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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719359/levodopa-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-review-of-population-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-analysis
#1
Amélie Marsot, Romain Guilhaumou, Jean Philippe Azulay, Olivier Blin
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Although levodopa remains the single effective agent in the management of Parkinson's disease, the accurate determination of this optimal dosage is complicated by marked between-subject and between-occasion variability in this population.  This review presents a synthesis of the population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models of levodopa described in Parkinson's disease...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719194/molecular-modeling-of-the-major-dna-adduct-formed-from-the-food-mutagen-ochratoxin-a-in-nari-2-base-deletion-duplexes-impact-of-sequence-context-and-adduct-ionization-on-conformational-preference-and-mutagenicity
#2
Preetleen Kathuria, Purshotam Sharma, Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a possible human carcinogen, leads to many different DNA mutations. As a first step toward understanding the structural basis of OTA-induced mutagenicity, the present work uses a robust computational approach and a slipped mutagenic intermediate model previously studied for C(8)-dG aromatic amine adducts to analyze the conformational features of post-replication 2-base deletion DNA duplexes containing OT-dG, the major OTA lesion at the C(8) position of guanine. Specifically, a total of 960 ns of molecular dynamics simulations (excluding trial simulations) were carried out on four OT-dG ionization states in three sequence contexts within oligomers containing the NarI recognition sequence, a known hotspot for deletion mutations induced by related adducts formed from known carcinogens...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719177/classics-in-neuroimaging-imaging-the-dopaminergic-pathway-with-pet
#3
Meghna Kanthan, Paul Cumming, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Vasdev
The success of positron emission tomography (PET) for observing molecular processes underlying brain function and disease is underpinned by radiotracer chemistry. From the earliest applications of PET to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and the abundance of neuroreceptors and transporters, to the more recent topic of dynamic neurochemical imaging, interrogation of brain dopamine in conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addictions has been a driving force that challenges the ingenuity of radiopharmaceutical scientists...
July 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719076/multimodal-image-analysis-of-clinical-influences-on-preterm-brain-development
#4
Gareth Ball, Paul Aljabar, Phumza Nongena, Nigel Kennea, Nuria Gonzalez-Cinca, Shona Falconer, Andrew T M Chew, Nicholas Harper, Julia Wurie, Mary A Rutherford, Serena J Counsell, A David Edwards
Objective Premature birth is associated with numerous complex abnormalities of white and grey matter and a high incidence of long-term neurocognitive impairment. An integrated understanding of these abnormalities and their association with clinical events is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify specific patterns of abnormal cerebral development and their antenatal and postnatal antecedents. Methods In a prospective cohort of 449 infants (226 male), we performed a multi-variate and data-driven analysis combining multiple imaging modalities...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718981/health-economic-analysis-of-allergen-immunotherapy-ait-for-the-management-of-allergic-rhinitis-asthma-food-allergy-and-venom-allergy-a-systematic-overview
#5
REVIEW
Miqdad Asaria, Sangeeta Dhami, Ronald van Ree, Roy Gerth van Wijk, Antonella Muraro, Graham Roberts, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing guidelines for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, IgE-mediated food allergy and venom allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we undertook systematic reviews to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of AIT for these conditions. This paper focusses on synthesizing data and gaps in the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of AIT for these conditions...
July 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718915/temperature-responses-of-photosynthetic-capacity-parameters-were-not-affected-by-foliar-nitrogen-content-in-mature-pinus-sylvestris
#6
Lasse Tarvainen, Martina Lutz, Mats Räntfors, Torgny Näsholm, Göran Wallin
A key weakness in current Earth System Models is the representation of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in response to changes in growth temperatures. Previous studies in boreal and temperate ecosystems have shown leaf-scale photosynthetic capacity parameters, the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax ) and electron transport (Jmax ), to be positively correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) content at a given reference temperature. It is also known that Vcmax and Jmax exhibit temperature optima that are affected by various environmental factors and, further, that N partitioning among the foliar photosynthetic pools is affected by N availability...
July 18, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718733/diagnostic-utility-of-renal-fine-needle-aspirate-cytology-and-ultrasound-in-the-cat
#8
Camille A McAloney, Leslie C Sharkey, Daniel A Feeney, Davis M Seelig
Objectives The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively assess the diagnostic utility of feline renal fine-needle aspiration cytology by assessing diagnostic yield, cytologic characteristics and diagnostic accuracy. The secondary objective was to characterize ultrasonographic features of sampled kidneys to determine if they influenced diagnostic yield. Methods Slides, images and patient data were collected from the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center database. Slides were designated as diagnostic or non-diagnostic...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718697/pain-drawings-predict-outcome-of-surgical-treatment-for-degenerative-disc-disease-in-the-cervical-spine
#9
Anna MacDowall, Yohan Robinson, Martin Skeppholm, Claes Olerud
INTRODUCTION: Pain drawings have been frequently used in the preoperative evaluation of spine patients. For lumbar conditions comprehensive research has established both the reliability and predictive value, but for the cervical spine most of this knowledge is lacking. The aims of this study were to validate pain drawings for the cervical spine, and to investigate the predictive value for treatment outcome of four different evaluation methods. METHODS: We carried out a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, comparing cervical disc replacement to fusion for radiculopathy related to degenerative disc disease...
July 18, 2017: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718648/multi-imaging-of-cytokinin-and-abscisic-acid-on-the-roots-of-rice-oryza-sativa-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#10
Katsuhiro Shiono, Riho Hashizaki, Toyofumi Nakanishi, Tatsuko Sakai, Takushi Yamamoto, Koretsugu Ogata, Ken-Ichi Harada, Hajime Ohtani, Hajime Katano, Shu Taira
Plant hormones are important mobile endogenous signaling molecules that regulate responses to abiotic stress as well as plant growth and development. Visual information on more than one plant hormone from the same sample would be especially powerful, because it could enable rapid, intuitive interpretation. However, multi-imaging techniques for plant hormones have been unavailable. Here, we report the first multi-imaging of two plant hormones, one of cytokinin (i.e. trans-zeatin) and abscisic acid (ABA) by MALDI-TOF-MS imaging...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718631/a-copper-ii-paddlewheel-metal-organic-framework-with-exceptional-hydrolytic-stability-and-selective-adsorption-and-detection-ability-of-aniline-in-water
#11
Ya Chen, Bin Wang, Xiaoqing Wang, Lin-Hua Xie, Jinping Li, Yabo Xie, Jian-Rong Jeff Li
Copper(II) paddlewheel based metal-organic frameworks (CP-MOFs) represent a unique subclass of MOFs with highly predictable porous structures, facile syntheses, and functional open metal sites. However, lack of high hydrolytic stability is an obstacle for CP-MOFs in many practical applications. In this work, we report a new CP-MOF, [Cu4(tdhb)] (BUT-155), which is constructed from a judiciously designed carboxylate ligand with high coordination connectivity (octatopic), abundant hydrophobic substituents (six methyl groups), and substituent constrained geometry (tetrahedral backbone), tdhb8- (H8tdhb = 3,3',5,5'-tetra(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)-2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexamethylbiphenyl))...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718513/the-fine-needle-aspiration-of-translocation-sarcomas
#12
C J VandenBussche, C L Adams, O G McDonald, S A Whitworth, S Z Ali
INTRODUCTION: Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of clinically aggressive cancers that are often hard to classify on limited cytological samples. "Translocation sarcomas" (TS) are a diverse subset of such cancers, different from pleomorphic sarcomas, and characterised by unique single chromosomal translocations in each sarcoma subtype. Interestingly, despite their high-grade biological behaviour, TS have deceptively monotonous and bland cytomorphology, therefore creating diagnostic issues on limited samples...
July 17, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718505/immunogenomic-approaches-to-understand-the-function-of-immune-disease-variants
#13
REVIEW
Dafni Anna Glinos, Blagoje Soskic, Gosia Trynka
Mapping hundreds of genetic variants through genome wide association studies provided an opportunity to gain insights into the pathobiology of immune mediated diseases. However, since most of the disease variants fall outside the gene coding sequences, thereby implicating gene expression regulation as the causal mechanism, the functional interpretation of the exact role of the associated variants remains to be determined. Despite these challenges, integration of disease associated variants with large scale genomic maps of cell type specific gene regulation both at chromatin and transcript levels deliver examples of functionally prioritised causal variants and genes...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718496/-introduction-of-rapid-syphilis-and-hiv-testing-in-prenatal-care-in-colombia-qualitative-analysis
#14
María Teresa Ochoa-Manjarrés, Hernando Guillermo Gaitán-Duarte, Sidia Caicedo, Berta Gómez, Freddy Pérez
Objective: Interpret perceptions of Colombian health professionals concerning factors that obstruct and facilitate the introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care services. Methods: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews was carried out. A convenience sample was selected with 37 participants, who included health professionals involved in prenatal care services, programs for pregnant women, clinical laboratories, and directors of health care units or centers, as well as representatives from regional departments and the Ministry of Health...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718495/comparative-effectiveness-of-single-and-dual-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-syphilis-and-hiv-in-antenatal-care-services-in-colombia
#15
Hernando Guillermo Gaitán-Duarte, Lori Newman, Maura Laverty, Ndema Abu Habib, Lina María González-Gordon, Edith Ángel-Müller, Catleya Abella, Esther Cristina Barros, Carlos Rincón, Sidia Caicedo, Bertha Gómez, Freddy Pérez
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a dual rapid test compared to a single rapid test for syphilis and HIV screening. Methods: A cluster-randomized open-label clinical trial was performed in 12 public antenatal care (ANC) centers in the cities of Bogotá and Cali, Colombia. Pregnant women who were over 14 years of age at their first antenatal visit and who had not been previously tested for HIV and syphilis during the current pregnancy were included. Pregnant women were randomized to single HIV and single syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm A) or to dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm B)...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718482/molecular-insight-into-the-mullins-effect-irreversible-disentanglement-of-polymer-chains-revealed-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#16
Chi Ma, Tuo Ji, Christopher G Robertson, R Rajeshbabu, Jiahua Zhu, Yalin Dong
The debate regarding the possible molecular origins of the Mullins effect has been ongoing since its discovery. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the Mullins effect. For the first time, the key characteristics associated with the Mullins effect, including (a) the majority of stress softening occurring in the first stretch, (b) continuous softening with stress increase, (c) a permanent set, and (d) recovery with heat treatment, are captured by molecular modeling...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718427/signatures-of-breast-cancer-metastasis-amenable-to-interpretation
#17
Madeleine J Oudin, Frank B Gertler
Mena(INV), an isoform of the motility regulator protein Mena, contributes to prometastatic phenotypes. Tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM), a three-cell structure associated with intravasation, contains a stationary Mena-expressing tumor cell. TMEM density and Mena(INV) expression both correlate with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. However, is Mena(INV) involved in TMEM assembly and function?
January 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718398/comparative-study-of-nmr-spectral-profiling-for-the-characterization-and-authentication-of-cannabis
#18
Xinyi Wang, Peter de Harrington, Steven Baugh
For the authentication of botanical materials, it is difficult to obtain representative reference materials because botanicals vary significantly with respect to cultivation conditions. Chemical profiling of plant extracts or spectral fingerprinting can differentiate botanicals and group them by their chemical profiles. NMR spectroscopy yields a powerful and useful method for profiling plant extracts. Both 500 MHz (1)H and (1)H-(1)H correlation NMR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition were used to discriminate among Cannabis samples...
July 18, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717880/environmental-exposure-does-not-explain-putative-maladaptation-in-road-adjacent-populations
#19
Steven P Brady
While the ecological consequences of roads are well described, little is known of their role as agents of natural selection, which can shape adaptive and maladaptive responses in populations influenced by roads. This knowledge gap persists despite a growing appreciation for the influence of evolution in human-altered environments. There, insights indicate that natural selection typically results in local adaptation. Thus, populations influenced by road-induced selection should evolve fitness advantages in their local environment...
July 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717674/exactly-zero-or-once-a-clinically-helpful-guide-to-assessing-genetic-variants-in-mild-epilepsies
#20
Caitlin A Bennett, Slavé Petrovski, Karen L Oliver, Samuel F Berkovic
OBJECTIVE: To assist the interpretation of genomic data for common epilepsies, we asked whether variants implicated in mild epilepsies in autosomal dominant families are present in the general population. METHODS: We studied 12 genes for the milder epilepsies and identified published variants with strong segregation support (de novo germline mutation or ≥4 affected family members). These variants were checked in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), a database of genetic variation in over 60,000 individuals...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
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