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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922832/fast-spiking-parvalbumin-interneurons-are-frequently-myelinated-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-mice-and-humans
#1
J Stedehouder, J J Couey, D Brizee, B Hosseini, J A Slotman, C M F Dirven, G Shpak, A B Houtsmuller, S A Kushner
Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Moreover, we find that a very high proportion of neocortical and hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exhibit axonal myelination...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913813/pharmacotherapy-pearls-for-emergency-neurological-life-support
#2
Gretchen M Brophy, Theresa Human
The appropriate use of medications during Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) is essential to optimize patient care. Important considerations when choosing the appropriate agent include the patient's organ function and medication allergies, potential adverse drug effects, drug interactions and critical illness and aging pathophysiologic changes. Critical medications used during ENLS include hyperosmolar therapy, anticonvulsants, antithrombotics, anticoagulant reversal and hemostatic agents, anti-shivering agents, neuromuscular blockers, antihypertensive agents, sedatives, vasopressors and inotropes, and antimicrobials...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894068/-the-effects-of-30-minutes-of-pre-warming-on-core-body-temperature-systolic-blood-pressure-heart-rate-postoperative-shivering-and-inflammation-response-in-elderly-patients-with-total-hip-replacement-under-spinal-anesthesia-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled
#3
You Mi Cheon, Haesang Yoon
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the effects of pre-warming on core body temperature (CBT) and hemodynamics from the induction of spinal anesthesia until 30 min postoperatively in surgical patients who undergo total hip replacement under spinal anesthesia. Our goal was to assess postoperative shivering and inflammatory response. METHODS: Sixty-two surgical patients were recruited by informed notice. Data for this study were collected at a 1,300-bed university hospital in Incheon, South Korea from January 15 through November 15, 2013...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890205/shivering-in-febrile-children-frequency-and-usefulness-in-predicting-serious-bacterial-infections-a-prospective-case-control-study
#4
Yair Erell, Ilan Youngster, Ibrahim Abu-Kishk, Eran Kozer
A prospective case-control study was conducted in a pediatric emergency department to describe the proportion of febrile children experiencing shivering and its clinical significance. Shivering was reported in 186 of 645 febrile children (28.8%). The rate of serious bacterial infection was similar in 86 children with shivering and 86 matched controls.
September 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885962/cold-acclimation-does-not-alter-physiological-or-perceptual-responses-during-subsequent-exercise-in-the-heat
#5
Douglas M Jones, Kaitlyn A Rostomily, Carina M Pautz, Danica W Ito, Stephen P Bailey, Bart Roelands, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
INTRODUCTION: Warfighters often train and conduct operations in cold environments. Specifically, military trainees and divers that are repeatedly exposed to cold water may experience inadvertent cold acclimatization, which results in body heat retention. These same warfighters can quickly switch between environments (cold to hot or hot to cold) given the nature of their work. This may present a risk of early onset of hyperthermia when cold-acclimatized warfighters are subsequently exposed to physiological insults that increase body temperature, such as exercise and heat stress...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862985/critical-review-of-beige-adipocyte-thermogenic-activation-and-contribution-to-whole-body-energy-expenditure
#6
REVIEW
Érique Castro, Tiago E Oliveira Silva, William T Festuccia
Beige (or brite, "brown in white") adipocytes are uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive cells residing in white adipose depots that, depending on the conditions, behave either as classic white adipocytes, storing energy as lipids, or as brown adipocytes, dissipating energy from oxidative metabolism as heat through non-shivering thermogenesis. Because of their thermogenic potential and, therefore, possible usage to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, beige cells have attracted the attention of many scientists worldwide aiming to develop strategies to safely recruit and activate their thermogenic activity...
September 1, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860012/continuous-versus-intermittent-neuromuscular-blockade-in-patients-during-targeted-temperature-management-after-resuscitation-from-cardiac-arrest-a-randomized-double-blinded-double-dummy-clinical-trial
#7
Mathias Stöckl, Christoph Testori, Fritz Sterz, Michael Holzer, Christoph Weiser, Andreas Schober, Graham Nichol, Martin Frossard, Harald Herkner, Jasmin Kechvar, Heidrun Losert
AIM OF THE STUDY: Current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management to improve neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. Evidence regarding an ideal sedative/analgesic regimen including skeletal muscle paralysis is limited. METHODS: Patients were randomized to either a continuous administration of rocuronium (continuous-NMB-group) or to a continuous administration of saline supplemented by rocuronium bolus administration if demanded (bolus-NMB-group)...
August 30, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859413/locomotion-energetics-performance-and-behavior-a-mammalian-perspective-on-lizards-and-vice-versa
#8
Theodore Garland, Ralph L Albuquerque
Animals are constrained by their abilities and by interactions with environmental factors, such as low ambient temperatures. These constraints range from physical impossibilities to energetic inefficiencies, and may entail trade-offs. Some of the constraints related to locomotion and activity metabolism can be illustrated through allometric comparisons of mammals and lizards, as representative terrestrial vertebrate endotherms and ectotherms, respectively, because these lineages differ greatly in aerobic metabolic capacities, resting energetic costs, and thermoregulatory patterns...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859408/fuel-use-in-mammals-conserved-patterns-and-evolved-strategies-for-aerobic-locomotion-and-thermogenesis
#9
Grant B McClelland, Sulayman A Lyons, Cayleih E Robertson
Effective aerobic locomotion depends on adequate delivery of oxygen and an appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. The use of metabolic substrates during exercise follows a predictive pattern of lipid and carbohydrate oxidation that is similar in lowland native cursorial mammals. We have found that in two highland lineages of mice (Phyllotis and Peromyscus) the fuel use pattern is shifted to a greater reliance on carbohydrates compared to their lowland conspecifics and congenerics. However, there is variation between lineages in the importance of phenotypic plasticity in the expression of this metabolic phenotype...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856920/efficacy-of-ondansetron-for-spinal-anesthesia-during-cesarean-section-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#10
Chengmao Zhou, Yu Zhu, Zeqing Bao, Xianxue Wang, Qili Liu
Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Methods We sought randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on ondansetron during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science from their inception to September 2016. Results Altogether, 21 RCTs were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed that the ondansetron group had a lower incidence of nausea/vomiting and bradycardia than the placebo group during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia [relative risk (RR) = 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829798/dexmedetomidine-as-a-neuraxial-adjuvant-for-prevention-of-perioperative-shivering-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Jian Zhang, Xuena Zhang, Hui Wang, Haibin Zhou, Tian Tian, Anshi Wu
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has been investigated for anti-shivering effects in some trials. This current meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine as a neuraxial adjuvant in preventing perioperative shivering. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO [www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO] with the unique identification number CRD42017055991. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched to select high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the anti-shivering efficacy for neuraxial application dexmedetomidine as local anesthetic adjuvant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827782/extracellular-calcium-modulates-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-and-identity
#12
Ines Pramme-Steinwachs, Martin Jastroch, Siegfried Ussar
Brown adipocytes are important in regulating non-shivering thermogenesis, whole body glucose and lipid homeostasis. Increasing evidence supports an important role of metabolites as well as macro- and micronutrients in brown adipocyte differentiation and function. Calcium is one of the most abundant ions in the body regulating multiple cellular processes. We observed that increasing extracellular calcium concentration during brown adipocyte differentiation blocks lipid accumulation and suppresses induction of major adipogenic transcription factors such as PPARγ and C/EBPα...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821790/potential-health-risk-of-heavy-metals-in-the-leather-manufacturing-industries-in-sialkot-pakistan
#13
Muhammad Junaid, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Yu-Mei Tang, Riffat Naseem Malik, De-Sheng Pei
This is a systematical report on the potential health risk of heavy metals from the leather industries in Pakistan based on multiple biological matrices of the exposed workers and indoor dust samples. The adverse impacts of heavy metals on the oxidative enzyme and their risks to workers' health were also explored. Our results indicated that the level of Cr in indoor industrial dust was more than twice, compared to the background household dust. Blood, urine and hair samples of exposed workers showed significantly high concentrations of heavy metals, compared to those in the control group...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819008/effect-of-a-patent-foramen-ovale-in-humans-on-thermal-responses-to-passive-cooling-and-heating
#14
James T Davis, Madeline W Hay, Alyssa M Hardin, Matthew D White, Andrew T Lovering
Humans with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) have a higher esophageal temperature (Tesoph) than humans without a PFO (PFO-) . Thus, the presence of a PFO might also be associated with differences in thermal responsiveness to passive cooling and heating, such as shivering and hyperpnea, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine if thermal responses to passive cooling and heating are different between PFO- subjects and subjects with a PFO (PFO+). We hypothesized that compared to PFO- subjects, PFO+ subjects would cool down more rapidly and heat up slower, and PFO+ subjects that experienced thermal hyperpnea would have a blunted increase in ventilation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805235/how-do-singapore-patients-view-post-anaesthesia-adverse-outcomes-a-single-centre-willingness-to-pay-study
#15
Xinqi Look, May Un Sam Mok, Yan Sheng Tay, Hairil Rizal Abdullah
INTRODUCTION: Knowing how patients value quality of anaesthesia helps anaesthesiologists to customise their service. However, generalising findings from Western population-based willingness-to-pay (WTP) studies across different cultures and societies might overlook several important contextualised understandings of anaesthesia experience for Singapore patients. This study aimed to capture the Singapore perspective of undesired post-anaesthesia outcomes. METHODS: 132 patients recruited in the pre-anaesthetic evaluation clinic were given questionnaires describing ten possible post-anaesthetic outcomes to rank for undesirability and assign relative value through proportioning hypothetical SGD 100 to avoid their occurrence...
August 14, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794836/comparing-epidural-surgical-anesthesia-and-spinal-anesthesia-following-epidural-labor-analgesia-for-intrapartum-cesarean-section-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Hea-Jo Yoon, Sang-Hwan Do, Yeo Jin Yun
BACKGROUND: The conversion of epidural labor analgesia (ELA) to epidural surgical anesthesia (ESA) for intrapartum cesarean section (CS) often fails, resulting in intraoperative pain. Spinal anesthesia (SA) can provide a denser sensory block than ESA. The purpose of this prospective, non-blinded, parallel-arm, randomized trial was to compare the rate of pain-free surgery between ESA and SA following ELA for intrapartum CS. METHODS: Both groups received continuous epidural infusions for labor pain at a rate of 10 ml/h...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794154/both-brown-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-processes-are-activated-during-mild-to-severe-cold-adaptation-in-mice
#17
Naresh C Bal, Sushant Singh, Felipe C G Reis, Santosh K Maurya, Sunil Pani, Leslie A Rowland, Muthu Periasamy
Thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism, essential for survival and normal physiological functions in mammals. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) (i.e. uncoupling protein 1 [UCP1]-based) and skeletal muscle (i.e. sarcolipin [SLN]-based) thermogenesis processes play important roles in temperature homeostasis, but their relative contributions differ from small to large mammals. In this study, we investigated the functional interplay between skeletal muscle and BAT-based thermogenesis under mild versus severe cold adaptation employing UCP1-/- and SLN-/- mice...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793249/network-based-genomic-analysis-of-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-differentiation
#18
Suyog U Pol, Jessie J Polanco, Richard A Seidman, Melanie A O'Bara, Hani J Shayya, Karen C Dietz, Fraser J Sim
Impaired human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (hOPC) differentiation likely contributes to failed remyelination in multiple sclerosis. The characterization of molecular pathways that regulate hOPC differentiation will provide means to induce remyelination. In this study, we determined the gene expression profile of PDGFαR(+) hOPCs during initial oligodendrocyte commitment. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis was used to define progenitor and differentiation-specific gene expression modules and functionally important hub genes...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771404/benign-neonatal-shudders-shivers-jitteriness-or-tremors-early-signs-of-vitamin-d-deficiency
#19
Millicent Collins, Michal Young
Jitteriness and tremors in the newborn period typically precipitate an extensive, invasive, and expensive search for the etiology. Vitamin D deficiency has not been historically included in the differential of tremors. We report a shivering, jittery newborn who was subjected to a battery of testing, with the only biochemical abnormality being vitamin D deficiency. A second case had chin tremors and vitamin D deficiency. Review of our patients suggests that shudders, shivers, jitteriness, or tremors may be the earliest sign of vitamin D deficiency in the newborn...
August 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758846/efficacy-of-parecoxib-sodium-on-postoperative-shivering-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#20
Yu Zhu, Chengmao Zhou, Yuting Yang, Yijian Chen
Objective To evaluate the effect of parecoxib on preventing postoperative shivering. Methods Main outcomes were the relative risk (odds ratio, OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) relative to the incidence of shivering. Results Fourteen trials with 1,175 patients were analyzed. The pooled evidence suggested that parecoxib sodium, given before anesthesia or postoperatively (only 4 cases), had the potential to prevent postoperative shivering (OR = 0.21, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.29). Compared with the placebo, parecoxib sodium significantly lowered the incidence of postoperative shivering as follows: mild shivering [OR = 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
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