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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981996/clinical-vignettes-inadequate-to-assess-impact-of-implicit-bias-concerning-limitations-of-a-systematic-review
#1
Elizabeth A Samuels, Dowin H Boatright, Leon Sanchez, Sheryl Heron, Aisha T Liferidge, Taneisha Wilson, Ava Pierce, Alden Landry, Lisa Moreno-Walton, Jeffrey Druck, Joel Moll, Bernard Lopez
We are writing in response to Dehon et al's article "A Systematic Review of the Impact of Physician Implicit Racial Bias on Clinical Decision Making"(1) in the August 2017 issue of Academic Emergency Medicine. As members of SAEM's Academy of Diversity and Inclusion in Emergency Medicine, we believe it is imperative to pursue research on the impact of bias and discrimination on clinical practice and healthcare outcomes. While we commend Dr. Dehon and her colleagues for their effort to assess the impact of implicit bias on clinical decision-making, we do not think that the evidence reviewed supports the breadth of their conclusions...
October 5, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961059/gender-stereotypes
#2
Naomi Ellemers
There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891044/considerations-for-evaluating-treatment-effects-from-randomized-clinical-trials
#3
Stephen J Ruberg, Mouna Akacha
This paper focuses on the choice of treatment effect measures in randomized clinical trials (RCT). Traditionally, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis is conducted with an implicit understanding that a treatment-policy effect is of greatest interest. In this paper we contend that this approach may not always provide accurate information about clinically meaningful treatment effects, and we present an argument that for any RCT it is desirable to require an explicit definition of what treatment effect is of primary interest, known as the 'estimand'...
September 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876015/molecular-attochemistry-in-non-polar-liquid-environments-ultrafast-charge-migration-dynamics-through-gold-thiolate-and-gold-selenolate-linkages
#4
Sampad Bag, Sankhabrata Chandra, Atanu Bhattacharya
Molecular attosecond science has already started contributing to our fundamental understanding of ultrafast purely electron dynamics in isolated molecules under vacuum. Extending attosecond science to the liquid phase is expected to offer new insight into the influence of a surrounding solvent environment on the attosecond electron dynamics in solvated molecules. A systematic theoretical investigation of the attochemistry of solvated molecules would help one design attosecond experiments under ambient conditions to explore the attochemistry in a liquid environment...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833979/automatic-affective-responses-towards-the-bed-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia-evidence-for-a-negativity-bias
#5
Nicolas Koranyi, Marie Meinhard, Peter Bublak, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
Ruminating about sleep problems and negatively valenced thinking play a key role in the maintenance of sleep complaints in patients with insomnia. Based on associative learning principles, we hypothesized that repeated co-occurrence of negative thoughts (unconditioned stimulus) and the bedroom environment (conditioned stimulus) results in automatic negative affective responses towards the bed (conditioned response). Twenty-two insomniacs and 22 good sleepers performed a Single-Target Implicit Association Test measuring the strength of automatically triggered affective responses towards the bed...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774832/widespread-neural-oscillations-in-the-delta-band-dissociate-rule-convergence-from-rule-divergence-during-creative-idea-generation
#6
Nathalie Boot, Matthijs Baas, Elisabeth Mühlfeld, Carsten K W de Dreu, Simon van Gaal
Critical to creative cognition and performance is both the generation of multiple alternative solutions in response to open-ended problems (divergent thinking) and a series of cognitive operations that converges on the correct or best possible answer (convergent thinking). Although the neural underpinnings of divergent and convergent thinking are still poorly understood, several electroencephalography (EEG) studies point to differences in alpha-band oscillations between these thinking modes. We reason that, because most previous studies employed typical block designs, these pioneering findings may mainly reflect the more sustained aspects of creative processes that extend over longer time periods, and that still much is unknown about the faster-acting neural mechanisms that dissociate divergent from convergent thinking during idea generation...
September 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758233/exploring-examinee-behaviours-as-validity-evidence-for-multiple-choice-question-examinations
#7
Luke T Surry, Dario Torre, Steven J Durning
CONTEXT: Clinical-vignette multiple choice question (MCQ) examinations are used widely in medical education. Standardised MCQ examinations are used by licensure and certification bodies to award credentials that are meant to assure stakeholders as to the quality of physicians. Such uses are based on the interpretation of MCQ examination performance as giving meaningful information about the quality of clinical reasoning. There are several assumptions foundational to these interpretations and uses of standardised MCQ examinations...
July 31, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756534/statistical-science-a-grammar-for-research
#8
David R Cox
I greatly appreciate the invitation to give this lecture with its century long history. The title is a warning that the lecture is rather discursive and not highly focused and technical. The theme is simple. That statistical thinking provides a unifying set of general ideas and specific methods relevant whenever appreciable natural variation is present. To be most fruitful these ideas should merge seamlessly with subject-matter considerations. By contrast, there is sometimes a temptation to regard formal statistical analysis as a ritual to be added after the serious work has been done, a ritual to satisfy convention, referees, and regulatory agencies...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712123/substance-misuse-intervention-research-in-remote-indigenous-australian-communities-since-the-nhmrc-roadmap
#9
Veronica E Graham, Sandra Campbell, Caryn West, Alan R Clough
OBJECTIVE: Describe program theories of substance misuse interventions with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) since the 'Roadmap' for Indigenous health. METHODS: Projects funded 2003-2013 were categorised by intervention strategies. Realist concepts informed the program theory: intended resources and responses; influence of context on outcomes; explicit and implicit program assumptions...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686605/does-the-implicit-models-of-leadership-influence-the-scanning-of-other-race-faces-in-adults
#10
Iain L Densten, Luc Borrowman
The current study aims to identify the relationships between implicit leadership theoretical (ILT) prototypes / anti-prototype and five facial features (i.e., nasion, upper nose, lower nose, and upper lip) of a leader from a different race than respondents. A sample of 81 Asian respondents viewed a 30-second video of a Caucasian female who in a non-engaging manner talked about her career achievements. As participants watch the video, their eye movements were recorded via an eye tracking devise. While previous research has identified that ILT influences perceptional and attitudinal ratings of leaders, the current study extends these findings by confirming the impact of ILT on the gaze patterns of other race participants, who appear to adopt system one type thinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675456/implicit-identification-with-death-predicts-change-in-suicide-ideation-during-psychiatric-treatment-in-adolescents
#11
Catherine R Glenn, Evan M Kleiman, Daniel D L Coppersmith, Angela C Santee, Erika C Esposito, Christine B Cha, Matthew K Nock, Randy P Auerbach
BACKGROUND: Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are major public health concerns in youth. Unfortunately, knowledge of reliable predictors of suicide risk in adolescents is limited. Promising research using a death stimuli version of the Implicit Association Test (Death IAT) indicates that stronger identification with death differs between adults with and without a history of suicidal thoughts and behaviors and uniquely predicts suicide ideation and behavior. However, research in adolescents is lacking and existing findings have been mixed...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644791/culture-and-moral-distress-what-s-the-connection-and-why-does-it-matter
#12
Nancy Berlinger, Annalise Berlinger
Culture is learned behavior shared among members of a group and from generation to generation within that group. In health care work, references to "culture" may also function as code for ethical uncertainty or moral distress concerning patients, families, or populations. This paper analyzes how culture can be a factor in patient-care situations that produce moral distress. It discusses three common, problematic situations in which assumptions about culture may mask more complex problems concerning family dynamics, structural barriers to health care access, or implicit bias...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635107/new-space-time-metaphors-foster-new-nonlinguistic-representations
#13
Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like "breakfast is above dinner" or "breakfast is below dinner" (depending on condition). In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left-right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a lifetime of visuospatial experience reading and writing text from left to right...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604034/emotions-and-concerns-situational-evidence-for-their-systematic-co-occurrence
#14
Jozefien De Leersnyder, Peter Koval, Peter Kuppens, Batja Mesquita
People experience emotions when events are relevant to their current concerns, that is, when events affect their goals, values, or motives that are pertinent at that time. In the current research, we focused on one kind of concern-values-and examined whether different types of concerns are associated with different categories of emotion. More specifically, we investigated whether, at the situation level, the relevance of different types of values is linked to the intensity of different types of emotional experience...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603875/impairments-of-spontaneous-and-deliberative-mentalizing-co-occur-yet-dissociate-in-schizophrenia
#15
Robyn Langdon, Michaela Flynn, Emily Connaughton, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Evidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others' mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing. METHODS: Forty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598040/doing-the-research-that-informs-practice-a-retrospective-view-of-one-group-s-attempt-to-study-the-teaching-and-learning-of-organic-chemistry
#16
George M Bodner, Rob Ferguson, Selçuk Çalimsiz
The idea that the focus of educational research should be on results that can inform the practice of teaching has been an implicit assumption for so many years that one would be hard-pressed to trace it back to an individual source. At one time, the people doing such research in STEM disciplines were faculty in schools or colleges of education who focused on K-12 classrooms and looked for ideas, concepts, and principles that would be valid across a range of STEM disciplines. Eventually, this research was done on college- or university-level students, as well, and there was a shift toward what has been called discipline-based educational research (DBER) that looks at the problems associated with the teaching and learning of a given discipline, such as chemistry...
July 4, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594366/rf-emf-risk-perception-revisited-is-the-focus-on-concern-sufficient-for-risk-perception-studies
#17
Peter M Wiedemann, Frederik Freudenstein, Christoph Böhmert, Joe Wiart, Rodney J Croft
An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584870/the-inventory-as-a-core-element-in-the-further-development-of-the-science-curriculum-in-the-mannheim-reformed-curriculum-of-medicine
#18
Julia Eckel, Katrin Schüttpelz-Brauns, Thomas Miethke, Alexandra Rolletschek, Harald M Fritz
Introduction: The German Council of Science and Humanities as well as a number of medical professional associations support the strengthening of scientific competences by developing longitudinal curricula for teaching scientific competences in the undergraduate medical education. The National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) has also defined medical scientific skills as learning objectives in addition to the role of the scholar. The development of the Mannheim science curriculum started with a systematic inventory of the teaching of scientific competences in the Mannheim Reformed Curriculum of Medicine (MaReCuM)...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547630/distinguishing-family-from-friends-implicit-cognitive-differences-regarding-general-dispositions-attitude-similarity-and-group-membership
#19
Rick O'Gorman, Ruth Roberts
Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family...
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542847/-american%C3%A2-%C3%A2-english-speaker-before-american%C3%A2-%C3%A2-white-the-development-of-children-s-reasoning-about-nationality
#20
Jasmine M DeJesus, Hyesung G Hwang, Jocelyn B Dautel, Katherine D Kinzler
Adults implicitly judge people from certain social backgrounds as more "American" than others. This study tests the development of children's reasoning about nationality and social categories. Children across cultures (White and Korean American children in the United States, Korean children in South Korea) judged the nationality of individuals varying in race and language. Across cultures, 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 100) categorized English speakers as "American" and Korean speakers as "Korean" regardless of race, suggesting that young children prioritize language over race when thinking about nationality...
May 24, 2017: Child Development
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