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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324992/age-related-neuromuscular-changes-in-semg-of-m-tibialis-anterior-using-higher-order-statistics-gaussianity-linearity-test
#1
Ariba Siddiqi, Sridhar P Arjunan, Dinesh K Kumar
Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324942/quantitative-analysis-of-histological-tissue-image-based-on-cytological-profiles-and-spatial-statistics
#2
Young Hwan Chang, Guillaume Thibault, Vahid Azimi, Brett Johnson, Danielle Jorgens, Jason Link, Adam Margolin, Joe W Gray
The cellular heterogeneity and complex tissue architecture of most tumor samples is a major obstacle in image analysis on standard hematoxylin and eosin-stained (H&E) tissue sections. A mixture of cancer and normal cells complicates the interpretation of their cytological profiles. Furthermore, spatial arrangement and architectural organization of cells are generally not reflected in cellular characteristics analysis. To address these challenges, first we describe an automatic nuclei segmentation of H&E tissue sections...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324847/species-identification-in-forensic-samples-using-the-spindel-approach-a-ghep-isfg-inter-laboratory-collaborative-exercise
#3
Cíntia Alves, Rui Pereira, Lourdes Prieto, Mercedes Aler, Cesar R L Amaral, Cristina Arévalo, Gabriela Berardi, Florencia Di Rocco, Mariela Caputo, Cristian Hernandez Carmona, Laura Catelli, Heloísa Afonso Costa, Pavla Coufalova, Sandra Furfuro, Óscar García, Anibal Gaviria, Ana Goios, Juan José Builes Gómez, Alexis Hernández, Eva Del Carmen Betancor Hernández, Luís Miranda, David Parra, Susana Pedrosa, Maria João Anjos Porto, Maria de Lurdes Rebelo, Matteo Spirito, María Del Carmen Villalobos Torres, António Amorim, Filipe Pereira
DNA is a powerful tool available for forensic investigations requiring identification of species. However, it is necessary to develop and validate methods able to produce results in degraded and or low quality DNA samples with the high standards obligatory in forensic research. Here, we describe a voluntary collaborative exercise to test the recently developed Species Identification by Insertions/Deletions (SPInDel) method. The SPInDel kit allows the identification of species by the generation of numeric profiles combining the lengths of six mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene regions amplified in a single reaction followed by capillary electrophoresis...
March 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324781/genesis-and-properties-of-wetland-soils-by-vis-nir-swir-as-a-technique-for-environmental-monitoring
#4
José Alexandre Melo Demattê, Ingrid Horák-Terra, Raphael Moreira Beirigo, Fabrício da Silva Terra, Karina Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Caio Troula Fongaro, Alexandre Christófaro Silva, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Wetlands are important ecosystems characterized by redoximorphic environments producing typical soil forming processes and organic carbon accumulation. Assessments and management of these areas are dependent on knowledge about soil characteristics and variability. By reflectance spectroscopy, information about soils can be obtained since their spectral behaviors are directly related to their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties reflecting the pedogenetic processes and environment conditions. Our aims were: (a) to characterize the main soil classes of wetlands regarding their spectral behaviors in VIS-NIR-SWIR (350-2500 nm) and relate them to pedogenesis and environmental conditions, (b) to determine spectral ranges (bands) with greater expression of the main soil properties, (c) to identify spectral variations and similarities between hydromorphic soils from wetlands and other soils under different moisture conditions, and (d) to propose spectral models to quantify some chemical and physical soil properties used as environmental quality indicators...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324712/comparison-of-gaseous-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-metabolites-according-to-their-specificity-as-biomarkers-of-occupational-exposure-selection-of-2-hydroxyfluorene-and-2-hydroxyphenanthrene
#5
Damien Barbeau, Simon Lutier, Marie Marques, Renaud Persoons, Anne Maitre
Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs by respiratory, digestive and dermal absorption. Biomonitoring takes all pathways into account but sensitive and specific biomarkers are required. Different gaseous PAHs metabolites were used due to their abundance in the atmospheric mixtures but none of them were selected as better biomarker than the others. To identify the best candidates for assessing occupational airborne exposure, relation between atmospheric levels of Naphtalene, Fluorene and Phenanthrene and urinary metabolites concentrations was studied in a carbon electrode workers group...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324665/assessing-the-prediction-accuracy-of-a-cure-model-for-censored-survival-data-with-long-term-survivors-application-to-breast-cancer-data
#6
Junichi Asano, Akihiro Hirakawa
The Cox proportional hazards cure model is a survival model incorporating a cure rate with the assumption that the population contains both uncured and cured individuals. It contains a logistic regression for the cure rate, and a Cox regression to estimate the hazard for uncured patients. A single predictive model for both the cure and hazard can be developed by using a cure model that simultaneously predicts the cure rate and hazards for uncured patients; however, model selection is a challenge because of the lack of a measure for quantifying the predictive accuracy of a cure model...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324657/a-review-of-the-current-state-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-methods-for-brachyspira
#7
Dharmasiri G R S Kulathunga, Joseph E Rubin
The re-emergence of swine dysentery (Brachyspira-associated muco-haemorrhagic colitis) since the late 2000's has illuminated diagnostic challenges associated with this genus. The methods used to detect, identify and characterize Brachyspira from clinical samples have not been standardized and laboratories frequently rely heavily on in-house techniques. Particularly concerning is the lack of standardized methods for determining and interpreting the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. The integration of laboratory data into a treatment plan is a critical component of prudent antimicrobial usage, the lack of standardized methods is therefore an important limitation to the evidence based use of antimicrobials...
March 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324647/metabolism-and-distribution-of-clozapine-n-oxide-implications-for-nonhuman-primate-chemogenetics
#8
Jessica Raper, J Scott Daniels, Ryan D Morrison, Leonard Howell, Jocelyne Bachevalier, Thomas Wichmann, Adriana Galvan
The use of Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) in neuroscience has rapidly expanded in rodent studies, but has lagged behind in nonhuman primate (NHP) experiments, slowing the development of this method for therapeutic use in humans. One reason for the slow adoption of DREADD technology in primates is that the pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability of clozapine-n-oxide (CNO), the most commonly used ligand for human muscarinic (hM) DREADDs, are not fully described in primates...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324136/the-inimitable-mouth-task-dependent-kinematic-differences-are-independent-of-terminal-precision
#9
Jason W Flindall, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Previous studies in our lab have described kinematic difference between grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place movements, whereby participants produce smaller maximum grip apertures (MGAs) when grasping to bring the item to the mouth than when grasping to bring the item to a container near the mouth. This task difference is limited to right-handed movements, regardless of handedness; it has, therefore, been interpreted as evidence of left-hemisphere lateralization of the grasp-to-eat and other hand-to-mouth grasping movements...
March 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324033/effect-of-moxonidine-on-the-aldosterone-renin-ratio-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#10
Ashraf H Ahmed, Richard D Gordon, Gregory Ward, Martin Wolley, Brett C McWhinney, Jacobus P Ungerer, Michael Stowasser
Background: The most popular screening test for primary aldosteronism (PA) is the plasma aldosterone/ renin ratio (ARR). Medications, dietary sodium, posture and time of day all affect renin and aldosterone levels, and can result in false negative or positive ARRs if not controlled. Most antihypertensive medications affect the ARR and can interfere with interpretation of results. To our knowledge, no study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of moxonidine on the ARR. Methods: Normotensive, non-medicated male volunteers (n=20) underwent measurement (seated, midmorning) of plasma aldosterone (by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry), direct renin concentration (DRC), renin activity (PRA), cortisol, electrolytes and creatinine and urinary aldosterone, cortisol, electrolytes and creatinine at baseline, and after one week of moxonidine at 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323851/the-effect-of-excluding-juveniles-on-apparent-adult-olive-baboons-papio-anubis-social-networks
#11
Piotr Fedurek, Julia Lehmann
In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323666/febrile-infant-update
#12
Kate Dorney, Richard G Bachur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The approach to febrile young infants remains challenging. This review serves as an update on the care of febrile infants less than 90 days of age with a focus on the changing epidemiology of serious bacterial infection (SBI), refinement of management strategies based on biomarkers, and the development of novel diagnostics. RECENT FINDINGS: There is high variability in the emergency department management of febrile young infants without significant differences in outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323662/hvad-flow-waveform-morphologies-theoretical-foundation-and-implications-for-clinical-practice
#13
Jonathan D Rich, Daniel Burkhoff
Continuous flow ventricular assist device (cfVAD) performance and patient hemodynamic conditions are intimately interrelated and dynamic, changing frequently with alterations in physiologic conditions, particularly pre- and after-loading conditions. The Heartware cfVAD (HVAD) provides a unique feature among currently approved VADs of providing an estimated instantaneous flow waveform, the characteristics of which can provide significant insights into patient and device properties. Despite being readily available, HVAD waveforms are poorly understood, underutilized and insufficiently leveraged, even by clinicians who regularly manage HVAD patients...
March 16, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323611/the-role-of-universal-health-literacy-precautions-in-minimizing-medspeak-and-promoting-shared-decision-making
#14
Lara Killian, Margo Coletti
Shared decision making (SDM), a collaborative process whereby patients and professionals make health care decisions together, is a cornerstone of ethical patient care. The patient-clinician communication necessary to achieve SDM depends on many factors, not the least of which is a shared language (sometimes with the aid of a medical interpreter). However, even when a patient and clinician are speaking the same mother tongue, the use of medical jargon can pose a large and unnecessary barrier. This article discusses how health care professionals can use "universal health literacy precautions" as a legal, practical, and ethical means to enhance SDM and improve health care outcomes...
March 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323607/language-based-inequity-in-health-care-who-is-the-poor-historian
#15
Alexander R Green, Chijioke Nze
Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) are among the most vulnerable populations. They experience high rates of medical errors with worse clinical outcomes than English-proficient patients and receive lower quality of care by other metrics. However, we have yet to take the issue of linguistic inequities seriously in the medical system and in medical education, tacitly accepting that substandard care is either unavoidable or not worth the cost to address. We argue that we have a moral imperative to provide high-quality care to patients with LEP and to teach our medical trainees that such care is both expected and feasible...
March 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323605/clinicians-obligations-to-use-qualified-medical-interpreters-when-caring-for-patients-with-limited-english-proficiency
#16
Gaurab Basu, Vonessa Phillips Costa, Priyank Jain
Access to language services is a required and foundational component of care for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). National standards for medical interpreting set by the US Department of Health and Human Services and by the National Council on Interpreting in Health Care establish the role of qualified medical interpreters in the provision of care in the United States. In the vignette, the attending physician infringes upon the patient's right to appropriate language services and renders unethical care...
March 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323582/white-matter-integrity-in-high-altitude-pilots-exposed-to-hypobaria
#17
Stephen A McGuire, Goldie R E Boone, Paul M Sherman, David F Tate, Joe D Wood, Beenish Patel, George Eskandar, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Laura M Rowland, Geoffrey D Clarke, Patrick M Grogan, John H Sladky, Peter V Kochunov
INTRODUCTION: Nonhypoxic hypobaric (low atmospheric pressure) occupational exposure, such as experienced by U.S. Air Force U-2 pilots and safety personnel operating inside altitude chambers, is associated with increased subcortical white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this discrete WMH change remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that occupational exposure to nonhypoxic hypobaria is associated with altered white matter integrity as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA) measured using diffusion tensor imaging and relate these findings to WMH burden and neurocognitive ability...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323553/examining-pediatric-care-for-newly-immigrated-families-perspectives-of-health-care-providers
#18
David Nicholas, Bonnie Fleming-Carroll, Michele Durrant, Jonathan Hellmann
Respect for the ethnicity and cultural background of families are important components of health care delivery. However, the needs of new immigrants in pediatric care systems remain under-addressed in the literature. This study utilized a qualitative approach of interpretive description to elicit the pediatric health care experiences and needs of new immigrants to Canada, from the perspective of health care providers who worked extensively with newcomers. Two focus groups of multidisciplinary health care providers were conducted in a tertiary-level pediatric hospital...
March 21, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320113/alzheimer-s-disease-elevated-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-is-mostly-of-systemic-origin
#19
Veronika Lang, Marietta Zille, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Sven Jarius, Holger Jahn, Friedemann Paul, Klemens Ruprecht, Ana Luisa Pina
Pigment-epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-angiogenic effects. Elevated levels of PEDF have previously been proposed as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. However, the origin of PEDF in CSF, i.e. whether it is derived from the brain or from the systemic circulation, and the specificity of this finding hitherto remained unclear. Here, we analyzed levels of PEDF in paired CSF and serum samples by ELISA in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=12), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n=6), vascular dementia (n=4), bacterial meningitis (n=8), multiple sclerosis (n=32), pseudotumor cerebri (n=36), and diverse non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n=19)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319909/stability-and-change-in-disease-prestige-a-comparative-analysis-of-three-surveys-spanning-a-quarter-of-a-century
#20
Dag Album, Lars E F Johannessen, Erik B Rasmussen
In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of three survey studies of disease prestige in medical culture. The studies were conducted in 1990, 2002 and 2014 using the same research design. In each of the three rounds, a sample of Norwegian physicians was asked to rate a set of 38 diseases on a scale from 1 to 9 according to the prestige they believed health personnel in general would award them. The results show a remarkable stability in the prestige rank order over 25 years. The top three diseases in all three surveys were leukaemia, brain tumour and myocardial infarction...
March 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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