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Malarial fever

Stephen Poyer, Anne Musuva, Nancy Njoki, Robi Okara, Andrea Cutherell, Dana Sievers, Cristina Lussiana, Dorothy Memusi, Rebecca Kiptui, Waqo Ejersa, Stephanie Dolan, Nicole Charman
BACKGROUND: Private sector availability and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) lags behind the public sector in Kenya. Increasing channels through which quality malaria diagnostic services are available can improve access to testing and help meet the target of universal diagnostic testing. Registered pharmacies are currently not permitted to perform blood tests, and evidence of whether malaria RDTs can be used by non-laboratory private providers in line with the national malaria control guidelines is required to inform ongoing policy discussions in Kenya...
March 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
C Bottger, L Bernard, V Briand, C Bougouma, J Triendebeogo, V Ridde
Background: In Africa, fever is the main reason for consultation, with malaria playing a prominent role. Studies have reported that the widespread use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, implemented since 2010, has revealed an increasing proportion of non-malaria acute febrile illnesses (NMAFI). It is an important public health issue because evidence shows that mortality is higher among patients presenting with non-malarial fever than among those with malaria. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the professional practices of healthcare providers in the management of NMAFI in urban and rural sites in Burkina Faso...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Serge David Dago Attemene, Sylvain Beourou, Karim Tuo, Albert Alloh Gnondjui, Abibatou Konate, Andre Offianan Toure, Seraphin Kati-Coulibaly, Joseph Alico Djaman
Malaria is an infectious and deadly parasitic disease, associated with fever, anaemia and other ailments. Unfortunately the upsurge of plasmodium multidrug resistant constrained researchers to look for new effective drugs. Medicinal plants seem to be an unquenchable source of bioactive principles in the treatment of various diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the antiplasmodial activity of two Ivorian medicinal plants. The in vitro activity was evaluated against clinical isolates and Plasmodium falciparum K1 multidrug resistant strain using the fluorescence based SYBR green I assay...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Sabine Dittrich, Latsaniphone Boudthasavong, Dala Keokhamhoung, Weerawat Phuklia, Scott B Craig, Suhella M Tulsiani, Mary-Anne Burns, Steven L Weier, David A B Dance, Viengmon Davong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Mayfong Mayxay, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Paul N Newton, Kate Woods
Leptospirosis is a globally important cause of acute febrile illness, and a common cause of non-malarial fever in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Simple rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are needed to enable health-care workers, particularly in low resource settings, to diagnose leptospirosis early and give timely targeted treatment. This study compared four commercially available RDTs to detect human IgM against Leptospira spp. in a head-to-head prospective evaluation in Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. Patients with an acute febrile illness consistent with leptospirosis ( N = 695) were included in the study during the 2014 rainy season...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
John F Deeken, Hongkun Wang, Marion Hartley, Amrita K Cheema, Brandon Smaglo, Jimmy J Hwang, Aiwu Ruth He, Louis M Weiner, John L Marshall, Giuseppe Giaccone, Stephen Liu, Jim Luecht, Jay Y Spiegel, Michael J Pishvaian
PURPOSE: The artemisinin class of anti-malarial drugs has shown significant anti-cancer activity in pre-clinical models. Proposed anti-cancer mechanisms include DNA damage, inhibition of angiogenesis, TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, and inhibition of signaling pathways. We performed a phase I study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of intravenous artesunate (IV AS). METHODS: Patients were enrolled in an accelerated titration dose escalation study with planned dose levels of 8, 12, 18, 25, 34 and 45 mg/kg given on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle...
March 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Teresa Bleakly Kortz, Alden Blair, Ellen Scarr, Andrew Masozi Mguntha, Gama Bandawe, Ellen Schell, Sally Rankin, Kimberly Baltzell
Objective. To characterize children with non-malarial fever at risk of nonrecovery or worsening in rural Malawi. Methods. This is a subgroup analysis of patients ≤14 years of age from a prospective cohort study in non-malarial fever subjects (temperature ≥37.5°C, or fever within 48 hours, and malaria negative) in southern Malawi cared for at a mobile clinic during the 2016 dry (August to September) or wet (November to December) season. Data collection included chart review and questionnaires; 14-day follow-up was conducted...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
Paul John Huggan, Chin Hin Ng, Jennifer Ho, Raymond Tzer Pin Valentine Lin, Jean-Marc Chavatte
BACKGROUND: Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria infection consisting of a syndrome of febrile intra-vascular haemolysis with severe anaemia and intermittent passage of dark-red to black colour urine. Despite numerous reports and studies of this condition, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes a case of classic blackwater fever in a returning traveller, without prior history of malaria infection nor usage of anti-malarial prophylaxis, treated with two courses of oral artemether-lumefantrine combination therapy...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Dharmendra Bhadauria, Harsh Vardhan, Anupma Kaul, Raj Kumar Sharma, Amit Gupta, Narayan Prasad, Manoj Jain
Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported to occur in patients with falciparum malaria but not uncommon with vivax malaria. AKI, anemia, thrombocytopenia and jaundice is a recurrent finding in severe malaria and can mimic as thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Relationship of malaria with TMA is unclear till date however evidences suggest their association. Methods & Material: We reviewed our electronic database to evaluate relationship of malaria with TMA, of cases of malaria, jaundice and AKI...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mohd Abdullah, Ayesha Tazeen, Malik Hisamuddin, Irshad H Naqvi, Hirday N Verma, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Arthropod-borne infections like malaria, dengue and chikungunya fever are transmitted by mosquitoes. The present report describes an unusual case of mixed infection with malaria, dengue and chikungunya viruses in a 21 year old male patient from New Delhi, India during monsoon season of 2016. The malarial fever was diagnosed by thin slide microscopy and antigen test. Chikungunya virus IgM was detected in the sample by the card test. Dengue and chikungunya viruses were further confirmed by RT-PCR for CprM and E1 gene respectively...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Eric Houpt, Jie Liu, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
The use of fever syndromic surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is an effective approach to determine the prevalence of both malarial and nonmalarial infectious agents. We collected both blood and naso/oro-pharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from consecutive consenting patients ≥ 1 year of age, with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C, and symptom onset of ≤ 5 days. Specimens were analyzed using both acute febrile illness (AFI) and respiratory TaqMan array cards (TAC) for multiagent detection of 56 different bloodstream and respiratory agents...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Fernando Val, Sara Avalos, André Alexandre Gomes, José Evelio Albornoz Zerpa, Gustavo Fontecha, André Machado Siqueira, Quique Bassat, Maria Graças Costa Alecrim, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications are uncommon, but often life-threatening features of Plasmodium vivax malaria. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and lethality associated with such complications among P. vivax malaria patients in a tertiary hospital in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to identify variables associated with severe respiratory complications, intensive care need and death. Medical records from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed aiming to identify all patients diagnosed with P...
December 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
Akintunde Sowunmi, Bayo Fatunmbi, Kazeem Akano, Olubunmi A Wewe, Chimere Agomo, Finomo Finomo, Joy Ebenebe, Nma Jiya, Jose Ambe, Robinson Wammanda, Godwin Ntadom, Olugbenga Mokuolu, George Emechebe, Nnenna Ezeigwe, Adejumoke I Ayede, Elsie O Adewoye, Grace O Gbotosho, Onikepe A Folarin, Christian T Happi, Stephen Oguche, Wellington A Oyibo, Francis Useh
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have remained efficacious treatments of acute falciparum malaria in many endemic areas but there is little evaluation of factors contributing to the anaemia of acute falciparum malaria following long term adoption of ACTs as first-line antimalarials in African children. METHODS: Malarious <5 year-olds randomized to artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatments were followed up clinically for 6 weeks...
December 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jonathan Salerno, Noam Ross, Ria Ghai, Michael Mahero, Dominic A Travis, Thomas R Gillespie, Joel Hartter
Fevers of unknown origin complicate treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and are a global health burden. We examined risk factors of self-reported fever-categorized as "malarial" and "nonmalarial"-in households adjacent to national parks across the Ugandan Albertine Rift, a biodiversity and emerging infectious disease hotspot. Statistical models fitted to these data suggest that perceived nonmalarial fevers of unknown origin were associated with more frequent direct contact with wildlife and with increased distance from parks where wildlife habitat is limited to small forest fragments...
December 2017: EcoHealth
Rupali Awale, Ratnaprabha Maji, Parag Patil, Raghavendra Lingiah, Ashok Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Subhadra Sharma
Malaria, a febrile illness mostly confined to the tropical countries is transmitted by bite of infected female Anopheles mosquito. In 2015 alone, 88% of the malaria burden and 90% deaths due to malaria were confined to the African and Asian countries. Although number of tests are available for rapid diagnosis and screening for malaria, peripheral blood smear examination remains the gold standard. Leishman stain is recommended by WHO however herein we evaluate one of the alternative methods of staining which is simple and rapid...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Mohammed Biset Ayalew
BACKGROUND: As Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries with a great burden of malaria the effectiveness of first line anti-malarial drugs is the major concern. The aim of this study was to synthesize the available evidence on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. This was done by performing a meta-analysis of recent studies conducted in the country on this topic. METHODS: Studies published between January 2010 and January 2017 that reported on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of P...
November 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Chihiro Hasegawa, Masaharu Kudo, Haruhiko Maruyama, Mikio Kimura
Delayed haemolytic anaemia has been reported in association with intravenous artesunate treatment in patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and furthermore, oral artemisinin-based combination therapies including artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have also been incriminated. However, definite cases of delayed haemolytic anaemia associated with AL appear to be scarce, as reported cases were often treated concomitantly with other anti-malarials. In this study, we report a severe case of delayed haemolytic anaemia following AL alone in a Japanese traveller with severe parasitaemia caused by numerous P...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Donald O Apat, John M Gachohi, Mohamed Karama, Jusper R Kiplimo, Sonia E Sachs
BACKGROUND: Malaria case management continues to experience dynamic changes. Building community capacity is instrumental in both prevention and treatment of malaria. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends utilization of well-trained and supervised community health workers (CHWs) to reduce the burden of malaria deaths among children under-5 years of age in Africa. Longitudinally-tracked information on utilization of CHWs by communities in terms of trends in diagnosis of malaria in children under-5 years of age is essential in influencing national and local malaria control policies and strategies...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
Chris Drakeley, Salim Abdulla, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, José Francisco Fernandes, Peter Kremsner, Bertrand Lell, Ludovic Mewono, Bache Emmanuel Bache, Michael Gabriel Mihayo, Omar Juma, Marcel Tanner, Marc Christian Tahita, Halidou Tinto, Salou Diallo, Palpouguini Lompo, Umberto D'Alessandro, Bernhards Ogutu, Lucas Otieno, Solomon Otieno, Walter Otieno, Janet Oyieko, Kwaku Poku Asante, Dominic Bon-Ereme Dery, George Adjei, Elisha Adeniji, Dorcas Atibilla, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Brian Greenwood, Samwel Gesase, John Lusingu, Coline Mahende, Robert Mongi, Method Segeja, Samuel Adjei, Tsiri Agbenyega, Alex Agyekum, Daniel Ansong, John Tanko Bawa, Harry Owusu Boateng, Léonard Dandalo, Veronica Escamilla, Irving Hoffman, Peter Maenje, Francis Martinson, Terrell Carter, Didier Leboulleux, David C Kaslow, Effua Usuf, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Edith Roset Bahmanyar
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum prevalence (PfPR) is a widely used metric for assessing malaria transmission intensity. This study was carried out concurrently with the RTS,S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine Phase III trial and estimated PfPR over ≤ 4 standardized cross-sectional surveys. METHODS: This epidemiology study (NCT01190202) was conducted in 8 sites from 6 countries (Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania), between March 2011 and December 2013...
October 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
Parul D Shah, Tanmay K Mehta
CONTEXT: Despite a wide overlap between endemic areas for two important vector-borne infections, malaria and dengue, published reports of co-infections are scarce till date. AIMS: To find the incidence of dengue and malaria co-infection as well as to ascertain the severity of such dengue and malaria co-infection based on clinical and haematological parameters. SETTING AND DESIGN: Observational, retrospective cross-sectional study was designed including patients who consulted the tertiary care hospital of Ahmedabad seeking treatment for fever compatible with malaria and/or dengue...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ursula Dalrymple, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Sunetra Gupta, Peter W Gething
Suspected malaria cases in Africa increasingly receive a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before antimalarials are prescribed. While this ensures efficient use of resources to clear parasites, the underlying cause of the individual's fever remains unknown due to potential coinfection with a non-malarial febrile illness. Widespread use of RDTs does not necessarily prevent over-estimation of clinical malaria cases or sub-optimal case management of febrile patients. We present a new approach that allows inference of the spatiotemporal prevalence of both Plasmodium falciparum malaria-attributable and non-malarial fever in sub-Saharan African children from 2006 to 2014...
October 16, 2017: ELife
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