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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646796/organic-matter-drives-high-interannual-variability-in-methylmercury-concentrations-in-a-subarctic-coastal-sea
#1
A L Soerensen, A T Schartup, A Skrobonja, E Björn
Levels of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in phytoplankton are strongly associated with water MeHg concentrations. Because uptake by phytoplankton is the first and largest step of bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs many studies have investigated factors driving seasonal changes in water MeHg concentrations. Organic matter (OM) is widely accepted as an important driver of MeHg production and uptake by phytoplankton but is also known for strong interannual variability in concentration and composition within systems...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646746/variable-spontaneous-mutation-rate-in-clinical-strains-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-a-hypermutator-strain
#2
Morteza Karami-Zarandi, Masoumeh Douraghi, Behrouz Vaziri, Habibeh Adibhesami, Mohammad Rahbar, Mehdi Yaseri
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii within hospitals poses a significant threat to patients. The inherent rate of mutation of these strains has not been described nor has the mechanism by which drug resistance arises. METHODS: Here, we determined the spontaneous mutation rates in 93 clinical strains of A. baumannii using fluctuation analysis. To rule out the clonal relatedness of hypermutator strains, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted...
June 8, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646682/sensing-nadh-conformation-using-phasor-analysis-on-fluorescence-spectra
#3
Dylan Palo, Jeff Maltas, Laxmi Risal, Paul Urayama
Phasor analysis on fluorescence signals is a sensitive approach for analyzing multicomponent systems. Initially developed for time-resolved measurements, a spectral version has been used for the rapid identification of regions during the spectral imaging of biological systems. Here we show that quantitative information regarding conformation can be obtained from phasor analysis of fluorescence spectrum shape. Methanol denaturation of NADH and NADH binding to various dehydrogenase proteins are used as model reactions...
June 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646678/bioengineering-for-intestinal-organoid-cultures
#4
REVIEW
Ge-Ah Kim, Jason R Spence, Shuichi Takayama
Recent advances allow access to human cell-based intestinal organoids that recreate human physiology to levels not possible with conventional 2D cell cultures. Despite their huge potential, there are many challenges that remain. This review will cover recent bioengineering approaches to improve organoid maturation, scale up, reproducibility and analysis. The first section covers the advances in engineering the culture environment, followed by the section on tools for micro-manipulation and analysis of organoids...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646672/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-visual-cortex-induces-suboptimal-introspection
#5
Megan A K Peters, Jeremy Fesi, Namema Amendi, Jeffrey D Knotts, Hakwan Lau, Tony Ro
Blindsight patients with damage to the visual cortex can discriminate objects but report no conscious visual experience. This provides an intriguing opportunity to allow the study of subjective awareness in isolation from objective performance capacity. However, blindsight is rare, so one promising way to induce the effect in neurologically intact observers is to apply transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the visual cortex. Here, we used a recently-developed criterion-free method to conclusively rule out an important alternative interpretation of TMS-induced performance without awareness: that TMS-induced blindsight may be just due to conservative reporting biases for conscious perception...
June 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646546/community-mental-health-work-negotiating-support-of-users-recovery
#6
Nina Petersen Reed, Staffan Josephsson, Sissel Alsaker
Mental health services have changed over the past decades through an increased emphasis on deinstitutionalization and normalization, and with recovery processes situated in everyday life as a new locus of support. These changes have led to a need for new knowledge and methods concerning the provision of community mental health services. The aim of the present study was to explore how community mental health workers provide support to users, by investigating professionals' own narratives of how they work. Seven community mental health workers participated in narrative interviews, which were subject to a qualitative, interpretive analysis...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646497/geometrical-principles-of-homomeric-%C3%AE-barrels-and-%C3%AE-helices-application-to-modelling-amyloid-protofilaments
#7
Steven Hayward, E James Milner-White
Examples of homomeric β-helices and β-barrels have recently emerged. Here we generalise the theory for the shear number in β-barrels to encompass β-helices and homomeric structures. We introduce the concept of the "β-strip", the set of parallel or antiparallel neighbouring strands, from which the whole helix can be generated giving it n-fold rotational symmetry. In this context the shear number is interpreted as the sum around the helix of the fixed register shift between neighbouring identical β-strips...
June 24, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646394/the-antihypertensive-efficacy-of-the-triple-fixed-combination-of-perindopril-indapamide-and-amlodipine-the-results-of-the-petra-study
#8
György Ábrahám, Csaba András Dézsi
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of essential hypertension is multifactorial. Therefore, treatment with combinations of antihypertensive agents acting on multiple targets is necessary for successful therapy in the majority of patients. According to the experience and clinical data accumulated so far, combination therapy with three agents from different pharmacological classes is required in approx. 30% of patients in order to achieve long-term blood pressure control. The primary objective of the PETRA study was to evaluate the efficacy of blood pressure (BP) control with once daily administration of the different dosage strengths of the once-daily, triple fixed combination of perindopril, indapamide, and amlodipine...
June 23, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646316/identifying-major-events-in-two-sturgeons-life-using-pectoral-fin-spine-ring-structure-exploring-the-use-of-a-non-destructive-method
#9
Shima Bakhshalizadeh, Ali Bani, Shahram Abdolmalaki, Natalie Moltschaniwskyj
Maturation is one of the most important life history traits that influences on many ecological characteristics of animals. This study aimed to describe the indirect distinguish of first reproduction and habitat shift (transition from the pelagic to benthic environment), using the width of translucent and annuluses of the pectoral fin spine of two sturgeon species, Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, and starry sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus. Interpretation of growth bands in pectoral fin sections was done objectively using direct reading of thin sections and image analysis...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646228/coronal-mass-ejections-are-not-coherent-magnetohydrodynamic-structures
#10
M J Owens, M Lockwood, L A Barnard
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are episodic eruptions of solar plasma and magnetic flux that travel out through the solar system, driving extreme space weather. Interpretation of CME observations and their interaction with the solar wind typically assumes CMEs are coherent, almost solid-like objects. We show that supersonic radial propagation of CMEs away from the Sun results in geometric expansion of CME plasma parcels at a speed faster than the local wave speed. Thus information cannot propagate across the CME...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646157/current-induced-resistive-state-in-fe-se-te-superconducting-nanostrips
#11
Ciro Nappi, Carlo Camerlingo, Emanuele Enrico, Emilio Bellingeri, Valeria Braccini, Carlo Ferdeghini, Ettore Sarnelli
We study the current-voltage characteristics of Fe(Se,Te) thin films deposited on CaF2 substrates in form of nanostrips (width w ~ λ, λ the London penetration length). In view of a possible application of these materials to superconductive electronics and micro-electronics we focus on transport properties in small magnetic field, the one generated by the bias current. From the characteristics taken at different temperatures we derive estimates for the pinning potential U and the pinning potential range δ for the magnetic flux lines (vortices)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646100/the-athlete-monitoring-cycle-a-practical-guide-to-interpreting-and-applying-training-monitoring-data
#12
EDITORIAL
Tim J Gabbett, George P Nassis, Eric Oetter, Johan Pretorius, Nick Johnston, Daniel Medina, Gil Rodas, Tom Myslinski, Dan Howells, Adam Beard, Allan Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646080/considerations-from-the-iq-induction-working-group-in-response-to-drug-drug-interaction-guidances-from-regulatory-agencies-focus-on-down-regulation-cyp2c-induction-and-cyp2b6-positive-control
#13
Niresh Hariparsad, Diane Ramsden, Jairam Palamanda, Joshua G Dekeyser, Odette A Fahmi, Jane R Kenny, Heidi Einolf, Michael Mohutsky, Magalie Pardon, Amy Y Siu, Liangfu Chen, Michael Sinz, Barry Jones, Robert Walsky, Shannon Dallas, Suresh K Balani, George Zhang, David Buckley, Donald Tweedie
The European Medicines Agency (EMA), the Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency and the Food and Drug Administration have issued guidances for the conduct of drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. To examine the applicability of these regulatory recommendations specifically for induction, a group of scientists, under the auspices of the Drug Metabolism Leadership Group of the Innovation and Quality (IQ) Consortium, formed the Induction Working Group (WG). A team of 20 scientists, from 16 of the 39 pharmaceutical companies, which are members of the IQ Consortium, and three Contract Research Organizations, reviewed the recommendations, focusing initially on the current EMA guidance...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645845/the-feature-weighted-receptive-field-an-interpretable-encoding-model-for-complex-feature-spaces
#14
REVIEW
Ghislain St-Yves, Thomas Naselaris
We introduce the feature-weighted receptive field (fwRF), an encoding model designed to balance expressiveness, interpretability and scalability. The fwRFis organized around the notion of a feature map-a transformation of visual stimuli into visual features that preserves the topology of visual space (but not necessarily the native resolution of the stimulus). The key assumption of the fwRFmodel is that activity in each voxel encodes variation in a spatially localized region across multiple feature maps. This region is fixed for all feature maps; however, the contribution of each feature map to voxel activity is weighted...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645844/modelling-and-interpreting-mesoscale-network-dynamics
#15
REVIEW
Ankit N Khambhati, Ann E Sizemore, Richard F Betzel, Danielle S Bassett
Recent advances in brain imaging techniques, measurement approaches, and storage capacities have provided an unprecedented supply of high temporal resolution neural data. These data present a remarkable opportunity to gain a mechanistic understanding not just of circuit structure, but also of circuit dynamics, and its role in cognition and disease. Such understanding necessitates a description of the raw observations, and a delineation of computational models and mathematical theories that accurately capture fundamental principles behind the observations...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645776/selective-inhibition-of-flt3-by-gilteritinib-in-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-a-multicentre-first-in-human-open-label-phase-1-2-study
#16
Alexander E Perl, Jessica K Altman, Jorge Cortes, Catherine Smith, Mark Litzow, Maria R Baer, David Claxton, Harry P Erba, Stan Gill, Stuart Goldberg, Joseph G Jurcic, Richard A Larson, Chaofeng Liu, Ellen Ritchie, Gary Schiller, Alexander I Spira, Stephen A Strickland, Raoul Tibes, Celalettin Ustun, Eunice S Wang, Robert Stuart, Christoph Röllig, Andreas Neubauer, Giovanni Martinelli, Erkut Bahceci, Mark Levis
BACKGROUND: Internal tandem duplication mutations in FLT3 are common in acute myeloid leukaemia and are associated with rapid relapse and short overall survival. The clinical benefit of FLT3 inhibitors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia has been limited by rapid generation of resistance mutations, particularly in codon Asp835 (D835). We aimed to assess the highly selective oral FLT3 inhibitor gilteritinib in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: In this phase 1-2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with acute myeloid leukaemia who either were refractory to induction therapy or had relapsed after achieving remission with previous treatment...
June 20, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645409/guidelines-for-emergency-physicians-on-the%C3%A2-interpretation-of-physician-orders-for-life-sustaining-therapy-polst
#17
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645204/when-homoplasy-is-not-homoplasy-dissecting-trait-evolution-by-contrasting-composite-and-reductive-coding
#18
Alejandro Torres-Montúfar, Thomas Borsch, Helga Ochoterena
The conceptualization and coding of characters is a difficult issue in phylogenetic systematics, no matter which inference method is used when reconstructing phylogenetic trees or if the characters are just mapped onto a specific tree. Complex characters are groups of features that can be divided into simpler hierarchical characters (reductive coding), although the implied hierarchical relational information may change depending on the type of coding (composite vs reductive). Up to now, there is no common agreement to either code characters as complex or simple...
June 22, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645188/temporal-variation-of-the-microbiome-is-dependent-on-body-region-in-a-wild-mammal-tamiasciurus-hudsonicus
#19
Colleen B Bobbie, Nadia C S Mykytczuk, Albrecht I Schulte-Hostedde
Microbial communities are increasingly being recognized as important to host health in wild mammals, but how these communities are characterized can have important consequences on the results of these studies. Previous research has explored temporal variation in microbial communities in humans and lab mammals, but few have investigated how microbiomes fluctuate in wild populations and none have examined the temporal dynamics of these fluctuations in different body regions on a wild mammal. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 16S rRNA gene regions, we characterized the buccal and gut microbiomes of wild North American red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, to measure changes in these two microbiomes over short (< 2 weeks), medium (2-4 weeks) and long (> 1 month) term sampling periods...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645142/polyphyly-of-arundinoideae-poaceae-and-evolution-of-the-twisted-geniculate-lemma-awn
#20
J K Teisher, M R McKain, B A Schaal, E A Kellogg
Background and Aims: Subfamily Arundinoideae represents one of the last unsolved taxonomic mysteries in the grass family (Poaceae) due to the narrow and remote distributions of many of its 19 morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous genera. Resolving the phylogenetic relationships of these genera could have substantial implications for understanding character evolution in the grasses, for example the twisted geniculate awn - a hygroscopic awn that has been shown to be important in seed germination for some grass species...
June 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
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