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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029348/ethnic-identity-and-paranoid-thinking-implicit-out-group-preference-and-language-dominance-predict-paranoia-in-emirati-women
#1
Justin Thomas, Richard P Bentall, Lowri Hadden, Lily O'Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychotic experiences including persecutory beliefs are elevated among immigrant and minority populations, especially when living in low ethnic density neighbourhoods (the ethnic density effect). Discrimination, victimization and experiencing a sense of 'not belonging' are hypothesized to play a role in this effect. Because a secure ethnic identity protects against poor self-esteem it may also protect against paranoia. This study explores the relationship between language proficiency (Arabic/English), in-group identity (implicit and explicit) and paranoia in female Emirati university students...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011016/engineering-imaginaries-anticipatory-foresight-for-solar-radiation-management-governance
#2
Sean Low
Since solar radiation management (SRM) technologies do not yet exist and capacities to model their impacts are limited, proposals for its governance are implicitly designed not around realities, but possibilities - baskets of risk and benefit that are often components of future imaginaries. This paper reports on the project Solar Radiation Management: Foresight for Governance (SRM4G), which aimed to encourage an anticipatory mode of thinking about the future of an engineered climate. Leveraging the participation of 15 scholars and practitioners heavily engaged in early conversations on SRM governance, SRM4G applied scenario construction to generate a set of alternative futures leading to 2030, each exercising different influences on the need for - and challenges associated with - development of SRM technologies...
December 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005546/health-promotion-in-an-age-of-normative-equity-and-rampant-inequality
#3
EDITORIAL
Ronald Labonté
The world was different when the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was released 30 years ago. Concerns over the environment and what we now call the 'social determinants of health' were prominent in 1986. But the acceleration of ecological crises and economic inequalities since then, in a more complex and multi-polar world, pose dramatically new challenges for those committed to the original vision of the Charter. Can the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agreed to by all the world's governments, offer a new advocacy and programmatic platform for a renewal of health promotion's founding ethos? Critiqued from both the right and the left for, respectively, their aspirational idealism and lack of political analysis, the SDGs are an imperfect but still compelling normative statement of how much of the world thinks the world should look like...
July 18, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941002/reducing-stigma-and-punitive-attitudes-toward-pedophiles-through-narrative-humanization
#4
Craig A Harper, Ross M Bartels, Todd E Hogue
Stigmatization and societal punitiveness about pedophilia have a range of potential consequences, such as the social isolation of people with sexual interest in children, and the formation of policies that are not consistent with empirical research findings. Previous research has shown that people with pedophilic sexual interests use societal thinking to self-stigmatize, which in turn may actually serve to increase their risk of committing a sexual offense. In this study, we compared two attitudinal interventions (first-person narrative vs...
December 9, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896539/why-health-and-social-care-support-for-people-with-long-term-conditions-should-be-oriented-towards-enabling-them-to-live-well
#5
Vikki A Entwistle, Alan Cribb, John Owens
There are various reasons why efforts to promote "support for self-management" have rarely delivered the kinds of sustainable improvements in healthcare experiences, health and wellbeing that policy leaders internationally have hoped for. This paper explains how the basis of failure is in some respects built into the ideas that underpin many of these efforts. When (the promotion of) support for self-management is narrowly oriented towards educating and motivating patients to adopt the behaviours recommended for disease control, it implicitly reflects and perpetuates limited and somewhat instrumental views of patients...
November 28, 2016: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893345/quo-vadis-the-future-of-psychoanalysis
#6
Mauricio Cortina
Although contemporary psychoanalysis is split into different schools and traditions, there is growing support for some of the main tenets of contemporary psychodynamic thinking from attachment theory, infant research, developmental psychopathology, new models of motivation, the neuroscience of emotions and emotional regulation, and the discovery of different implicit and explicit memory systems. These tenets, which psychodynamic clinicians of all stripes encounter in their daily work with clients, are the following: (1) that large footprints are left over from infancy and childhood which involved insensitive, intrusive, frightening, or shaming care; (2) the carryover of these relational experiences into adulthood are expressed as unconscious expectations and attributions we make of others (transference and countertransference; (3) defensive processes and emotional regulation and deregulatory patterns develop to cope with these unhealthy relations...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833844/weight-stigma-and-eating-behaviors-on-a-college-campus-are-students-immune-to-stigma-s-effects
#7
Alexandra Brewis, Stephanie Brennhofer, Irene van Woerden, Meg Bruening
College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit) and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808534/how-implicit-theories-of-sexuality-shape-sexual-and-relationship-well-being
#8
Jessica A Maxwell, Amy Muise, Geoff MacDonald, Lisa C Day, Natalie O Rosen, Emily A Impett
How do people believe they can best maintain sexual satisfaction in their romantic relationships? In the current research, we draw upon the literature on implicit theories of relationships to develop and validate a scale examining 2 types of lay beliefs about how sexual satisfaction can be maintained over time. Individuals high in sexual growth beliefs think that sexual satisfaction is attained from hard work and effort, whereas individuals high in sexual destiny beliefs think that sexual satisfaction is attained through finding a compatible sexual partner...
February 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708061/a-value-analysis-of-lean-processes-in-target-value-design-and-integrated-project-delivery-stakeholder-perception
#9
Upali Nanda, Zofia Rybkowski, Sipra Pati, Adeleh Nejati
OBJECTIVE: To investigate what key stakeholders consider to be the advantages and the opportunities for improvement in using lean thinking and tools in the integrated project delivery (IPD) process. METHOD: A detailed literature review was followed by case study of a Lean-IPD project. Interviews with members of the project leadership team, focus groups with the integrated team as well as the design team, and an online survey of all stakeholders were conducted. ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis and thematic content analysis were used to analyze the data, followed by a plus-delta analysis...
October 5, 2016: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687120/culture-three-ways-culture-and-subcultures-within-countries
#10
Daphna Oyserman
Culture can be thought of as a set of everyday practices and a core theme-individualism, collectivism, or honor-as well as the capacity to understand each of these themes. In one's own culture, it is easy to fail to see that a cultural lens exists and instead to think that there is no lens at all, only reality. Hence, studying culture requires stepping out of it. There are two main methods to do so: The first involves using between-group comparisons to highlight differences and the second involves using experimental methods to test the consequences of disruption to implicit cultural frames...
September 21, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681540/online-inferential-and-textual-processing-by-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-during-reading-comprehension-evidence-from-a-probing-method
#11
Menahem Yeari, Adi Avramovich, Rachel Schiff
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle particularly with grasping the implicit, inferential level of narratives that is crucial for story comprehension. However, these studies used offline tasks (i.e., after story presentation), used indirect measurements (e.g., identifying main ideas), and/or yielded inconclusive results using think-aloud techniques. Moreover, most studies were conducted with preschool or elementary school children with ADHD, using listening or televised story comprehension...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635443/how-affective-is-a-like-the-effect-of-paralinguistic-digital-affordances-on-perceived-social-support
#12
Donghee Yvette Wohn, Caleb T Carr, Rebecca A Hayes
A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs...
September 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552192/thinking-high-but-feeling-low-an-exploratory-cluster-analysis-investigating-how-implicit-and-explicit-spider-fear-co-vary
#13
Allison J Ouimet, Nancy Bahl, Adam S Radomsky
Research has demonstrated large differences in the degree to which direct and indirect measures predict each other and variables including behavioural approach and attentional bias. We investigated whether individual differences in the co-variance of "implicit" and "explicit" spider fear exist, and whether this covariation exerts an effect on spider fear-related outcomes. One hundred and thirty-two undergraduate students completed direct and indirect measures of spider fear/avoidance, self-report questionnaires of psychopathology, an attentional bias task, and a proxy Behavioural Approach Task...
August 23, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537272/the-implicit-meaning-of-my-change
#14
Ed O'Brien, Michael Kardas
The concept of change simply entails the totality of ways in which a particular entity has grown better and grown worse. Five studies suggest that this is not how people actually understand it for themselves. Rather, when asked to assess how they have "changed" over time, people bring to mind only how they have improved and neglect other trajectories (e.g., decline) that they have also experienced; global change is specifically translated as directional change for the better. This tendency emerged across many populations, time frames, measures, and methodologies (Studies 1-3), and led to important downstream effects: people who reflected on "change" from their pasts experienced enhanced mood, meaning, and satisfaction in their presents, precisely because they had assumed to only think about personal improvement (Study 4)...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525573/use-of-implicit-persuasion-in-decision-making-about-adjuvant-cancer-treatment-a-potential-barrier-to-shared-decision-making
#15
Ellen G Engelhardt, Arwen H Pieterse, Anja van der Hout, Hanneke J C J M de Haes, Judith R Kroep, Patricia Quarles van Ufford-Mannesse, Johanneke E A Portielje, Ellen M A Smets, Anne M Stiggelbout
BACKGROUND: Shared decision making (SDM) is widely advocated, especially for preference-sensitive decisions like those on adjuvant treatment for early-stage cancer. Here, decision making involves a subjective trade-off between benefits and side-effects, and therefore, patients' informed preferences should be taken into account. If clinicians consciously or unconsciously steer patients towards the option they think is in their patients' best interest (i.e. implicit persuasion), they may be unwittingly subverting their own efforts to implement SDM...
October 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505217/snack-intake-is-reduced-using-an-implicit-high-level-construal-cue
#16
Menna Price, Suzanne Higgs, Michelle Lee
OBJECTIVES: Priming a high level construal has been shown to enhance self-control and reduce preference for indulgent food. Subtle visual cues have been shown to enhance the effects of a priming procedure. The current study therefore examined the combined impact of construal level and a visual cue reminder on the consumption of energy-dense snacks. METHOD: A student and community-based adult sample with a wide age and body mass index (BMI) range (N = 176) were randomly assigned to a high or low construal condition in which a novel symbol was embedded...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496058/the-development-of-moral-sense-and-moral-thinking
#17
Jeremy I M Carpendale, Stuart I Hammond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review critically evaluates recent claims that infants have innate knowledge of morality and examines the sources of moral norms. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies show that toddlers readily help adults with daily tasks. A more contentious set of studies suggests that young infants prefer actors who help others to those who hinder them. Some researchers have interpreted these findings as indicating that morality is innately present in humans. Others look to alternative explanations in developmental systems theory...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468774/between-consensus-and-contestation
#18
Albert Weale
Purpose - Noting that discussions of public participation and priority setting typically presuppose certain political theories of democracy, the purpose of this paper is to discuss two theories: the consensual and the agonistic. The distinction is illuminating when considering the difference between institutionalized public participation and contestatory participation. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is a theoretical reconstruction of two ways of thinking about public participation in relation to priority setting in health care, drawing on the work of Habermas, a deliberative theorist, and Mouffe, a theorist of agonism...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394151/category-learning-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-normal-cognitive-aging-depends-on-initial-experience-of-feature-variability
#19
Jeffrey S Phillips, Corey T McMillan, Edward E Smith, Murray Grossman
Semantic category learning is dependent upon several factors, including the nature of the learning task, as well as individual differences in the quality and heterogeneity of exemplars that an individual encounters during learning. We trained healthy older adults (n=39) and individuals with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or Mild Cognitive Impairment (n=44) to recognize instances of a fictitious animal, a "crutter". Each stimulus item contained 10 visual features (e.g., color, tail shape) which took one of two values for each feature (e...
July 6, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358649/rationing-medical-education
#20
Kieran Walsh
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly...
March 2016: African Health Sciences
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