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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407772/the-end-of-a-dogma-the-safety-of-doxycycline-use-in-young-children-for-malaria-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Tiphaine Gaillard, Sébastien Briolant, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails...
April 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406330/precarity-and-preparedness-non-adherence-as-institutional-work-in-diagnosing-and-treating-malaria-in-uganda
#2
René Umlauf
Access to anti-malarial drugs is increasingly governed by novel regulation technologies like Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs). However, high-rates of non-adherence particularly to negative RDT results have been reported, threatening the cost-effectiveness of the two interrelated goals of improving diagnosis and reducing the over-prescription of expensive anti-malarial drugs. Below I set out to reconstruct prior treatment forms like presumptive treatment of malaria by paying particular attention to their institutional groundings...
April 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404504/burden-of-asymptomatic-malaria-among-a-tribal-population-in-a-forested-village-of-central-india-a%C3%A2-hidden-challenge-for-malaria-control-in-india
#3
M K Chourasia, K Raghavendra, R M Bhatt, D K Swain, N Valecha, I Kleinschmidt
OBJECTIVE: Chhattisgarh in India is a malaria-endemic state with seven southern districts that contributes approximately 50-60% of the reported malaria cases in the state every year. The problem is further complicated due to asymptomatic malaria cases which are largely responsible for persistent transmission. This study was undertaken in one of the forested villages of the Keshkal subdistrict in Kondagaon district to ascertain the proportion of the population harbouring subclinical malarial infections...
March 21, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372570/malaria-over-diagnosis-in-cameroon-diagnostic-accuracy-of-fluorescence-and-staining-technologies-fast-malaria-stain-and-led-microscopy-versus-giemsa-and-bright-field-microscopy-validated-by-polymerase-chain-reaction
#4
Sean M Parsel, Steven A Gustafson, Edward Friedlander, Alexander A Shnyra, Aderosoye J Adegbulu, Ying Liu, Nicole M Parrish, Syed A Jamal, Eve Lofthus, Leo Ayuk, Charles Awasom, Carolyn J Henry, Carole P McArthur
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major world health issue and its continued burden is due, in part, to difficulties in the diagnosis of the illness. The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory testing using microscopy-based techniques or rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for all cases of suspected malaria. In regions where Plasmodium species are indigenous, there are multiple etiologies of fever leading to misdiagnoses, especially in populations where HIV is prevalent and children. To determine the frequency of malaria infection in febrile patients over an 8-month period at the Regional Hospital in Bamenda, Cameroon, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of the Flourescence and Staining Technology (FAST) Malaria stain and ParaLens Advance(TM) microscopy system (FM) and compared it with conventional bright field microscopy and Giemsa stain (GS)...
April 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320390/false-negative-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-in-rwanda-impact-of-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-lacking-hrp2-and-declining-malaria-transmission
#5
Christina T Kozycki, Noella Umulisa, Stephen Rulisa, Emil I Mwikarago, Jean Pierre Musabyimana, Jean Pierre Habimana, Corine Karema, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) are often used to determine whether persons with fever should be treated with anti-malarials. However, Plasmodium falciparum parasites with a deletion of the hrp2 gene yield false-negative RDTs and there are concerns the sensitivity of HRP2-based RDTs may fall when the intensity of transmission decreases. METHODS: This observational study enrolled 9226 patients at three health centres in Rwanda from April 2014 to April 2015...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219910/severe-plasmodium-knowlesi-with-dengue-coinfection
#6
Mohd Jazman Che Rahim, Nurashikin Mohammad, Alwi Muhd Besari, Wan Syamimee Wan Ghazali
We report a case of severe Plasmodium knowlesi and dengue coinfection in a previously healthy 59-year-old Malay man who presented with worsening shortness of breath, high-grade fever with chills and rigors, dry cough, myalgia, arthralgia, chest discomfort and poor appetite of 1 week duration. There was a history mosquito fogging around his neighbourhood in his hometown. Further history revealed that he went to a forest in Jeli (northern part of Kelantan) 3 weeks prior to the event. Initially he was treated as severe dengue with plasma leakage complicated with type 1 respiratory failure as evidenced by positive serum NS1-antigen and thrombocytopenia...
February 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193740/development-of-delayed-hemolytic-anemia-after-treatment-with-oral-artemether-lumefantrine-in-two-patients-with-severe-falciparum-malaria
#7
Yasuhiro Tsuchido, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Kasumi Toyoda, Moritoshi Iwagami, Kentaro Tochitani, Koh Shinohara, Naokuni Hishiya, Taku Ogawa, Kenji Uno, Kei Kasahara, Yukiteru Ouji, Shigeyuki Kano, Keiichi Mikasa, Tsunehiro Shimizu, Masahide Yoshikawa, Haruhiko Maruyama
Recently, reports of delayed hemolytic anemia after treatment with artemisinin and its derivatives have emerged. Here we report two cases of delayed hemolytic anemia in a patient with severe falciparum malaria after treatment with oral artemether-lumefantrine (AL). The first patient, a 20-year-old Japanese male student, was diagnosed with falciparum malaria and was administered AL. As having a high parasitemia rate (20.6%) was the only severe malaria criterion met in this case and his general condition was stable, we continued with AL treatment...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185296/a-report-of-cerebral-malaria-treated-with-automated-red-blood-cell-exchange
#8
Waseem Q Anani, Gerald P Smith, Mehraboon Irani, Kathleen E Puca
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive automated whole blood or red blood cell exchange (RBCEx) can rapidly decrease malarial hyperparasitemia. Several case reports and series suggest improvement in clinical symptomatology; however, recent Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations concluded that RBCEx has no efficacy as an adjunctive therapy. We present a case of mental status changes secondary to cerebral malaria treated with automated RBCEx resulting in rapid and dramatic neurologic improvement...
February 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153468/anti-malarial-synergy-of-secondary-metabolites-from-morinda-lucida-benth
#9
Bertha Chithambo, Xavier Siwe Noundou, Rui W M Krause
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The roots, stem and leaves of Morinda lucida are used in some African countries as treatment against different types of fevers including yellow fever, malaria, trypanosomiasis and feverish conditions during child birth. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the in vitro cell toxicity and anti-malarial activity of the extracts of stem bark of M. lucida and to identify the secondary metabolites in the extract that may be responsible for this activity...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152649/anti-inflammatory-anti-cholinergic-and-cytotoxic-effects-of-sida-rhombifolia
#10
Siau Hui Mah, Soek Sin Teh, Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee
CONTEXT: Sida (Malvaceae) has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, malarial, gastrointestinal dysentery, fevers, asthma and inflammation. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114942/health-worker-adherence-to-malaria-treatment-guidelines-at-outpatient-health-facilities-in-southern-malawi-following-implementation-of-universal-access-to-diagnostic-testing
#11
Ruth J Namuyinga, Dyson Mwandama, Dubulao Moyo, Austin Gumbo, Peter Troell, Miwako Kobayashi, Monica Shah, Andrew Bauleni, Jodi Vanden Eng, Alexander K Rowe, Don P Mathanga, Laura C Steinhardt
BACKGROUND: Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are essential for reducing malaria mortality. A cross-sectional outpatient health facility (HF) survey was conducted in southern Malawi from January to March 2015 to determine appropriate malaria testing and treatment practices four years after implementation of a policy requiring diagnostic confirmation before treatment. METHODS: Enrolled patients were interviewed, examined and had their health booklet reviewed. Health workers (HWs) were asked about training, supervision and access to the 2013 national malaria treatment guidelines...
January 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057204/acute-respiratory-infection-diarrhoea-and-fever-in-young-children-at-risk-of-intellectual-disability-in-24-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Eric Emerson, Amber Savage
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to (1) estimate the prevalence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms, diarrhoea and fever in the previous two weeks among 3-4 year old children who are/are not at-risk of intellectual disability in 24 low- and middle-income countries and (2) to investigate possible inequities in access to treatment among affected children. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Secondary analysis of Rounds 4 and 5 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 24 low- and middle-income countries (n = 99,934 children)...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895939/malaria-moderate-to-severe-anaemia-and-malarial-anaemia-in-children-at-presentation-to-hospital-in-the-mount-cameroon-area-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Sharon Odmia Sama, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi, Germain Sotoing Taiwe
Background. Malaria remains a major killer of children in Sub-Saharan Africa, while anaemia is a public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Examining the factors associated with moderate to severe anaemia (MdSA) and malarial anaemia as well as the haematological characteristics is essential. Methodology. Children (1-14 years) at presentation at the Regional Hospital Annex-Buea were examined clinically and blood samples were collected for malaria parasite detection and full blood count evaluation...
2016: Anemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842555/low-prevalence-of-laboratory-confirmed-malaria-in-clinically-diagnosed-adult-women-from-the-wakiso-district-of-uganda
#14
Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M Galiwango, Aloysious Ssemaganda, Moses Muwanga, Irene Wesonga, George Miiro, David A Drajole, Kevin C Kain, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S Bagaya, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: The malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has fallen substantially. Nevertheless, malaria remains a serious health concern, and Uganda ranks third in SSA in total malaria burden. Epidemiological studies of adult malaria in Uganda are scarce and little is known about rates of malaria in non-pregnant adult women. This pilot study assessed malaria prevalence among adult women from Wakiso district, historically a highly malaria endemic region. METHODS: Adult women using public health services were screened for malaria, HIV and pregnancy...
November 14, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830190/phenotypic-screens-identify-parasite-genetic-factors-associated-with-malarial-fever-response-in-plasmodium-falciparum-piggybac-mutants
#15
Phaedra Thomas, Jennifer Sedillo, Jenna Oberstaller, Suzanne Li, Min Zhang, Naresh Singh, Chengqi C Q Wang, Kenneth Udenze, Rays H Y Jiang, John H Adams
Malaria remains one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide, with 90% of the malaria deaths in Africa in 2013 attributable to Plasmodium falciparum. The clinical symptoms of malaria include cycles of fever, corresponding to parasite rupture from red blood cells every 48 h. Parasite pathways involved in the parasite's ability to survive the host fever response, and indeed, the functions of ~40% of P. falciparum genes as a whole, are still largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the potential of scalable forward-genetic screening methods to identify genes involved in the host fever response...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825318/prevalence-of-malaria-typhoid-toxoplasmosis-and-rubella-among-febrile-children-in-cameroon
#16
Olivia A Achonduh-Atijegbe, Kenji O Mfuh, Aristid H E Mbange, Jean P Chedjou, Diane W Taylor, Vivek R Nerurkar, Wilfred F Mbacham, Rose Leke
BACKGROUND: The current roll-out of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in many endemic countries has resulted in the reporting of fewer cases of malaria-attributed illnesses. However, lack of knowledge of the prevalence of other febrile illnesses and affordable diagnostic tests means that febrile patients are not managed optimally. This study assessed the prevalence of commonly treatable or preventable febrile illnesses in children between 6 months and 15 years using rapid diagnostic tests at the point-of-care...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821127/treatment-seeking-behaviour-and-associated-costs-for-malaria-in-papua-indonesia
#17
Muhammad Karyana, Angela Devine, Enny Kenangalem, Lenny Burdarm, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Ram Vemuri, Nicholas M Anstey, Emiliana Tjitra, Ric N Price, Shunmay Yeung
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Eastern Indonesia, where multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to describe treatment-seeking behaviour and household costs prior to a change to a unified treatment policy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Mimika district, Papua province in 2006. METHODS: In 2005 a randomized cross-sectional household survey was conducted to collect data on demographics, socio-economic status (SES), treatment-seeking, case management, and household costs...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814767/optimal-price-subsidies-for-appropriate-malaria-testing-and-treatment-behaviour
#18
Kristian Schultz Hansen, Tine Hjernø Lesner, Lars Peter Østerdal
BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice of presumptive diagnosis. A global subsidy on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has recently been suggested to increase access to the most effective malaria treatment. METHODS: Following the recommendation by World Health Organization that parasitological testing should be performed before treatment and ACT prescribed to confirmed cases only, it is investigated in this paper if a subsidy on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) should be incorporated...
November 4, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762108/clinical-and-laboratory-profile-of-hospitalized-malarial-patients-an-agra-based-study
#19
Rajesh Deshwal
OBJECTIVE: The clinical presentations and laboratory profile of malaria has been changing over the years. Therefore this study was undertaken to study the clinical profile and laboratory parameters of malarial patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study was undertaken in military hospital with high prevalence of malaria. A total of 320 patients were studied. All patients tested positive by peripheral blood smear or rapid diagnostic test were included...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737665/therapeutic-efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-from-three-highly-malarious-states-in-india
#20
Praveen K Bharti, Man M Shukla, Pascal Ringwald, Sri Krishna, Pushpendra P Singh, Ajay Yadav, Sweta Mishra, Usha Gahlot, Jai P Malaiya, Amit Kumar, Shambhu Prasad, Pradeep Baghel, Mohan Singh, Jaiprakash Vadadi, Mrigendra P Singh, Maria Dorina G Bustos, Leonard I Ortega, Eva-Maria Christophel, Sher S Kashyotia, Gagan S Sonal, Neeru Singh
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance continues to be a leading threat to malaria control efforts and calls for continued monitoring of waning efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Artesunate + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is used for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India. However, resistance against AS + SP is emerged in northeastern states. Therefore, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the recommended first line treatment for falciparum malaria in north eastern states...
October 13, 2016: Malaria Journal
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