy of active case detection of household contacts of malaria cases. METHODS: Prospective community-based survey. RESULTS: From a convenience sample of 100 febrile patients under 5 years of age from the IDP camp presenting to a nearby clinic for management of a fever episode, 19 cases of uncomplicated malaria and 81 controls with non-malarial febrile illness (NFMI) were diagnosed...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Zhiyong Zhou, Rebecca M Mitchell, Simon Kariuki, Christopher Odero, Peter Otieno, Kephas Otieno, Philip Onyona, Vincent Were, Ryan E Wiegand, John E Gimnig, Edward D Walker, Meghna Desai, Ya Ping Shi
BACKGROUND: Although malaria control intervention has greatly decreased malaria morbidity and mortality in many African countries, further decline in parasite prevalence has stagnated in western Kenya. In order to assess if malaria transmission reservoir is associated with this stagnation, submicroscopic infection and gametocyte carriage was estimated. Risk factors and associations between malaria control interventions and gametocyte carriage were further investigated in this study. METHODS: A total of 996 dried blood spot samples were used from two strata, all smear-positives (516 samples) and randomly selected smear-negatives (480 samples), from a community cross-sectional survey conducted at peak transmission season in 2012 in Siaya County, western Kenya...
2016: Malaria Journal
Zewdie Birhanu, Lakew Abebe, Morankar Sudhakar, Gunawardena Dissanayake, Yemane Ye-Ebiyo Yihdego, Guda Alemayehu, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Prompt care seeking and appropriate use of anti-malarial drugs are critical components of malaria prevention and control. This study assessed malaria related perceptions, care seeking behavior and anti-malarial drug use in malaria endemic settings of Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were generated from a community based cross-sectional study conducted among 798 households during January 2014 as part of a larger household behavioral study in three malaria endemic districts of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
Emily White Johansson, Katarina Ekholm Selling, Humphreys Nsona, Bonnie Mappin, Peter W Gething, Max Petzold, Stefan Swartling Peterson, Helena Hildenwall
BACKGROUND: There are growing concerns about irrational antibiotic prescription practices in the era of test-based malaria case management. This study assessed integrated paediatric fever management using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines, including the relationship between RDT-negative results and antibiotic over-treatment in Malawi health facilities in 2013-2014. METHODS: A Malawi national facility census included 1981 observed sick children aged 2-59 months with fever complaints...
2016: Malaria Journal
Akintunde Sowunmi, Kazeem Akano, Adejumoke I Ayede, Godwin Ntadom, Elsie O Adewoye, Bayo Fatunmbi, Temitope Aderoyeje
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies are recommended as first-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, but there is little evaluation of their efficacy and effects on uncomplicated malaria-associated anaemia in children aged 2 years and under. METHODS: Parasitological efficacy and effects on malaria-associated anaemia were evaluated in 250 malarious children aged 2 years and under, and efficacy was evaluated in 603 malarious children older than two but younger than 5 years of age following treatment with artesunate-amodiaquine (AA) or artemether-lumefantrine (AL)...
2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Katarina Starkl Renar, Jernej Iskra, Igor Križaj
Recognized since antiquity, malaria is one of the most infamous and widespread infectious diseases in humans and, although the death rate during the last century has been diminishing, it still accounts for more than a half million deaths annually. It is caused by the Plasmodium parasite and typical symptoms include fever, shivering, headache, diaphoresis and nausea, all resulting from an excessive inflammatory response induced by malarial toxins released into the victim's bloodstream. These toxins are hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Callie A Scott, Asnakew K Yeshiwondim, Belendia Serda, Caterina Guinovart, Berhane H Tesfay, Adem Agmas, Melkamu T Zeleke, Girma S Guesses, Asmamaw L Ayenew, Worku M Workie, Richard W Steketee, Duncan Earle, Belay Bezabih, Asefaw Getachew
BACKGROUND: In areas with ongoing malaria transmission, strategies to clear parasites from populations can reduce infection and transmission. The objective of this paper was to describe a malaria mass testing and treatment (MTAT) intervention implemented in six kebeles (villages) in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, at the beginning of the 2014 transmission season. METHODS: Intervention kebeles were selected based on incidence of passively detected Plasmodium falciparum and mixed (P...
2016: Malaria Journal
Akintunde Sowunmi, Kazeem Akano, Adejumoke I Ayede, Godwin Ntadom, Temitope Aderoyeje, Elsie O Adewoye, Bayo Fatunmbi
BACKGROUND: Late-appearing anaemia (LAA) following treatment with artemisinins for severe malaria has been reported and well described, but there are limited clinical and parasitological data on LAA in African children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria following oral artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). METHODS: This was an open label study with the main objectives of evaluating the clinical features, the risk factors for, the temporal changes in haematocrit and the outcomes of a LAA in malarious children treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (AA), artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP)...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jan Peter Verhave
Until the end of the Second World War, syphilis was a common sexually transmitted infection. This stigmatising infectious disease caused mental decline, paralysis and eventually death. The history of syphilis was given public attention because of 'malaria therapy', which had been applied from the First World War onwards in patients with paralytic dementia. In 1917, the Austrian physician Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) induced fever in these patients by infecting them with malaria parasites; in 1927, he received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the healing properties of malarial fever...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Zeno Bisoffi, Stefania Leoni, Andrea Angheben, Anna Beltrame, Franklyn Esoka Eseme, Federico Gobbi, Claudia Lodesani, Stefania Marocco, Dora Buonfrate
BACKGROUND: Chronic malaria is usually defined as a long-term malarial infection in semi-immune subjects, usually without fever or other acute symptoms. The untreated infection may evolve to hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS), a life-threatening complication. This paper describes the largest series of HMS ever observed outside endemic countries, and the clinical outcome after a single anti-malarial treatment. Contrarily to most authors, still reporting the traditional, long-term treatment, regardless possible further exposure, the patients in this series did not receive any further prophylaxis if they were not re-exposed to malaria infection...
2016: Malaria Journal
Elif Ayşe Çizmeci, Nermin Kelebek Girgin, Ilkay Ceylan, Tekin Tuncel, Oktay Alver, Emin Halis Akalin
Malaria is a parasitic disease that is starting to be encountered in intensive care units (ICU) worldwide, owing to increasing globalisation. Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is characterised by cerebral malaria, acute renal failure, hypoglycaemia, severe anaemia, splenomegaly and alveolar oedema. We present the case of a 25-yr old male patient who presented to the Emergency Department of Uludag University in Bursa, Turkey in the winter of 2014 with complaints of fever for three days. His medical history revealed a 14-month stay in Tanzania...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Magdalena Gaca-Wysocka, Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Leszczyński
Anti-malarial drugs specifically hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or chloroquine (CQ) are very effective in treating and preventing the symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases. These medications have shown to improve joint and muscle pain and arthritis, skin rashes, fatique, fever and also to control systemic signs of lupus as pericarditis or pleuritis. Shortterm and long-term treatment reduce cholesterol and have anti-platelet effect with decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease...
March 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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