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Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Chiao-Fan Lin, Yi-Hsuan Hsieh, Hsin-Yi Liang, Kuo-You Huang, Wei-Che Chiu, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre, Hsiang-Lin Chan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly prevalent in Asia. Antidepressants have been associated with increase in hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first Asian population-based study to evaluate the association between antidepressant use and risk of HCC. Based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide population-based study. A total of 49,998 cases with HCC were identified and paired with 244,236 randomly selected controls. The data was analyzed via the conditional logistic regression model adjusting for several confounding factors...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Anke M Klein, Rianne van Niekerk, Giovanni Ten Brink, Ronald M Rapee, Jennifer L Hudson, Susan M Bögels, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories suggest that cognitive biases may be related and together influence the anxiety response. However, little is known about the interrelations of cognitive bias tasks and whether they allow for an improved prediction of fear-related behavior in addition to self-reports. This study simultaneously addressed several types of cognitive biases in children, to investigate attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias and fear-related associations, their interrelations and the prediction of behavior...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kathia Sandoval, Yan Ding, Piero Gardinali
Comprehensive characterization of exposure media used in toxicology studies is still an area of significant divergence when evaluating potential oil spill impacts. When preparing exposure media used for toxicology testing, small variations in simple parameters such as mixing energy, oil type and loading can significantly affect the concentration of the oil components to which test organisms are exposed. The key goal of this study was compare and contrast the physical and chemical compositions of oil water mixtures prepared using fresh and weathered Macondo-related oils under different conditions of mixing and in the presence/absence of chemical dispersants...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Astrid Berg
Reflective practice forms a pivotal part of mental health intervention in a setting where language and cultural differences require working together with a community counselor for language interpretation. Reflective practice in infant mental health began with Esther Bick's () infant observations and continued with Selma Fraiberg's () parent-infant psychotherapy. These two models formed the basis of the practice of infant mental health in a community in South Africa. A clinical example will highlight the importance of culturally informed observation that is then reflected upon...
October 26, 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
E L Andrade, A F Bento, J Cavalli, S K Oliveira, C S Freitas, R Marcon, R C Schwanke, J M Siqueira, J B Calixto
This review presents a historical overview of drug discovery and the non-clinical stages of the drug development process, from initial target identification and validation, through in silico assays and high throughput screening (HTS), identification of leader molecules and their optimization, the selection of a candidate substance for clinical development, and the use of animal models during the early studies of proof-of-concept (or principle). This report also discusses the relevance of validated and predictive animal models selection, as well as the correct use of animal tests concerning the experimental design, execution and interpretation, which affect the reproducibility, quality and reliability of non-clinical studies necessary to translate to and support clinical studies...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Fátima Gonçalves Cavalcante, Luciana Ferreira Lau, Gabriella Ferrarese Barbosa, Daniela Lima Gomes Berlim, Natasha Coelho Menezes, Daniela de Carvalho Braga, Annibal Coelho de Amorim, Yuri Cavalcante Amorim
The article analyzes the impact of a documentary on the daily lives of mothers and children with disabilities, exhibited at conferences, festivals, universities and schools in Brazil, Colombia and Japan. Produced by film and health professionals, social scientists and a women's network, the feature film "A special day" was awarded at Assim Vivemos VI International Disability Film Festival (2013-2014). The objective is to analyze the impact of the film and its diffusion among professionals and students from health and education areas...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Paula Gaudenzi, Francisco Ortega
This is a conceptual theoretical study to reflect upon disability and some basic concepts that are involved in its profiling. The scope of the article is to broaden the outlook upon disability removing it from a description that reduces it to an ailment. For this purpose, we situated the Disability Studies historically presenting the Medical and Social Models of Disability and problematized the concepts of autonomy and normality. These concepts and their correlated aspects - independence, functionality and the norm - are used as a tacit touchstone to differentiate some bodily variations that are identified as different lifestyles from others that are often called disabilities...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Nádia Xavier Moreira, Ludmila Fontenele Cavalcanti, Rodriane de Oliveira Souza
This is a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, with the aim of analyzing the meanings associated with a social phenomenon, specifically disabilities in the military field. A total of 22 people were interviewed, 3 managers and 19 Brazilian Navy professionals responsible for coordinating, standardizing, enforcing and overseeing the Special Care Program (Programa de Assistência Especial) in Rio de Janeiro. Data was processed using the Interpretation of Meaning Approach, based on the concept of disablement and military habitus...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Sheila Mara Pedrosa, Mary Lopes Reis, Daniela Tavares Gontijo, Sheila Araújo Teles, Marcelo Medeiros
Objective: the objective of this study was to understand the meaning of the harmful use of crack by people undergoing addiction treatment. Method: qualitative approach of social research on strategic modality was used. Field observation, preparation of field diary and focus groups, and data analysis through the method of interpreting meaning were carried out. Results: the results contributed to the construction of three thematic categories: "The discovery of crack and other drugs" that describes the experimentation with crack and other drugs; "The pain of the pleasure", key category that describes the moments after crack experimentation and that, many times, turns into addiction, which leads the person into a cycle of short periods of attempts at abstinence, relapse, and relentless consumption; and "Return to normal life"...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Marián Cueto, Edgard Camarós, Pedro Castaños, Roberto Ontañón, Pablo Arias
Pleistocene skinning and exploitation of carnivore furs have been previously inferred from archaeological evidence. Nevertheless, the evidence of skinning and fur processing tends to be weak and the interpretations are not strongly sustained by the archaeological record. In the present paper, we analyze unique evidence of patterned anthropic modification and skeletal representation of fossil remains of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) from the Lower Gallery of La Garma (Cantabria, Spain). This site is one of the few that provides Pleistocene examples of lion exploitation by humans...
2016: PloS One
Lauren S Mogil, Nicole A Becker, L James Maher
DNA-protein loops can be essential for gene regulation. The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon is controlled by DNA-protein loops that have been studied for decades. Here we adapt this model to test the hypothesis that negative superhelical strain facilitates the formation of short-range (6-8 DNA turns) repression loops in E. coli. The natural negative superhelicity of E. coli DNA is regulated by the interplay of gyrase and topoisomerase enzymes, adding or removing negative supercoils, respectively. Here, we measured quantitatively DNA looping in three different E...
2016: PloS One
Chao Wu, Xinyue Ye, Fu Ren, You Wan, Pengfei Ning, Qingyun Du
Housing is among the most pressing issues in urban China and has received considerable scholarly attention. Researchers have primarily concentrated on identifying the factors that influence residential property prices and how such mechanisms function. However, few studies have examined the potential factors that influence housing prices from a big data perspective. In this article, we use a big data perspective to determine the willingness of buyers to pay for various factors. The opinions and geographical preferences of individuals for places can be represented by visit frequencies given different motivations...
2016: PloS One
Amélie Juhin, Philippe Sainctavit, Katharina Ollefs, Marcin Sikora, Adriano Filipponi, Pieter Glatzel, Fabrice Wilhelm, Andrei Rogalev
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism is measured at the Fe K pre-edge in yttrium iron garnet using two different procedures that allow reducing the intrinsic broadening due to the 1s corehole lifetime. First, deconvolution of XMCD data measured in total fluorescence yield (TFY) with an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio enables a factor of 2.4 to be gained in the XMCD intensity. Ligand field multiplet calculations performed with different values of intrinsic broadening show that deconvolving such high quality XMCD data is similar to reducing the lifetime broadening from a 1s corehole to a 2p corehole...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Joshua D Brown, Anand R Shewale, Jeffery C Talbert
BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used for prevention of stroke secondary to nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Increased use of NOACs is partially a result of simplified regimens compared with warfarin, which has been associated with poor adherence and persistence to therapy. Few studies have assessed adherence to NOACs, especially using contemporary data now that multiple NOACs are available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to NOACs in a cohort of newly diagnosed NVAF patients who are commercially insured...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
W Abel Wright, Jack M Gorman, Melissa Odorzynski, Mark J Peterson, Carol Clayton
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving psychiatric services at community mental health centers (CMHCs) are often prescribed medication that is critical to the treatment of behavioral health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Previous studies have shown correlation between rates of medication adherence and risk of hospitalization, but potential differences in medication adherence and other outcomes for patients of CMHCs by pharmacy type have not been widely studied...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Corey A Lester, Kevin A Look, Michelle A Chui
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) adopted the proportion of days covered (PDC) calculation for use in their Five-Star Quality Rating System for Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Plans. This calculation uses the prescription adjudication date (i.e., date the prescription is billed to the benefits manager by a pharmacy) as a proxy for medication adherence. Adherence programs, such as automatic refill programs, have become commonplace in community pharmacy and have been identified by industry leaders as interfering with the ability to accurately measure adherence using PDC...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Elena V Fernandez, Jennifer A McDaniel, Norman V Carroll
BACKGROUND: Higher medication adherence is associated with positive health outcomes, including reduction in hospitalizations and costs, and many interventions have been implemented to increase patient adherence. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients experience higher medication adherence by using mail-order or retail pharmacies. METHODS: Articles pertaining to retail and mail-order pharmacies and medication adherence were collected from 3 literature databases: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA)...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Samuel Stolpe, Michel A Kroes, Neil Webb, Tami Wisniewski
BACKGROUND: Diabetes care is associated with a considerable burden to the health care system in the United States, and measuring the quality of health care is an important development goal of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Diabetes is a priority disease within the National Quality Strategy and should therefore remain a focus in the measurement of health care quality. Despite the importance of measuring quality in diabetes care management, no quality measure is currently associated with adherence to insulin treatment, and measuring adherence to insulin is known to be complicated...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Alex Peaslee, Marleen Wickizer, Julie Olson, Robert Topp
BACKGROUND: Value-based insurance design (VBID) waives or reduces prescription copayments in order to decrease member cost barriers to refilling medications. Medication therapy management (MTM) is a member clinical intervention designed to reinforce members' knowledge of their medications, which addresses barriers to medication adherence. Both methods have been shown to increase adherence in members, particularly when used in combination. To date, studies of such combined programs have often been completed within integrated health systems but have rarely included control populations...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Wendy S Bibeau, Haoda Fu, April D Taylor, Anita Y M Kwan
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is pivotal for the successful treatment of diabetes. However, medication adherence remains a major concern, as nonadherence is associated with poor health outcomes. Studies have indicated that increasing patients' share of medication costs significantly reduces adherence. Little is known about a potential out-of-pocket (OOP) cost threshold where substantial reduction in adherence may occur. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of diabetes OOP pharmacy costs on antihyperglycemic medication adherence and identify the potential threshold at which significant reduction in adherence may occur among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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