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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593053/functional-organization-of-the-temporal-parietal-junction-for-theory-of-mind-in-preverbal-infants-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#1
Daniel C Hyde, Charline E Simon, Fransisca Ting, Julia Nikolaeva
Successful human social life requires imagining what others believe or think to understand and predict behavior. This ability, often referred to as theory of mind, reliably engages a specialized network of temporal and prefrontal brain regions in older children and adults, including selective recruitment of temporal-parietal junction (TPJ). To date, how and when this specialized brain organization for ToM arises is unknown due to limitations in functional neuroimaging at younger ages. Here we employed the emerging technique of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure the functional brain response across the parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions in 7-month old male and female infants as they viewed different video scenarios of a person searching for a hidden object...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525978/mental-footnotes-knowledge-constructivism-from-logical-thinking-and-personal-beliefs-to-social-rationality-and-spiritual-freedom
#2
Jose Luis Vilchez
Cognition is an efficient but limited system that deals with mundane tasks. Daily life demands the system to save energy in order to be able to solve other more relevant tasks. Reasoning out every single problem would immeasurably increase our mental load and fatigue. Our minds avoid this waste of resources by taking shortcuts when reasoning. Outputs from previous episodes of reasoning turn into pieces of implicit information. These outputs go on to constitute the meanings that we give to things or circumstances, which in turn become the general framework where other reasonings occur...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504683/imaginal-action-towards-a-jungian-conception-of-enactment-and-an-extraverted-counterpart-to-active-imagination
#3
Robin S Brown
This theoretical paper considers the fashion in which Jung's psychology radically challenges modern assumptions concerning the nature of subjectivity. With an eye for the clinical implications of Jung's late work, the author introduces the idea of imaginal action. In order to explain what is meant by this, the paper begins by exploring how Jung's thinking demonstrates an underlying bias towards introversion. It is argued that while Jung's interest in synchronicity ultimately resulted in his developing a worldview that might address the introverted biases of his psychology, the clinical implications of this shift have not been sufficiently clarified...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496340/evolutionary-community-ecology-time-to-think-outside-the-taxonomic-box
#4
REVIEW
Taylor M Wilcox, Michael K Schwartz, Winsor H Lowe
Ecologists and evolutionary biologists have long been interested in the role of interspecific competition in the diversification of clades. These studies often focus on a single taxonomic group, making the implicit assumption that important competitive interactions occur only between closely related taxa, despite abundant documentation of intense competition between species that are distantly related. Specifically, this assumption ignores convergence of distantly related competitors on limiting niche axes and thus may miss cryptic effects of distantly related competitors on the evolution of focal clades...
February 26, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438461/backpack-programs-and-the-crisis-narrative-of-child-hunger-a-critical-review-of-the-rationale-targeting-and-potential-benefits-and-harms-of-an-expanding-but-untested-model-of-practice
#5
Maryah S Fram, Edward A Frongillo
In recent years, school-based food backpack programs (BPPs) have come into national prominence as a response to a perceived crisis of child hunger in America. Distributing bags of free food directly to schoolchildren for their own personal consumption each weekend, BPPs bring together private donors, faith communities, and public schools around an intuitively appealing project: children are hungry, and so we give them food. Perhaps because of their intuitive appeal, BPPs have expanded rapidly, without rigorous evaluation to determine their impacts on children, families, and schools...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338674/would-you-be-willing-to-zap-your-child-s-brain-public-perspectives-on-parental-responsibilities-and-the-ethics-of-enhancing-children-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#6
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the U...
January 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336025/how-children-invented-humanity
#7
REVIEW
David F Bjorklund
I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping-off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the "invention" of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315807/karma-or-immortality-can-religion-influence-space-time-mappings
#8
Heng Li, Yu Cao
People implicitly associate the "past" and "future" with "front" and "back" in their minds according to their cultural attitudes toward time. As the temporal focus hypothesis (TFH) proposes, future-oriented people tend to think about time according to the future-in-front mapping, whereas past-oriented people tend to think about time according to the past-in-front mapping (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache, & Casasanto, 2014). Whereas previous studies have demonstrated that culture exerts an important influence on people's implicit spatializations of time, we focus specifically on religion, a prominent layer of culture, as potential additional influence on space-time mappings...
January 9, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283625/the-implicit-revolution-reconceiving-the-relation-between-conscious-and-unconscious
#9
Anthony G Greenwald, Mahzarin R Banaji
In the 1970s, memory researchers converged on interesting phenomena observed in Korsakoff-syndrome amnesic patients. These patients' performances on difficult tasks were reliably improved by practice sessions from which they could recall nothing. Related findings of indirect memory effects in college students triggered wide attention to phenomena that, in 1985, were first identified as implicit memory. Within a decade, the indirect measurement methods of implicit memory research had spread to social psychologists' studies of attitudes and stereotypes...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244527/motivations-for-extradyadic-infidelity-revisited
#10
Dylan Selterman, Justin R Garcia, Irene Tsapelas
Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), most of whom were young adults, self-reported their infidelities. In addition to evidence for previously studied motivations, our data demonstrate additional factors, including lack of love ("I had 'fallen out of love with' my primary partner"), low commitment ("I was not very committed to my primary partner"), esteem ("I wanted to enhance my popularity"), gaining sexual variety ("I wanted a greater variety of sexual partners"), and situational factors ("I was drunk and not thinking clearly")...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167644/lsd-increases-primary-process-thinking-via-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation
#11
Rainer Kraehenmann, Dan Pokorny, Helena Aicher, Katrin H Preller, Thomas Pokorny, Oliver G Bosch, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking - an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111359/role-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-explicit-and-implicit-aspects-of-cognitive-flexibility-under-socially-conflicting-situations-a-resting-state-fmri-study-using-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations
#12
Junya Fujino, Shisei Tei, Kathryn F Jankowski, Ryosaku Kawada, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
We are constantly exposed to socially conflicting situations in everyday life, and cognitive flexibility is essential for adaptively coping with such difficulties. Flexible goal choice and pursuit are not exclusively conscious, and therefore cognitive flexibility involves both explicit and implicit forms of processing. However, it is unclear how individual differences in explicit and implicit aspects of flexibility are associated with neural activity in a resting state. Here, we measured intrinsic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) as an indicator of regional brain spontaneous activity, together with explicit and implicit aspects of cognitive flexibility using the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) and Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
December 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101842/the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-on-implicit-self-esteem-is-mediated-by-rumination-after-criticism
#13
Rudi De Raedt, Jonathan Remue, Tom Loeys, Jill M Hooley, Chris Baeken
It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. This is because decreased control leads to impaired ability to inhibit ruminative thinking after the activation of negative self-schemas. However, current evidence is mainly correlational. In the current experimental study we tested whether the effect of neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on self-esteem is mediated by momentary ruminative self-referential thinking (MRST) after the induction of negative self-schemas by criticism...
October 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062297/alexithymia-components-are-differentially-related-to-explicit-negative-affect-but-not-associated-with-explicit-positive-affect-or-implicit-affectivity
#14
Thomas Suslow, Uta-Susan Donges
Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058204/valuing-healthcare-improvement-implicit-norms-explicit-normativity-and-human-agency
#15
Stacy M Carter
I argue that greater attention to human agency and normativity in both researching and practicing service improvement may be one strategy for enhancing improvement science, illustrating with examples from cancer screening. Improvement science tends to deliberately avoid explicit normativity, for paradigmatically coherent reasons. But there are good reasons to consider including explicit normativity in thinking about improvement. Values and moral judgements are central to social life, so an adequate account of social life must include these elements...
October 20, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981996/clinical-vignettes-inadequate-to-assess-impact-of-implicit-bias-concerning-limitations-of-a-systematic-review
#16
LETTER
Elizabeth A Samuels, Dowin Boatright, Leon D Sanchez, Sheryl L Heron, Aisha T Liferidge, Taneisha Wilson, Ava Pierce, Alden Landry, Lisa Moreno-Walton, Jeffrey Druck, Joel Moll, Bernard L Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961059/gender-stereotypes
#17
Naomi Ellemers
There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891044/considerations-for-evaluating-treatment-effects-from-randomized-clinical-trials
#18
Stephen J Ruberg, Mouna Akacha
This article focuses on the choice of treatment effect measures in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Traditionally, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis is conducted with an implicit understanding that a treatment-policy effect is of greatest interest. In this article we contend that this approach may not always provide accurate information about clinically meaningful treatment effects, and we present an argument that for any RCT it is desirable to require an explicit definition of what treatment effect is of primary interest, known as the "estimand...
December 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876015/molecular-attochemistry-in-non-polar-liquid-environments-ultrafast-charge-migration-dynamics-through-gold-thiolate-and-gold-selenolate-linkages
#19
Sampad Bag, Sankhabrata Chandra, Atanu Bhattacharya
Molecular attosecond science has already started contributing to our fundamental understanding of ultrafast purely electron dynamics in isolated molecules under vacuum. Extending attosecond science to the liquid phase is expected to offer new insight into the influence of a surrounding solvent environment on the attosecond electron dynamics in solvated molecules. A systematic theoretical investigation of the attochemistry of solvated molecules would help one design attosecond experiments under ambient conditions to explore the attochemistry in a liquid environment...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833979/automatic-affective-responses-towards-the-bed-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia-evidence-for-a-negativity-bias
#20
Nicolas Koranyi, Marie Meinhard, Peter Bublak, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
Ruminating about sleep problems and negatively valenced thinking play a key role in the maintenance of sleep complaints in patients with insomnia. Based on associative learning principles, we hypothesized that repeated co-occurrence of negative thoughts (unconditioned stimulus) and the bedroom environment (conditioned stimulus) results in automatic negative affective responses towards the bed (conditioned response). Twenty-two insomniacs and 22 good sleepers performed a Single-Target Implicit Association Test measuring the strength of automatically triggered affective responses towards the bed...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
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