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implicit thinking

Upali Nanda, Zofia Rybkowski, Sipra Pati, Adeleh Nejati
OBJECTIVE: To investigate what key stakeholders consider to be the advantages and the opportunities for improvement in using lean thinking and tools in the integrated project delivery (IPD) process. METHOD: A detailed literature review was followed by case study of a Lean-IPD project. Interviews with members of the project leadership team, focus groups with the integrated team as well as the design team, and an online survey of all stakeholders were conducted. ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis and thematic content analysis were used to analyze the data, followed by a plus-delta analysis...
October 5, 2016: HERD
Daphna Oyserman
Culture can be thought of as a set of everyday practices and a core theme-individualism, collectivism, or honor-as well as the capacity to understand each of these themes. In one's own culture, it is easy to fail to see that a cultural lens exists and instead to think that there is no lens at all, only reality. Hence, studying culture requires stepping out of it. There are two main methods to do so: The first involves using between-group comparisons to highlight differences and the second involves using experimental methods to test the consequences of disruption to implicit cultural frames...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Menahem Yeari, Adi Avramovich, Rachel Schiff
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle particularly with grasping the implicit, inferential level of narratives that is crucial for story comprehension. However, these studies used offline tasks (i.e., after story presentation), used indirect measurements (e.g., identifying main ideas), and/or yielded inconclusive results using think-aloud techniques. Moreover, most studies were conducted with preschool or elementary school children with ADHD, using listening or televised story comprehension...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Donghee Yvette Wohn, Caleb T Carr, Rebecca A Hayes
A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs...
September 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Allison J Ouimet, Nancy Bahl, Adam S Radomsky
Research has demonstrated large differences in the degree to which direct and indirect measures predict each other and variables including behavioural approach and attentional bias. We investigated whether individual differences in the co-variance of "implicit" and "explicit" spider fear exist, and whether this covariation exerts an effect on spider fear-related outcomes. One hundred and thirty-two undergraduate students completed direct and indirect measures of spider fear/avoidance, self-report questionnaires of psychopathology, an attentional bias task, and a proxy Behavioural Approach Task...
August 23, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Ed O'Brien, Michael Kardas
The concept of change simply entails the totality of ways in which a particular entity has grown better and grown worse. Five studies suggest that this is not how people actually understand it for themselves. Rather, when asked to assess how they have "changed" over time, people bring to mind only how they have improved and neglect other trajectories (e.g., decline) that they have also experienced; global change is specifically translated as directional change for the better. This tendency emerged across many populations, time frames, measures, and methodologies (Studies 1-3), and led to important downstream effects: people who reflected on "change" from their pasts experienced enhanced mood, meaning, and satisfaction in their presents, precisely because they had assumed to only think about personal improvement (Study 4)...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ellen G Engelhardt, Arwen H Pieterse, Anja van der Hout, Hanneke J C J M de Haes, Judith R Kroep, Patricia Quarles van Ufford-Mannesse, Johanneke E A Portielje, Ellen M A Smets, Anne M Stiggelbout
BACKGROUND: Shared decision making (SDM) is widely advocated, especially for preference-sensitive decisions like those on adjuvant treatment for early-stage cancer. Here, decision making involves a subjective trade-off between benefits and side-effects, and therefore, patients' informed preferences should be taken into account. If clinicians consciously or unconsciously steer patients towards the option they think is in their patients' best interest (i.e. implicit persuasion), they may be unwittingly subverting their own efforts to implement SDM...
October 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Menna Price, Suzanne Higgs, Michelle Lee
OBJECTIVES: Priming a high level construal has been shown to enhance self-control and reduce preference for indulgent food. Subtle visual cues have been shown to enhance the effects of a priming procedure. The current study therefore examined the combined impact of construal level and a visual cue reminder on the consumption of energy-dense snacks. METHOD: A student and community-based adult sample with a wide age and body mass index (BMI) range (N = 176) were randomly assigned to a high or low construal condition in which a novel symbol was embedded...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Jeremy I M Carpendale, Stuart I Hammond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review critically evaluates recent claims that infants have innate knowledge of morality and examines the sources of moral norms. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies show that toddlers readily help adults with daily tasks. A more contentious set of studies suggests that young infants prefer actors who help others to those who hinder them. Some researchers have interpreted these findings as indicating that morality is innately present in humans. Others look to alternative explanations in developmental systems theory...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Albert Weale
Purpose - Noting that discussions of public participation and priority setting typically presuppose certain political theories of democracy, the purpose of this paper is to discuss two theories: the consensual and the agonistic. The distinction is illuminating when considering the difference between institutionalized public participation and contestatory participation. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is a theoretical reconstruction of two ways of thinking about public participation in relation to priority setting in health care, drawing on the work of Habermas, a deliberative theorist, and Mouffe, a theorist of agonism...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Jeffrey S Phillips, Corey T McMillan, Edward E Smith, Murray Grossman
Semantic category learning is dependent upon several factors, including the nature of the learning task, as well as individual differences in the quality and heterogeneity of exemplars that an individual encounters during learning. We trained healthy older adults (n=39) and individuals with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or Mild Cognitive Impairment (n=44) to recognize instances of a fictitious animal, a "crutter". Each stimulus item contained 10 visual features (e.g., color, tail shape) which took one of two values for each feature (e...
July 6, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Kieran Walsh
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly...
March 2016: African Health Sciences
Manish Saggar, Eve-Marie Quintin, Nicholas T Bott, Eliza Kienitz, Yin-Hsuan Chien, Daniel W-C Hong, Ning Liu, Adam Royalty, Grace Hawthorne, Allan L Reiss
Creativity is widely recognized as an essential skill for entrepreneurial success and adaptation to daily-life demands. However, we know little about the neural changes associated with creative capacity enhancement. For the first time, using a prospective, randomized control design, we examined longitudinal changes in brain activity associated with participating in a five-week design-thinking-based Creative Capacity Building Program (CCBP), when compared with Language Capacity Building Program (LCBP). Creativity, an elusive and multifaceted construct, is loosely defined as an ability to produce useful/appropriate and novel outcomes...
June 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Clair Morrissey
The discussion of the nature and value of dignity in and for bioethics concerns not only the importance of the concept but also the aims of bioethics itself. Here, I challenge the claim that the concept of dignity is useless by challenging the implicit conception of usefulness involved. I argue that the conception of usefulness that both opponents and proponents of dignity in bioethics adopt is rooted in a narrow understanding of the role of normative theory in practical ethical thinking. I then offer an alternate understanding of the nature and value of dignity...
June 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Antoine Danchin
Of very ancient descent, domestication switched the outcome of natural selection to that due to human design. A widespread fancy is that man-created contraptions develop dangerously on their own because of their Promethean essence. This assumes implicitly-how difficult is it to refrain from thinking that we are the sawyers of nature!-that their crafted powers would dominate the autonomy resulting from billions of years of evolution. Yet artifice depends on the skills of its creator, so that it is when coming close to nature that danger surfaces...
July 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Moses M Tincher, Lauren A M Lebois, Lawrence W Barsalou
A brief mindfulness intervention diminished bias in favor of one's in-group and against one's out-group. In the linguistic intergroup bias (LIB), individuals expect in-group members to behave positively, and out-group members to behave negatively. Consequently, individuals choose abstract language beset with character inferences to describe these expected behaviors, and in contrast, choose concrete, objective language to describe unexpected behaviors. Eighty-four participants received either mindful attention instructions (observe their thoughts as fleeting mental states) or immersion instructions (become absorbed in the vivid details of thoughts)...
April 2016: Mindfulness
Agata Trzcińska, Katarzyna Sekścińska
The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children's behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Maria M Portuondo
This essay explores the history of several archives that house the early modern records of Spanish imperial science. The modern "archival turn" urges us to think critically about archives and to recognize in the history of these collections an embedded, often implicit, history that--unless properly recognized, acknowledged, and understood--can distort the histories we are trying to tell. This essay uses a curious episode in the history of science to illustrate how Spanish archives relate to each other and shape the collections they house...
March 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
Arthur W Joyce
Working memory (WM) impacts a gamut of cognitive abilities, but implicit WM is typically not considered in assessment or treatment, which may explain the variability of results in reviews of WM training. The role of implicit WM in adaptive behavior is reviewed. All we do is action based. Explicit WM plays a major role when we are required to "think"; that is, when we apply previously learned perception-action linkages in new ways to unique situations. Implicit WM is involved in the automation of behavior, which occurs through interaction with cortical and subcortical systems that guide sensory-motor anticipation and the prediction of reward...
July 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Nicolae Morar, Natalia Washington
This article takes the following two assumptions for granted: first, that gifts influence physicians and, second, that the influences gifts have on physicians may be harmful for patients. These assumptions are common in the applied ethics literature, and they prompt an obvious practical question, namely, what is the best way to mitigate the negative effects? We examine the negative effects of gift giving in depth, considering how the influence occurs, and we assert that the ethical debate surrounding gift-giving practices must be reoriented...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
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