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Xavier Carnec, Mathieu Matéo, Audrey Page, Stéphanie Reynard, Jimmy Hortion, Caroline Picard, Elsie Yekwa, François Ferron, Sylvain Baize
Several Old and New-World arenaviruses are responsible for severe endemic and epidemic hemorrhagic fevers, whereas other members of the Arenaviridae family are nonpathogenic. To date, no approved vaccines, antiviral or specific treatments are available, except for Junín virus. Protection in non-human primates against Lassa fever virus (LASV) is however possible through the inoculation of the closely related but nonpathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) before challenge with LASV. We reasoned that this virus, modified using reverse genetics, would represent the basis for the generation of a vaccine platform against LASV and other pathogenic arenaviruses...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Matthijs Raaben, Lucas T Jae, Andrew S Herbert, Ana I Kuehne, Sarah H Stubbs, Yi-Ying Chou, Vincent A Blomen, Tomas Kirchhausen, John M Dye, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Sean P Whelan
Arenaviruses cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans. Old World arenavirus glycoproteins (GPs) mainly engage α-dystroglycan as a cell-surface receptor, while New World arenaviruses hijack transferrin receptor. However, the Lujo virus (LUJV) GP does not cluster with New or Old World arenaviruses. Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus containing LUJV GP as its sole attachment and fusion protein (VSV-LUJV), we demonstrate that infection is independent of known arenavirus receptor genes. A genome-wide haploid genetic screen identified the transmembrane protein neuropilin 2 (NRP2) and tetraspanin CD63 as factors for LUJV GP-mediated infection...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
Stefan Kunz, Juan Carlos de la Torre
Lujo virus (LUJV) is an arenavirus that emerged in 2008 associated with a cluster of human cases of severe hemorrhagic fever. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Raaben et al. (2017) identify neuropilin (NRP)-2 as cell surface receptor and the tetraspannin protein CD63 as intracellular entry factor for LUJV.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
Mia Lujo, Marko Meštrović, Ana Ivanišević Malčić, Zoran Karlović, Jurica Matijević, Silvana Jukić
The purpose of the research was to compare oral health behavior and plaque indices between Croatian first-year and final-year dental students. Therefore, 46.9% of first-year and 47% of final-year dental students were surveyed using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire and had their plaque indices determined. Descriptive statistics analysis, nonparametric tests, and correlation analysis were performed (p<0.05). Sixth-year students had a significantly better mean HU-DBI score (8...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
S Lujo, E Hartman, K Norton, E A Pregmon, B B Rohde, R W Mankin
Severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Male D. citri find mating partners by walking on host plants, intermittently producing vibrational calls that stimulate duetting replies by receptive females. The replies provide orientational feedback, assisting the search process. To test a hypothesis that D...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Edgar Simulundu, Aaron S Mweene, Katendi Changula, Mwaka Monze, Elizabeth Chizema, Peter Mwaba, Ayato Takada, Guiseppe Ippolito, Francis Kasolo, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
Lujo virus is a novel Old World arenavirus identified in Southern Africa in 2008 as the cause of a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) characterized by nosocomial transmission with a high case fatality rate of 80% (4/5 cases). Whereas this outbreak was limited, the unprecedented Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, and recent Zika virus disease epidemic in the Americas, has brought into acute focus the need for preparedness to respond to rare but potentially highly pathogenic outbreaks of zoonotic or arthropod-borne viral infections...
November 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Davide Corti, Nadia Passini, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Maria Zambon
The last century has witnessed the emergence of several previously unknown viruses as life-threatening human pathogens. Several examples include HIV, Ebola, Lujo, and, most recently, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and Ebola. In this study, we describe a method for the swift generation of a human-derived monoclonal antibody, known as LCA60, as a treatment for MERS infections. LCA60 antibody was generated using the Cellclone Technology from the immortalized B cells of a human donor recovering from MERS...
May 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Joel Oppliger, Joel Ramos da Palma, Dominique J Burri, Eric Bergeron, Abdel-Majid Khatib, Christina F Spiropoulou, Antonella Pasquato, Stefan Kunz
UNLABELLED: Arenaviruses are emerging viruses including several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has greatly accelerated the discovery of novel arenavirus species. However, for many of these viruses, only genetic information is available, and their zoonotic disease potential remains unknown. During the arenavirus life cycle, processing of the viral envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P) is crucial for productive infection...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Junjie Shao, Yuying Liang, Hinh Ly
Arenaviruses include multiple human pathogens ranging from the low-risk lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to highly virulent hemorrhagic fever (HF) causing viruses such as Lassa (LASV), Junin (JUNV), Machupo (MACV), Lujo (LUJV), Sabia (SABV), Guanarito (GTOV), and Chapare (CHPV), for which there are limited preventative and therapeutic measures. Why some arenaviruses can cause virulent human infections while others cannot, even though they are isolated from the same rodent hosts, is an enigma. Recent studies have revealed several potential pathogenic mechanisms of arenaviruses, including factors that increase viral replication capacity and suppress host innate immunity, which leads to high viremia and generalized immune suppression as the hallmarks of severe and lethal arenaviral HF diseases...
2015: Pathogens
Qinfeng Huang, Junjie Shao, Shuiyun Lan, Yanqin Zhou, Junji Xing, Changjiang Dong, Yuying Liang, Hinh Ly
UNLABELLED: Arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever diseases in humans, and there are limited preventative and therapeutic measures against these diseases. Previous structural and functional analyses of arenavirus nucleoproteins (NPs) revealed a conserved DEDDH exoribonuclease (RNase) domain that is important for type I interferon (IFN) suppression, but the biological roles of the NP RNase in viral replication and host immune suppression have not been well characterized. Infection of guinea pigs with Pichinde virus (PICV), a prototype arenavirus, can serve as a surrogate small animal model for arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers...
July 2015: Journal of Virology
Junji Xing, Hinh Ly, Yuying Liang
UNLABELLED: Arenavirus pathogens cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans ranging from central nervous system disease to lethal hemorrhagic fevers with few treatment options. The reason why some arenaviruses can cause severe human diseases while others cannot is unknown. We find that the Z proteins of all known pathogenic arenaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, Guanarito, Chapare, Dandenong, and Lujo viruses, can inhibit retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-i) and Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5), in sharp contrast to those of 14 other nonpathogenic arenaviruses...
March 2015: Journal of Virology
Angela L Rasmussen, Nicolas Tchitchek, David Safronetz, Victoria S Carter, Christopher M Williams, Elaine Haddock, Marcus J Korth, Heinz Feldmann, Michael G Katze
UNLABELLED: To identify host factors associated with arenavirus virulence, we used a cynomolgus macaque model to evaluate the pathogenesis of Lujo virus (LUJV), a recently emerged arenavirus that caused an outbreak of severe viral hemorrhagic fever in southern Africa. In contrast to human cases, LUJV caused mild, nonlethal illness in macaques. We then compared this to contrasting clinical outcomes during arenavirus infection, specifically to samples obtained from macaques infected with three highly pathogenic lines of Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF)...
March 2015: Journal of Virology
Hideki Tani
Emerging infectious diseases include newly identified diseases caused by previously unknown organisms or diseases found in new and expanding geographic areas. Viruses capable of causing clinical disease associated with fever and bleeding are referred to as viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs). Arenaviruses and Bunyaviruses, both belonging to families classified as VHFs are considered major etiologies of hemorrhagic fevers caused by emerging viruses; having significant clinical and public health impact. Because these viruses are categorized as Biosafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 pathogens, restricting their use, biological studies including therapeutic drug and vaccine development have been impeded...
June 2014: Tropical Medicine and Health
Hideki Tani, Koichiro Iha, Masayuki Shimojima, Shuetsu Fukushi, Satoshi Taniguchi, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Naoe Nakasone, Haruaki Ninomiya, Masayuki Saijo, Shigeru Morikawa
UNLABELLED: Several arenaviruses are known to cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in sub-Saharan Africa and South America, where VHF is a major public health and medical concern. The biosafety level 4 categorization of these arenaviruses restricts their use and has impeded biological studies, including therapeutic drug and/or vaccine development. Due to difficulties associated with handling live viruses, pseudotype viruses, which transiently bear arenavirus envelope proteins based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or retrovirus, have been developed as surrogate virus systems...
July 2014: Journal of Virology
Hideki Tani, Shuetsu Fukushi, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Masayuki Saijo, Shigeru Morikawa
Arenaviruses are the collective name for viruses, which belong to the family Arenaviridae. They replicate in the cytoplasm of cells, and were named after the sandy (Latin, arenosus) appearance of the ribosomes often seen in thin sections of virions under electron microscope. Several arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus in West Africa, and Junin, Guanarito, Sabia, Machupo, and Chapare viruses in South America, cause sever viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) in humans and represent a serious public health problem. These viruses are categorized as category 1 pathogens thus should be handles in a BSL4 laboratory...
2012: Uirusu
Luca Zinzula, Enzo Tramontano
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is synthesized during the course of infection by RNA viruses as a byproduct of replication and transcription and acts as a potent trigger of the host innate antiviral response. In the cytoplasm of the infected cell, recognition of the presence of viral dsRNA as a signature of "non-self" nucleic acid is carried out by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), a set of dedicated helicases whose activation leads to the production of type I interferon α/β (IFN-α/β). To overcome the innate antiviral response, RNA viruses encode suppressors of IFN-α/β induction, which block RLRs recognition of dsRNA by means of different mechanisms that can be categorized into: (i) dsRNA binding and/or shielding ("hide"), (ii) dsRNA termini processing ("mask") and (iii) direct interaction with components of the RLRs pathway ("hit")...
December 2013: Antiviral Research
Barry Atkinson, John Chamberlain, Stuart D Dowall, Nicola Cook, Christine Bruce, Roger Hewson
Lujo virus is an emerging arenavirus circulating in Southern Africa. Although to date there has only been a single outbreak of the novel haemorrhagic disease resulting from human infection with this virus, the case-fatality rate of exposed individuals, including nosocomial transmission, was 80%. The ability to identify viral haemorrhagic fevers accurately, especially those capable of nosocomial transmission, is of critical importance. Timely identification of these diseases allow medical professionals to isolate patients and implement barrier nursing techniques in order to prevent onward transmission of the virus...
January 2014: Journal of Virological Methods
David Safronetz, Thomas W Geisbert, Heinz Feldmann
Exotic and emerging viral pathogens associated with high morbidity and mortality in humans are being identified annually with recent examples including Lujo virus in southern Africa, Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome virus in China and a SARS-like coronavirus in the Middle East. The sporadic nature of these infections hampers our understanding of these diseases and limits the opportunities to design appropriate medical countermeasures against them. Because of this, animal models are utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease with the overall goal of identifying potential targets for intervention and evaluating specific therapeutics and vaccines...
April 2013: Current Opinion in Virology
Katendi Changula, A S Mweene
Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF) are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo, which have recorded major outbreaks, as well as the open borders, increased trade and annual migration of bats between these countries, puts Zambia at present and increased risk...
2012: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Shuetsu Fukushi, Hideki Tani, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Masayuki Saijo, Shigeru Morikawa
The family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW) and New World (NW) complexes. The Lassa and Lujo viruses in the OW complex and the Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Chapare viruses in the NW complex cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, leading to serious public health concerns. These viruses are also considered potential bioterrorism agents. Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus outbreaks...
October 2012: Viruses
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