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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438461/backpack-programs-and-the-crisis-narrative-of-child-hunger-a-critical-review-of-the-rationale-targeting-and-potential-benefits-and-harms-of-an-expanding-but-untested-model-of-practice
#1
Maryah S Fram, Edward A Frongillo
In recent years, school-based food backpack programs (BPPs) have come into national prominence as a response to a perceived crisis of child hunger in America. Distributing bags of free food directly to schoolchildren for their own personal consumption each weekend, BPPs bring together private donors, faith communities, and public schools around an intuitively appealing project: children are hungry, and so we give them food. Perhaps because of their intuitive appeal, BPPs have expanded rapidly, without rigorous evaluation to determine their impacts on children, families, and schools...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338674/would-you-be-willing-to-zap-your-child-s-brain-public-perspectives-on-parental-responsibilities-and-the-ethics-of-enhancing-children-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#2
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the US public...
January 17, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336025/how-children-invented-humanity
#3
REVIEW
David F Bjorklund
I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping-off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the "invention" of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315807/karma-or-immortality-can-religion-influence-space-time-mappings
#4
Heng Li, Yu Cao
People implicitly associate the "past" and "future" with "front" and "back" in their minds according to their cultural attitudes toward time. As the temporal focus hypothesis (TFH) proposes, future-oriented people tend to think about time according to the future-in-front mapping, whereas past-oriented people tend to think about time according to the past-in-front mapping (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache, & Casasanto, 2014). Whereas previous studies have demonstrated that culture exerts an important influence on people's implicit spatializations of time, we focus specifically on religion, a prominent layer of culture, as potential additional influence on space-time mappings...
January 9, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283625/the-implicit-revolution-reconceiving-the-relation-between-conscious-and-unconscious
#5
Anthony G Greenwald, Mahzarin R Banaji
In the 1970s, memory researchers converged on interesting phenomena observed in Korsakoff-syndrome amnesic patients. These patients' performances on difficult tasks were reliably improved by practice sessions from which they could recall nothing. Related findings of indirect memory effects in college students triggered wide attention to phenomena that, in 1985, were first identified as implicit memory. Within a decade, the indirect measurement methods of implicit memory research had spread to social psychologists' studies of attitudes and stereotypes...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244527/motivations-for-extradyadic-infidelity-revisited
#6
Dylan Selterman, Justin R Garcia, Irene Tsapelas
Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), most of whom were young adults, self-reported their infidelities. In addition to evidence for previously studied motivations, our data demonstrate additional factors, including lack of love ("I had 'fallen out of love with' my primary partner"), low commitment ("I was not very committed to my primary partner"), esteem ("I wanted to enhance my popularity"), gaining sexual variety ("I wanted a greater variety of sexual partners"), and situational factors ("I was drunk and not thinking clearly")...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167644/lsd-increases-primary-process-thinking-via-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#7
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Helena Aicher, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Oliver G Bosch, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking - an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111359/role-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-explicit-and-implicit-aspects-of-cognitive-flexibility-under-socially-conflicting-situations-a-resting-state-fmri-study-using-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations
#8
Junya Fujino, Shisei Tei, Kathryn F Jankowski, Ryosaku Kawada, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
We are constantly exposed to socially conflicting situations in everyday life, and cognitive flexibility is essential for adaptively coping with such difficulties. Flexible goal choice and pursuit are not exclusively conscious, and therefore cognitive flexibility involves both explicit and implicit forms of processing. However, it is unclear how individual differences in explicit and implicit aspects of flexibility are associated with neural activity in a resting state. Here, we measured intrinsic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) as an indicator of regional brain spontaneous activity, together with explicit and implicit aspects of cognitive flexibility using the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) and Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101842/the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-on-implicit-self-esteem-is-mediated-by-rumination-after-criticism
#9
Rudi De Raedt, Jonathan Remue, Tom Loeys, Jill M Hooley, Chris Baeken
It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. This is because decreased control leads to impaired ability to inhibit ruminative thinking after the activation of negative self-schemas. However, current evidence is mainly correlational. In the current experimental study we tested whether the effect of neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on self-esteem is mediated by momentary ruminative self-referential thinking (MRST) after the induction of negative self-schemas by criticism...
October 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062297/alexithymia-components-are-differentially-related-to-explicit-negative-affect-but-not-associated-with-explicit-positive-affect-or-implicit-affectivity
#10
Thomas Suslow, Uta-Susan Donges
Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058204/valuing-healthcare-improvement-implicit-norms-explicit-normativity-and-human-agency
#11
Stacy M Carter
I argue that greater attention to human agency and normativity in both researching and practicing service improvement may be one strategy for enhancing improvement science, illustrating with examples from cancer screening. Improvement science tends to deliberately avoid explicit normativity, for paradigmatically coherent reasons. But there are good reasons to consider including explicit normativity in thinking about improvement. Values and moral judgements are central to social life, so an adequate account of social life must include these elements...
October 20, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981996/clinical-vignettes-inadequate-to-assess-impact-of-implicit-bias-concerning-limitations-of-a-systematic-review
#12
LETTER
Elizabeth A Samuels, Dowin Boatright, Leon D Sanchez, Sheryl L Heron, Aisha T Liferidge, Taneisha Wilson, Ava Pierce, Alden Landry, Lisa Moreno-Walton, Jeffrey Druck, Joel Moll, Bernard L Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961059/gender-stereotypes
#13
Naomi Ellemers
There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891044/considerations-for-evaluating-treatment-effects-from-randomized-clinical-trials
#14
Stephen J Ruberg, Mouna Akacha
This article focuses on the choice of treatment effect measures in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Traditionally, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis is conducted with an implicit understanding that a treatment-policy effect is of greatest interest. In this article we contend that this approach may not always provide accurate information about clinically meaningful treatment effects, and we present an argument that for any RCT it is desirable to require an explicit definition of what treatment effect is of primary interest, known as the "estimand...
September 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876015/molecular-attochemistry-in-non-polar-liquid-environments-ultrafast-charge-migration-dynamics-through-gold-thiolate-and-gold-selenolate-linkages
#15
Sampad Bag, Sankhabrata Chandra, Atanu Bhattacharya
Molecular attosecond science has already started contributing to our fundamental understanding of ultrafast purely electron dynamics in isolated molecules under vacuum. Extending attosecond science to the liquid phase is expected to offer new insight into the influence of a surrounding solvent environment on the attosecond electron dynamics in solvated molecules. A systematic theoretical investigation of the attochemistry of solvated molecules would help one design attosecond experiments under ambient conditions to explore the attochemistry in a liquid environment...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833979/automatic-affective-responses-towards-the-bed-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia-evidence-for-a-negativity-bias
#16
Nicolas Koranyi, Marie Meinhard, Peter Bublak, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
Ruminating about sleep problems and negatively valenced thinking play a key role in the maintenance of sleep complaints in patients with insomnia. Based on associative learning principles, we hypothesized that repeated co-occurrence of negative thoughts (unconditioned stimulus) and the bedroom environment (conditioned stimulus) results in automatic negative affective responses towards the bed (conditioned response). Twenty-two insomniacs and 22 good sleepers performed a Single-Target Implicit Association Test measuring the strength of automatically triggered affective responses towards the bed...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774832/widespread-neural-oscillations-in-the-delta-band-dissociate-rule-convergence-from-rule-divergence-during-creative-idea-generation
#17
Nathalie Boot, Matthijs Baas, Elisabeth Mühlfeld, Carsten K W de Dreu, Simon van Gaal
Critical to creative cognition and performance is both the generation of multiple alternative solutions in response to open-ended problems (divergent thinking) and a series of cognitive operations that converges on the correct or best possible answer (convergent thinking). Although the neural underpinnings of divergent and convergent thinking are still poorly understood, several electroencephalography (EEG) studies point to differences in alpha-band oscillations between these thinking modes. We reason that, because most previous studies employed typical block designs, these pioneering findings may mainly reflect the more sustained aspects of creative processes that extend over longer time periods, and that still much is unknown about the faster-acting neural mechanisms that dissociate divergent from convergent thinking during idea generation...
September 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758233/exploring-examinee-behaviours-as-validity-evidence-for-multiple-choice-question-examinations
#18
Luke T Surry, Dario Torre, Steven J Durning
CONTEXT: Clinical-vignette multiple choice question (MCQ) examinations are used widely in medical education. Standardised MCQ examinations are used by licensure and certification bodies to award credentials that are meant to assure stakeholders as to the quality of physicians. Such uses are based on the interpretation of MCQ examination performance as giving meaningful information about the quality of clinical reasoning. There are several assumptions foundational to these interpretations and uses of standardised MCQ examinations...
July 31, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756534/statistical-science-a-grammar-for-research
#19
David R Cox
I greatly appreciate the invitation to give this lecture with its century long history. The title is a warning that the lecture is rather discursive and not highly focused and technical. The theme is simple. That statistical thinking provides a unifying set of general ideas and specific methods relevant whenever appreciable natural variation is present. To be most fruitful these ideas should merge seamlessly with subject-matter considerations. By contrast, there is sometimes a temptation to regard formal statistical analysis as a ritual to be added after the serious work has been done, a ritual to satisfy convention, referees, and regulatory agencies...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712123/substance-misuse-intervention-research-in-remote-indigenous-australian-communities-since-the-nhmrc-roadmap
#20
Veronica E Graham, Sandra Campbell, Caryn West, Alan R Clough
OBJECTIVE: Describe program theories of substance misuse interventions with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) since the 'Roadmap' for Indigenous health. METHODS: Projects funded 2003-2013 were categorised by intervention strategies. Realist concepts informed the program theory: intended resources and responses; influence of context on outcomes; explicit and implicit program assumptions...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
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