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Katharina Braun, Josef Oeckl, Julia Westermeier, Yongguo Li, Martin Klingenspor
The enormous plasticity of adipose tissues, to rapidly adapt to altered physiological states of energy demand, is under neuronal and endocrine control. In energy balance, lipolysis of triacylglycerols and re-esterification of free fatty acids are opposing processes operating in parallel at identical rates, thus allowing a more dynamic transition from anabolism to catabolism, and vice versa. In response to alterations in the state of energy balance, one of the two processes predominates, enabling the efficient mobilization or storage of energy in a negative or positive energy balance, respectively...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ayako Kukida, Yasushi Takasaki, Mio Nakata, Tasuku Nishihara, Sakiko Kitamura, Sonoko Fujii, Yuji Watanabe, Toshihiro Yorozuya
RATIONALE: Although an inferior vena cave (IVC) filter is placed to prevent fatal pulmonary embolism (PE), several complications associated with an IVC filter have been reported. We describe a case with symptomatic PE, of which the origin was an occlusive IVC thrombus that developed from the placement of an IVC filer after a laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 71-year-old man underwent LATG under general anesthesia alone. He had an IVC filter implanted 13 years ago...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kimie Tanaka, Masataka Sata
Traditionally, it is believed that white adipose tissues serve as energy storage, heat insulation, and mechanical cushion, whereas non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue. Recent evidence revealed that adipose tissue secretes many types of cytokines, called as adipocytokines, which modulate glucose metabolism, lipid profile, appetite, fibrinolysis, blood pressure, and inflammation. Most of the arteries are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT has been thought to be simply a structurally supportive tissue for vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Staffan Hildebrand, Jasmin Stümer, Alexander Pfeifer
Adipose tissue is commonly categorized into three types with distinct functions, phenotypes, and anatomical localizations. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major energy store; the largest depots of WAT are found in subcutaneous or intravisceral sites. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for energy dissipation during cold-exposure (i.e., non-shivering thermogenesis) and is primarily located in the interscapular region. Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipose tissue can be found interspersed in WAT and can attain a brown-like phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Gajal Lakhe, Krishna Murari Adhikari, Kiran Khatri, Anil Maharjan, Akriti Bajracharya, Himdip Khanal
INTRODUCTION: Shivering is an unpleasant experience after spinal anesthesia. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of ondansetron, ketamine and tramadol for prevention of shivering. METHODS: In this randomized controlled study, 120 patients aged 18-65 years of American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I and II undergoing various surgical procedures were included and allocated alternately to one of the 4 groups; Normal saline (Group1), Ondansetron 4mg (Group2), Ketamine 0...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Binod Gautam, Sujata Niroula, Mona Sharma, Sushila Moktan Lama
INTRODUCTION: Various adjuvants to local anaesthetic are used to improve quality and duration of spinal anaesthesia. Dexmedetomidine, a novel alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, has been proposed to augment local anaesthetic effects. This study aims to investigate effects of intrathecal Dexmedetomidine on duration of analgesia and duration of sensory block during spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind study 38 patients were allocated into each of two groups...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
H S Abdel-Ghaffar, S M Moeen
BACKGROUND: The serotonergic system is known to be involved in control of post-anesthetic shivering. Our hypothesis was that prophylactic granisetrone (serotonin antagonist) might reduce incidence of post- spinal anesthesia shivering in cesarean section. METHODS: Parturient scheduled for elective Caesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were allocated to receive 0.9% saline (Group I, n = 71), 1 mg granisetron (Group II, n = 69), or 0.7 mg granisetron (Group III, n = 72) before the spinal block...
February 8, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Tanveer Singh Kundra, Parminder Kaur
Background and Aims: Shivering is a common postanesthesia adverse event with multiple etiologies. Dexmedetomidine, a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, is known to reduce the shivering threshold. However, the minimum dose at which dexmedetomidine causes cessation of shivering is unknown. The aim of this prospective observational study was to find the minimum dosage of dexmedetomidine required for abolition of post-spinal anesthesia (SA) shivering. Material and Methods: Thirty patients having shivering after SA were enrolled, who received dexmedetomidine in the dosage of 1 mcg/kg over 10 min...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Hui Yeon Lee, Gaeun Kim, Yeonghee Shin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether warming the feet with socks would prevent hypothermia among patients undergoing spinal surgery. BACKGROUNDS: Perioperative hypothermia is a common health problem among spinal surgery patients. RESEARCH DESIGN: This study used a quasi-experimental design. METHODS: Seventy-two patients were assigned to two groups. The control group (n=36) received usual care without the warmed socks...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Sasha Sankar-Maharaj, Deryk Chen, Seetharaman Hariharan
PURPOSE: Postoperative shivering has been anecdotally observed to be frequent and severe in Cannabis smokers following general anesthesia in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency and intensity of postoperative shivering in Cannabis users versus non-users. DESIGN: A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was used. METHODS: Demographic data were obtained. Patients were grouped into Cannabis users and non-users...
February 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
J E Aman, S J Valberg, N Elangovan, A Nicholson, S S Lewis, J Konczak
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar Purkinje cell axonal degeneration has been identified in horses with shivering but its relationship with abnormal hindlimb movement has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To characterise surface electromyographic (sEMG) hindlimb muscle activity in horses with shivering, correlate with clinical scores and examine horses for Purkinje axonal degeneration. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive controlled clinical study. METHODS: The hindlimb of seven shivering and six control draught horses were clinically scored...
January 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Kimberley C O'Sullivan, Philippa Howden-Chapman, Dalice Sim, James Stanley, Rebekah L Rowan, Isobel K Harris Clark, Lydia L A Morrison
Background: Living in cold housing conditions and risk of fuel poverty presents a range of physiological and psychosocial health risks. Limited research has specifically investigated the effects of fuel poverty on children and young people, and even less has been conducted with youth input into the research process. Methods: The Cool? Study used mixed methods, participatory action research carried out with youth researchers involved at all stages through questionnaire design, analysis, qualitative design, e-interviewing and dissemination of results...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Do-Hyung Kim, Hye-Hoon Kang, Minjung Kim, Tae-Won Yang, Oh-Young Kwon, Jung Sook Yeom, Bong Su Kang, Yong Hwan Kim, Young-Soo Kim
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has rarely been utilized as an adjunct to anticonvulsants in treating patients with refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). However, determining the effectiveness of TH in CSE is difficult due to the unavoidable use of sedative drugs to manage hypothermia. Additionally, the effectiveness of TH has not been studied in patients with refractory non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Here, we report the successful use of TH without additional sedative drugs in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy and refractory NCSE...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Ayşe Sağmak Tartar, Ayhan Akbulut, Ömür Gökmen Sevindik, Hatice Handan Akbulut, Kutbeddin Demirdağ
In our country, within years, despite a dramatic drop in the number of patients with malaria, a dramatic increase in the number of patients with import malaria is noteworthy. A 32-year-old male patient presented with fever, shivering, malaise, and loss of appetite. He had travelled to West Africa. Laboratory findings were as follows: hemoglobin: 8.8 g/dL and anti-HIV: positive. Microscopic examinations of thin blood smears and thick blood preparations revealed widespread trophozoites. The presence of double-dotted ring forms and banana-shaped gametocytes resulted in Plasmodium falciparum malaria being diagnosed...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Tobias Fromme, Karin Kleigrewe, Andreas Dunkel, Angelika Retzler, Yongguo Li, Stefanie Maurer, Natascha Fischer, Rolf Diezko, Timo Kanzleiter, Verena Hirschberg, Thomas Hofmann, Martin Klingenspor
OBJECTIVE: Non-shivering thermogenesis in mammalian brown adipose tissue depends on thermogenic uncoupling protein 1. Its activity is triggered by free fatty acids while purine nucleotides mediate inhibition. During activation, it is thought that free fatty acids overcome purine-mediated inhibition. We measured the cellular concentration and the release of purine nucleotide metabolites to uncover a possible role of purine nucleotide degradation in uncoupling protein 1 activation. METHODS: With mass spectrometry, purine nucleotide metabolites were quantified in cellular homogenates and supernatants of cultured primary brown adipocytes...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
Ridhima Sharma, Raghav Gupta, Ripon Choudhary, Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
Background and Aim: Therapeutic use of nonopioid analgesic such as paracetamol (PCM) is an alternative to opioids, so to avoid the established side effects associated with opioids, PCM is commonly used due to its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Recently, dexmedetomidine has also emerged on the anesthesia front with a potential role of providing postoperative analgesia. The present study was conducted to compare and assess the quality and duration of analgesia with PCM and dexmedetomidine using visual analog scale (VAS)...
October 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Melissa I Naiman, Maria Gray, Joseph Haymore, Ahmed F Hegazy, Andrej Markota, Neeraj Badjatia, Erik B Kulstad
Controlling patient temperature is important for a wide variety of clinical conditions. Cooling to normal or below normal body temperature is often performed for neuroprotection after ischemic insult (e.g. hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, or other hypoxic injury). Cooling from febrile states treats fever and reduces the negative effects of hyperthermia on injured neurons. Patients are warmed in the operating room to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia, which is known to cause increased blood loss, wound infections, and myocardial injury, while also prolonging recovery time...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Abhyuday Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Braj Kishore Prasad, Pradeep Kumar Tiwary, Ranjeet Kumar
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of intrathecal ropivacaine with or without neostigmine or dexmedetomidine in lower limb surgeries. Secondary objectives were to study the characteristics of block, duration of analgesia, postoperative analgesic requirement, and associated side effects. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients posted for elective orthopedic lower limb surgeries under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided into three equal groups to receive intrathecal ropivacaine 0...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Akash Jain, Maria Gray, Stephanie Slisz, Joseph Haymore, Neeraj Badjatia, Erik Kulstad
BACKGROUND: Shivering is common during targeted temperature management, and control of shivering can be challenging if clinicians are not familiar with the available options and recommended approaches. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to summarize the most relevant literature regarding various treatments available for control of shivering and suggest a recommended approach based on latest data. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar were used to identify studies for the literature review using the following keywords alone or in combination: "shivering treatment," "therapeutic hypothermia," "core temperature modulation devices," and "targeted temperature management...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
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